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Human respiration detection with commodity wifi devices: do user location and body orientation matter?

## The Formula to Calculate BMI

Brodie is a 55 year old male and his height was 185cm. With a waist circumference of 100cm, his total body weight is 95kg, which is quite high as per his age, height. He was diagnosed with a high arterial blood pressure, which was 150/95 mmHg at the time of measurement. Even, he was also diagnosed with high cholesterol that is high level of LDL and total cholesterol and low HDL. management, he is trying to bring many changes as well as improvements in order to make his lifestyle better and as an initiative he has started doing some exercises too. But, recently, his mild upper respiratory infection has come under the attention as “a cold”. Considering his current health condition and body weight, it is clear that he is not having an idea body shape as his waist circumference was 100 cm which indicates the existence of body fat.  Among men, after 55 year, they face lot of health issues and most of them occur in the cardiovascular system. He has already been diagnosed with cholesterol issues which lead to cardiovascular diseases. Maintaining the balance between good fat and bad fat in the body is highly necessary in order to decrease the risk of various health issues. A man with a height like Brodie should have a waist circumference of less than 91 cm but he seems to have 100 cm which is not good. Body mass index is generally used to determine if a person is overweight, underweight or at his/her healthy weight. It is generally calculated on the basis of body weight and height of a person. In case of Brodie, his body weight is 95kg and his height is 185cm which is equal to 1.85m.

BMI index= K/m2, where K is the weight in Kilogram and m is the height in meter (Kim, Jang and Lim 2016, p. 643).

Therefore, the BMI index of Brodie is 95/(1.85)2=27.757

If the BMI index is more than 25, then it is considered as slightly overweight. In this case, Brodie is slightly overweight. However, it also varies according to health condition of a person. As per his height and age, he must have a body weight of around 85kg but he was having 95 kg which was also above the normal range. With the help of healthy diet and good exercise habit, he can achieve a good health and body shape which will keep him healthy and the chances of having attacked by major diseases will also be reduced (Malara, K?ska, Tkaczyk 2015, p. 75)

## Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration in Skeletal Muscle Cell Exercise

Depending upon the intensity of the exercise, muscles use both aerobic as well as anaerobic respiration. At the time of aerobic respiration, to have energy, the body uses oxygen. Moderate amount of aerobic exercise increases the heart rate and as a result it causes to break a sweat and also deepens the breathing. Various benefits of aerobic exercise are there as it improves the lung and heart function and at the same time it also helps to improve the oxygen consumption ability. In this respiratory exercise, heat beats faster and becomes stronger as it pumps more blood per beat.

During some high-intensity exercises, the anaerobic respiration occurs. It includes some physical movements which enables the practitioner to burn excess fat from body and also helps to stay lean. Apart from that, consistent exercise using aerobic respiration method also builds muscle endurance and as a consequence, body becomes capable to efficiently remove lactic acid. With the help of such exercises, the body reaches the peak of cardio respiratory fitness level.

In aerobic exercise, skeletal muscles use oxygen and it helps to burn fat but the muscle does not increase its strength or size. Both of the aerobic and anaerobic respiration in skeletal muscle cell exercise is helpful in reducing body weight. However, there is evidence that anaerobic exercise on skeletal muscle is more helpful in burning excess fat and losing body weight. Muscle can become more efficient in anaerobic exercises and with the intervention of training programs, modification of dietary protein intake takes place which improves the muscle function and efficiently helps to lose weight. So, the most preferred type of respiration in skeletal muscle cell is anaerobic exercise when compare to aerobic exercises (Chamari and Padulo  2015, p.9).

The human respiratory system works along with multiple body system simultaneously. The air circulation occur coordination with the other parts of the human body.  Other multiple body systems such as digestive system and nervous system also functions during the whole circulation of the respiratory system. In a person inhales air, the lung inside the body expands and it gets filled with fresh air as most of the dust and polluted particles of air are resisted inside the nostrils. Then the respiratory system interacts with the blood circulatory system to transfer the oxygen from fresh air to red blood cells in the lung arteries. During this process the carbon dioxide present in the blood is released in the air of the lungs and when a person exhales the air, and then the carbon dioxide also gets exhaled from the body to the environment.  From the lungs of the body, the heart pumps the oxygenated red blood cells via the arteries throughout the body (Youngstrom and Strowbridge 2015, p. 8760). This process helps in relieving the oxygen in the cells and the carbon dioxide is absorbed. Again, the heart pumps the blood and the used blood thus goes back to the lungs through the veins and the process repeats itself by exhale as well as inhalation.

## The Human Respiratory System

The major organ that participates in the respiratory system is lung. When the body inhales fresh air from the environment, the lung expands. The inhaled air using the nose and the mouth goes to the bronchial tube of the lungs through the trachea. It also goes to the tiny alveoli air sacks present in the lungs. The oxygen present in the air get absorbed in the red blood cells of the body and the carbon dioxide is released when the blood is released in the air into the air sacks (Kawagishi et al. 2016, p. E1005455).

Each and individual body system functions in conjunction with the respiratory system and each of them relies on each other to work with equal efficiency. In order to deliver the oxygen gathered by the respiratory system, it completely relies upon the circulatory system of human body. At the same time the muscles of human body cannot function without the presence of oxygen in the body. Even, the heart also cannot function without the oxygen supplied by the lungs. The bone of the skull and spine protects the spinal cord and brain, and the bones are controlled by muscles (Akoumianaki et al. 2014, p.530). So, if the muscles cannot function properly due to absence of oxygen in the body, then all of these functions cannot take place properly. All the system works together and the whole skeletal system and its proper functioning depend on a good respiratory system of human body. In the pathway of oxygen transformation, various body parts are included and all of them work together for the respiratory system to function well. If one of the organs are not working properly then the respiratory system gets hampered too (Wang et al. 2016, p. 30).

Electrolytes are minerals or chemical elements present in the human body fluids that contribute in the proper functioning of it. Some of the most vital electrolytes present in body fluid are sodium, potassium and calcium. All the electrolytes perform various important body functions.  Imbalance in the electrolytes can be detrimental to the health of a person. Even, electrolytes also control the proper functioning of neurone system of human body. Nerve cells control the function of brain and spinal cord by transmitting and receiving signal from the neurons present in many parts of the body. The specific electrical impulses transmitted by the cells controls all the movements of the body parts as well as other sensory organs. Electrolytes play a major role in this case. Nerves require a right balance of electrolytes in order to maintain the proper function of it (Hasona and Elasbali 2016, p. 7). The electrolytes mainly carry the charges. Minerals or electrolytes are very much essential element that keeps the nervous function well and stable. The role of the main electrolytes in the neuron function is represented below.

## The Path of Oxygen through Respiratory System

Sodium- It can be prepared by dissolving salt in water, and it is highly responsible for the proper functioning of brain. In human brain, ion pump is present which causes sodium to flow inside and outside of the cell. Electrical charge is flown to the inside of the nerve cell by a rapid influx of sodium electrolytes. As a result an electromechanical nerve impulse is settled which is termed as action potential. If sodium electrolyte is absent in the body fluid then brain cannot initiate the electrical impulses which in turn affect the nervous communication (Eldarrat, High and Kale 2017, p.25).

Potassium- In the second half of the action potential within human body, this electrolyte plays the central role. If the amount of potassium is not adequate then sending more than one electrochemical impulse is not possible by the nerve cell. If electromechanical nerve impulse or action potential is not settled properly then it affects the neurone function. So, role of potassium is also essential (Kurek et al. 2016, p. 50).

Calcium- It is also present as an electrolyte in the human body fluid. The main focus of this electrolyte is on the health of bones and teeth. This mineral flows into the cell and active proteins which in turn triggers an impulse that leads to muscle contraction. So it also plays a vital role in the neurone function (van Goor, Hoenderop and van der Wijst 2017, p. 890).

The extremely high amount of electrolytes in human body can create several health hazards and even it can lead to the death of the patient too. Again, if the amount of electrolyte is not sufficient then also people face several problems. According to researchers, 1.2 to 1.5 gram per day sodium intake is sufficient, for potassium it is at least 47oo mg per day and for calcium the recommended amount is 1000 to 1300 mg per day (Rose et al. 2015, p. 1460). So, it is always important to maintain the proportion of electrolyte in the body fluid to live a healthy life.

Whenever, the heart beats of a human body, the left ventricle contracts. It forces blood into the arteries and vessels which deliver blood rich in oxygen throughout the body. The oxygen is extracted and exchanged for carbon dioxide in the capillaries at the site of the cell. The veins carry the carbon dioxide to the lungs and replace it with fresh oxygen. This is known as venous return (Lujan and DiCarlo 2014, p. 1725). It is very much important in human body as it improves and promotes the respiratory system by enhancing the circulation of oxygen inhalation and carbon dioxide exhalation among human being. Increased venous return always keeps a person healthier. While doing any exercise, the rhythmic pump of muscles facilitates the process of venous return by forcing one way blood which heads towards the heart (Andersen et al. 2015,p.45). Due to the increased lung activity, a change in the thoracic pressure can be noticed which draws blood to the heart. The venous return function can be improved with regular exercise as it increases the blood volume as well as the strength of heart muscle. The capillaries present in the muscles where oxygen and carbon dioxide is exchanged, also increased in number as a result of exercise. In the case of Brodie, his mean arterial pressure is 150/95 mmHg which is quite higher than normal range. Increased arterial pressure always decreases the venous return. So, in order to increase the venous return and to fit healthier he should be following the path of doing exercise regularly as it is discussed earlier that exercise increases the amount of venous return which helps a person to stay healthier. During the exercise, which Brodie will follow, his muscles will work more blood will flow to heart which will increase the heart function and respiratory system will be improved. Thus, in his case exercise is very much important to promote the venous function against increased mean arterial blood pressure (Magder 2016, p. 271).

## The Dependence of Other Body Systems on the Respiratory System

Brodie is 55 years old and due to overweight he has developed bad cholesterol too. However, he is doing exercise and made many changes in the lifestyle in order to control his cholesterol but recently he has been diagnosed with respiratory problems which can affect his health and the doctors said he has a mild upper respiratory infection and termed that as “a cold”. The immune system may not work properly among many people and that causes respiratory infection (Kanwar, Selvaraju and Esper 2017, p. S312). Due to respiratory infection respiratory arrest, failure and even heart failure is possible in some cases. Brodie has been diagnosed with “a cold” and this can affect his respiratory function as well as whole body function in many ways. The primary attack is on the respiratory track which is nose, throat and the tubes leading towards the lungs of a person. Apart from that it also creates muscle ache, head ache and other symptoms like loss of appetite etc. When a person is having respiratory infection then the oxygenation can also be hampered for the person and in case of Brodie the same thing happened as it affects the pathway of oxygen through which it enters into the body. Due to respiratory infection, lungs cannot function properly and venous return also gets affected as the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide gets affected (Self et al. 2015, p. 590). Homeostasis is basically a tendency of organism and cells that controls the internal function of the body. Due to the respiratory infection, the chance of having asthma also increases and it affects the total homeostasis process (Fleming et al. 2015, p.443). For all these things the body stops raising the temperature and the body becomes cold also. So, homeostatic imbalance can create negative feedback mechanism and it mainly occurs due to respiratory infection.

Due to higher mean arterial blood pressure the chance of having arterial coronary disease increases. In this disease, a blockage is found in the coronary blood vessels which resist the blood flow and the insufficient flow of blood cannot reach the heart muscles. This also affects the normal respiratory cycle and the heart function (Muhlestein et al. 2014, p.2240). If blood vessels are blocked, the oxygen will not be able to flow through blood and the carbon dioxide will also not be produced. This will result in a dispute in the venous return affecting the health function of the patient. It will affect the cell function of heart muscle. Blood is pumped from the heart to the lungs and there it collects oxygen. After collecting, the oxygen rich blood goes back to the heart and to the other organs throughout the body. During anaerobic respiration which has been preferred for Brodie, the heart will beat in a faster rate and the blood will also flow more. But, if it finds blockage in its path inside the vessels then it will come back to the heart without getting oxygen. Carbon dioxide will also not be released and venous return will not occur, which may create heart block and even heart failure too (American Diabetes Association 2016, p.S70). Arterial blood pressure and high cholesterol both are responsible for coronary artery disease and the blockage in the blood vessels as a result of this disease affects the normal respiratory cycle which creates deficiency of oxygen in the body and pressure on the muscles of the heart. The pressure can be dangerous. So, in order to prevent the coronary artery disease Brodie needs to control his blood pressure and cholesterol within the normal range so that it cannot lead to dangerous heart failure. Proper exercise under the supervision and intervention of trainers can help him to achieve anaerobic respiration which will help him to stay better (Ellis et al. 2015, p. 1910).

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