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Importance of Effective Job Design

Question:

Discuss about the Human Resource Management Of CERA.

Contemporary business organizations operate in more challenging business environment than ever in the present business scenario. Thus, apart from sales and manufacturing they have to initiate various schemes in order to enhance the productivity of the employees. CERA is one of the prominent organizations having several competitive advantages in the market. However, in the recent time, they are facing issues in their employee management. Thus, it is of urgent requirement for them to ensure the productivity and the effective work environment of the workplace in order to maintain the internal effectiveness (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014). This report will discuss about the potential measures that can be initiated by the organization in order to enhance the effectiveness of the employees. Moreover, different approaches of job design and other aspects that can enhance the employee effectiveness will also be discussed here in this report. It will help them to gain more competitive advantages from the market and have the access of more equipped employees to face organizational challenges.

Effective job design plays an important part in enhancing the effectiveness of the organization as well as for the employees. This is due to the reason that, the more effective and related the job will be with the respective employees, the more will be their motivation, expertise and satisfaction in accomplishing the job (Holman et al., 2012). In the case of CERA, job redesign should be initiated in order to enhance the organizational as well as the employee effectiveness. In this case, the approach of Rachel Amaro is not positive towards the initiation of human resource activities such as effective job designing for the employees. According to him, if this issue can be managed for all these years, then it can be managed in the future also. However, one aspect that needs to be considered is the emergence of more challenging business scenario in future. Thus, it is of urgent requirement for Rachel Amaro to initiate the process of job design in order to motivate and equip the employees in facing the emerging organizational challenges.

However, for the initiation of the job design, the various approaches of implementing the job design should be considered in order to adhere the job design according to the organizational requirement. One of the most prominent and effective approach of job design is the motivational job design approach (Creswell & Poth, 2017). In the current business scenario, motivational job design is the most effective and extensively used by the business organizations. The key motive of this approach is to increase the level of motivation and job satisfaction of the employees. In this approach, the key consideration is given to the increased level of autonomy to the employees. Employees are being given a favorable level of decision-making power, which helps them in taking decision in the workplace by their own (Wall, Palvia & Lowry, 2013). Thus, the effectiveness of their job accomplishment get increased. Employees are being effectively involved in the organizational process by initiating an effective communication channel among the internal stakeholders. The jobs being allocated to the employees are having much variety, which helps the employees in preventing the monotonous nature in their workplace. Job rotation is also being initiated in order to increase the variety of the job for the respective employees.

Job Design Approaches

The next approach of job design is mechanistic approach. This approach concentrates on characteristics of the job role. The job characteristics are being modified in order to enhance the effectiveness and expertise of the employees (Truxilo et al., 2012). They key considerations in this approach are the specialization or expertise of the employees in accomplishing the job role. Thus, organizations following this approach employ people according to the criterion of the job role and the expertise of the particular employee. This helps the employees in having their job role according to their skills. Thus, organization will also have the specialized and expert employees in different job positions (Yarosh, Matthews & Zhou, 2012). Thus, they will more effective and equipped in facing the organizational challenges. Organizations having initiated this approach, concentrates more on the providing related tools and implementation of the related strategies in order to enhance the effectiveness the performance of the employees.

The particular job role is also being given consideration and it is been simplified in order to reduce the complexities involved in the job role for the employees. Thus, the more will be the simplistic approach of the job role, the more will be the level of job satisfaction and motivation of the employees in accomplishing the particular task. The employees are being provided enough free time in between their job role to provide them a space for rejuvenation. It helps the employees in having the energy and motivation for effective implementation of the job role (Lazaroiu, 2015). In the present scenario, automation is also being initiated by the organizations in this approach. Organizations such as CERA can also initiate automation to provide complimentary aid to the employees. Automation helps the organizations to reduce the time involved in job accomplishment and reduction in the cost involved. However, in the case of automation, one limitation that should be considered by the organization is the reduction or attrition of manual job due to excessive automation (Chui, Manyika & Miremadi, 2015). This will in turn de-motivate the employees if their jobs are being taken off due to automation. Moreover, in case of initiation of automation, the employees have to given extra training to adhere them with the new technologies. Thus, it will involve extra cost and effort for the organization.

The next approach is the biological job design. This approach talks about the physical overview of the particular job role. In this approach, the level of physical endurance required by the employees is being determined by the organizations and is being modified accordingly. This includes strength, seating position, noise and work timing. This approach helps to ensure the workplace health and safety for the employees. The last approach is the perpetual job design. It includes lighting, displays and workplace layout. Initiation of this approach helps in enhancing the convenience of the employees in their workplace. Thus, it helps in increasing the level of motivation of the employees.

Motivational Job Design

Following the propositions of Storey, (2014), the following sheds light on the recent trends and issues in human resource management.  One of the recent trends in human resource management is globalization. However, oriental approach is needed for companies and organizations like CERA for penetrating into the global markets. Aligning with the case study, one of the main issues is workforce planning, which nullifies the aspect of efficient execution of the business activities. Viewing it from other perspective, issues in workforce planning contradicts the aspect of “management”. Along with this, issues in this direction reflect the incapability of the personnel towards effective and judicious utilization of the resources. Apart from this, the aspect of “globalization” can be considered as experimentation with the existing products for luring customers across the world (Sparrow, Brewster & Chung, 2016).

Innovation is one of the other issues, which enables the personnel of companies like CERA to present themselves before the customers. However, absence of planning aggravates the complexities of the company, resulting in the hostility of the leaders. Herein, the organizational structure gets destroyed. In view of these issues, the issue in the workforce planning is just an addition to the incapability of the managers in maintaining the order and harmony of the workplace. Herein, the book, Human Resource Management at Work attains a negative connotation (Marchington et al., 2016).

As per the arguments of Rees & Smith, (2017), strategies are one of the other aspects for human resource management. Strategies act assistance for CERA personnel in terms of systematizing the business activities, according to their priority.  However, in view of the lack of oriental approach towards the execution of business activities, strategies do not prove to be effective for carrying out the projects. Delving deep into the aspect, the interview in the case study projects the meetings and conferences with the managers for gaining insight into the current situation of the workplace. The instances, “attention to HR has been patchy”, Rachel Amaro and Lane Scowcroft are lukewarm” indicates the hostility between the HR and the managers, which is hazardous for the company. Delving deep, this hostility strains the stability in the relationship between the employees and the management. This instability deprives the company from effective deals, trades and transactions.

Consideration of the steps taken by the contemporary companies is crucial for native companies like CERA in terms of coming out with something innovative in the competitive ambience.  Herein lays the appropriateness of competitive policies, which assists the companies and organizations to indulge in fair trades and transactions. This fairness is the cornerstone for achieving large scale customer satisfaction (Beardwell & Thompson, 2014). Aligning with the case study, issues in workforce planning adds vulnerability to the market position of companies like CERA. This provides the contemporary companies and organizations with the opportunity to enjoy competitive ambience.

Mechanistic Job Design

Along with this, one of the other issues in human resource management is management of employee performance. This management is important in terms of enhancing the productivity of the company.  This enhancement, in turn, results in appropriate appraisals for the efforts put in by the employees (Shields et al., 2015). The case study projects the oriental approach of managers like Rachel, which enhances the stability in the relationship between the employees and management. Rachel’s philosophy brings into the discussion Tuckman’s theory of team development. This theoretical approach can be included within the strategies for the achievement of positive results.

The manager entrusted with the responsibility to plan, assign and review the prepared drafts. One of the major functionalities of a drafting manager is to develop goals and set deadlines for achievement of the identified and specified goals. Within this, an important aspect is to develop standards for upgrading the standard and quality of the business services (Kehoe & Wright, 2013). A drafting manager plays an important role in implementing the proposed strategies and steps needed for bringing innovation in companies like CERA. This is because reviewing the drafts before sending to the higher authorities averts the instances of conveying incorrect information, which might create discrepancies in the business activities.

Involvement of the stakeholders and shareholders proves beneficial for the drafting manager in terms of gaining their approaches towards the prepared drafts. Interactive sessions between the manager and the staffs are extremely beneficial in terms of resolving the doubts and concerns about the prepared drafts (Bolman & Deal, 2017). This step enhances the relationship between the employees, employers and management.

Planning also plays an essential role in the aspect of drafting management. Managers like Rachel need to apply oriental and rational approach for managing the prepared drafts. The case study highlights Rachel’s systematic approach towards carrying out his responsibilities. Her guidance has resulted in the creating of a drafting team, which includes skilled and efficient members. The major drive behind this is her effective and judicious utilization of the gathered skills, expertise and knowledge.

Conclusion and recommendations

This assignment proves successful in providing an insight into the dynamics of human resource management. The given case study enlivens the need of oriental and theoretical approach towards the efficient execution of the business activities. The issues highlighted in the literature review acts as a lesson for companies like CERA in terms of applying strategic approach towards the projects at hand. The issue of drafting management relates with the task of evaluation. This is one of the crucial aspects for all of the companies and organizations in terms of improving the standards and quality of the business services. For this evaluation, checklists and templates can be taken in order to review the already achieved changes and the changes to be brought about.

Biological Job Design

Designing the jobs prior to the initiation of the projects proves apt in terms of reviewing the current strategic position. This review would lead to the development of the benchmarks and standards, where the company needs to reach in the upcoming years. Herein lays the need for setting short term goals, which would improve the focus of CERA personnel towards carrying out the business activities in an efficient and effective manner.

Managers like Rachel need to conduct self-assessment of the exposed performance, which would bring to the forefront the major drawbacks. Exposure of spontaneity in modification of these drawbacks would enhance the personality. Along with this, providing training to the employees on the basic management skills would be one of the other steps, which would reflect efficient and judicious utilization of the human resource management.  

Adopting social media would be one of the efficient means for companies like CERA in terms of improvising the exposed performance. As a matter of specification, uploading the news of the proposed plans on the social networking sites and the websites would help the personnel to gain an insight into the customer approaches towards the levied offers. Offering feedbacks and survey forms on the social networking sites and websites would results in the automatic production of the civil engineering tasks. Along with this, frequent examination of the machines by IT experts would help the personnel to avert instances of cyber crimes. This aversion is a slow and gradual progression towards achievement of large scale customer satisfaction, trust, loyalty and dependence.

References

Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. (2014). Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.

Beardwell, J., & Thompson, A. (2014). Human resource management: a contemporary approach. Pearson Education.

Chui, M., Manyika, J., & Miremadi, M. (2015). Four fundamentals of workplace automation. McKinsey Quarterly, 29(3), 1-9.

Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2017). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Sage publications.

Holman, D., Totterdell, P., Axtell, C., Stride, C., Port, R., Svensson, R., & Zibarras, L. (2012). Job design and the employee innovation process: The mediating role of learning strategies. Journal of Business and Psychology, 27(2), 177-191.

Kehoe, R. R., & Wright, P. M. (2013). The impact of high-performance human resource practices on employees’ attitudes and behaviors. Journal of management, 39(2), 366-391.

Lazaroiu, G. (2015). Employee Motivation and Job Performance. Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations, 14, 97.

Marchington, M., Wilkinson, A., Donnelly, R., & Kynighou, A. (2016). Human resource management at work. Kogan Page Publishers.

Rees, G., & Smith, P. (Eds.). (2017). Strategic human resource management: An international perspective. Sage.

Shields, J., Brown, M., Kaine, S., Dolle-Samuel, C., North-Samardzic, A., McLean, P., ... & Plimmer, G. (2015). Managing Employee Performance & Reward: Concepts, Practices, Strategies. Cambridge University Press.

Sparrow, P., Brewster, C., & Chung, C. (2016). Globalizing human resource management. Routledge.

Storey, J. (2014). New Perspectives on Human Resource Management (Routledge Revivals). Routledge.

Truxillo, D. M., Cadiz, D. M., Rineer, J. R., Zaniboni, S., & Fraccaroli, F. (2012). A lifespan perspective on job design: Fitting the job and the worker to promote job satisfaction, engagement, and performance. Organizational Psychology Review, 2(4), 340-360.

Wall, J. D., Palvia, P., & Lowry, P. B. (2013). Control-related motivations and information security policy compliance: The role of autonomy and efficacy. Journal of Information Privacy and Security, 9(4), 52-79.

Yarosh, S., Matthews, T., & Zhou, M. (2012, May). Asking the right person: supporting expertise selection in the enterprise. In Proceedings of the sigchi conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 2247-2256). ACM.

Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2017). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. John Wiley & Sons.

Bamberger, P. A., Biron, M., & Meshoulam, I. (2014). Human resource strategy: Formulation, implementation, and impact. Routledge.

Kavanagh, M. J., & Johnson, R. D. (Eds.). (2017). Human resource information systems: Basics, applications, and future directions. Sage Publications.

Elliot, A. J., Dweck, C. S., & Yeager, D. S. (Eds.). (2017). Handbook of Competence and Motivation: Theory and Application. Guilford Publications.

Cavusgil, S. T., Knight, G., Riesenberger, J. R., Rammal, H. G., & Rose, E. L. (2014). International business. Pearson Australia.

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