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Background of the Study

Describe about the Impact of Brand Image on Customer Purchasing Behaviour .

The current chapter will focused on proposing the investigation of the impact of brand image on the customer purchasing behaviour. The chapter will be inclined to initiate the research work with a proper research questions as well as research objectives with the relevance of the topic. In addition to that, the chapter will provide a proper background of the study, relevance, justification as well as value of the research. The introduction will therefore immensely help the entire research project. In order to conduct the research Apple has been chosen for further evaluation.

In the current business era of 21st century it has been observed that majority of the business entities extensively focus on enhancing their brand image. The current business market is highly competitive so the organizations need to attract the customers with various means. In this context the brand image has been proved to be the most influential form of obtaining customer attention as well as loyalty. According to the traditional sense, the brand image refers to the customers’ perception of any specific organization. The perception is generally formed by the customers on the basis of categorizing several attributes of any given organization. That is why the organizations attempt to highlight a positive set of business practices so as to impress the customer base (Sashi 2012).

Apple is one of the most popular electronics as well as IT companies in the current business world. It has been formed in the year of 1976 with a starting business of computers, associated software and peripherals. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak were the founder of the company and had a great contribution behind the success of the company. However, in the year of 2001 the company took their entrance in the mobile industry by launching first iPhone. Currently, the company owns the market capital around the amount of $586 billion ( 2016).

Logo of Apple

Figure 1: Logo of Apple

(Source: 2016)

In the contemporary business world the organizations faces a great problem regarding the ever-growing competition between several organizations. It has been observed throughout the market that there are various substitute products available of various prices. Therefore, the organizations have perceived a growing need of developing a positive customer perception where their organization is concerned. In order to identify the most appropriate approach of brand image the organizations need to evaluate the factors those highly influence the purchasing behaviour of the customer. Therefore, considering all the facts it can be concluded that the current business research is highly relevant.

Background of the Company

In the current competitive market it has successfully attained that the growths of the organizations are highly depended on the customer’s positive perception regarding the companies’ business activities. At the same time, customer’s purchasing style is highly influenced by several factors. Therefore, the investigation on those factors will eventually disclose the working of customer perception. This investigation will be highly crucial for the business growth. Henceforth, the topic is immensely justified regarding the current market scenario.

The research will be highly helpful for the business units in respect to gaining the necessary understanding on the exact nature of customer perception. The organizations will be benefitted by the research proposal as they can set their business activities according to the research findings. The proper visual on the impact of brand image on the customer purchasing behaviour will also be useful for the future researchers as they can understand the research topic with a greater clarity (Bryman and Bell 2015).

Research Questions

The research questions are highly influential for paving the pathway of the research work. The research questions are mentioned below

  • What are the aspects of brand image?
  • What are the drivers of customer purchasing behaviour?
  • How does the brand image influence purchasing behaviour of customers?
  • What are the possible ways to enhance the brand image?

Research Objectives

            The research objectives are highly influential for guiding the research with a proper framework and motivation. These objectives are mentioned below

  • To investigate the aspects of brand image
  • To find out the drivers of customer purchasing behaviour
  • To point out the influence of brand image on customer purchasing behaviour
  • To recommend the ways to enhance the brand image

Brand image

A brand’s image is an intangible, perceived, and qualitative summation of customer’s combined intellectual and salient values of a brand that has been derived, formulated and experienced by the customers that are associated with the brand. Brand image can be understood as general impression and attitude held by customers about the brand (Aaker 2012).  Therefore, brand image is the views held by customers about the brand. It is dependent on unique set of benefits that the brand provides and its overall impression in the minds of the customers. Construction and maintenance of positive brand image is one of the crucial prerequisite of brand management. Development of favourable brand image is dependent on functional, symbolic, or experimental elements of the company’s products and services. In short, it can be said that brand image is the customers’ perception about the products and services that the brand offers (Kapferer 2012). 

Every successful company takes great caution while positioning its products and services to the target customers as the products and services offered by a company helps in development of brand image. In addition, various marketing and promotional activities undertaken by a company also helps in development of brand image. Brand image is like an identity or character of the brand among the customers and have direct relation with the customer buying behaviour. Brand image is not just a mental image of the brand but also the emotional association of customers with the brand. Therefore, it is important to develop strategies that help in creation of positive image of the brand and an ideal brand image can be one that truly reflects brand’s (company’s) vision and mission (Wu 2013).

Relevance to business research

Brand image is further consists of many elements that helps in creation of brand image such as – unique logo design that reflects organization’s core value, tagline and slogan that briefly describes organization’s offerings, and other supporting brand identifies that helps in creation of desired brand image. It is important to understand that brand image is not created but automatically formed; however, an organization can adopt some strategies to direct the formation of desired brand image in the minds of the customers (Bonk 2015).

Customer buying behaviour

Customer behaviour consists of a set of activities in which customers possess, consume and dispose products and services. Customer buying behaviour is stage prior to the purchasing decisions in the purchase decision process. In this stage customers’ perception and attitude plays an important in determining the actual purchase decision. Customer’s intention of buying a specific brand is determined by assessment of all available brands and customers’ perception of the competitor’s brand. While making a purchase decision customers’ access various criteria such as prices, features, quality, ease of use, past experience with the brand and overall brand image. Therefore, it can be said that brand image plays an important role in influencing customer buying behavior (Malik et al. 2013).

Impact of brand image on customers’ purchasing intentions

Brand image plays an important role in customer buying behaviour. As discussed, brand image is the overall impression of the brand in the minds of the customers that have derived from various sources. Promotional strategies adopted by a brand, business practices adopted by the company and customer’s experience with the brand all helps in development of brand image (Nebenzahl and Jaffe 2013). Customers tend to form various associations with the brand and these associations helps in development of brand image. The brand image is developed on the basis of subjective perceptions of the customers about the company and further determines customers’ buying behaviour or future association with the brand. Some examples of brand image can be – Apple is associated with innovation and quality, Toyota is associated with reliability, and Volvo for its comport and safety. Similarly, every business organization aims at creating favourable brand image in the minds of the customers in order to increase revenues and long-term sustained business operations (Aaker and Biel 2013). 

The importance of favourable brand image has assumed greater importance in the present context as customers have become more concerned about the products and services they consume. The underlying principle behind a brand image is that customers are not only buying a product but also the image associated with the brand. Therefore, is important for a company to project brand image that is positive, unique and value oriented. In order to develop a desired brand image the company can employ strategies like advertising, packaging, public relations and other promotional tools (Severi and Ling 2013).

Justification of the topic

The brand image that a company projects or aims to achieve must be such that allows the brand to differentiate itself from competitors and create a competitive advantage for the company. The brand image is associated with symbolic, functional and other benefit attributes that helps the customers to make associations with the brand (Wu et al. 2015).

Marketing professionals aims at enhancing the brand image by adopting various marketing strategies to influence customers’ perception and attitude about the brand in order to stimulate consumers’ purchasing behaviour of the brand, thereby increasing sales, market share and brand equity. Positive brand image can be established by connecting unique and strong brand association with the customers’ memories about the brand through marketing campaigns. Customers’ perception about a brand is formed from five important considerations; first is the functionality of the brand, second, the social image associated with owning the brand, third is customers’ recognition and emotional attachment with the brand, fourth, the relation between brand value and functionality, and, fifth is the customers’ trust in the brand (Cheung et al. 2014).

Brand image and loyalty

With the proliferation of brands in the market, customers make their purchase decision based on brand image rather than on products itself. Moreover, when brand image of a product is consistent with consumers’ concept of self, customers are more likely to purchase such brand’s products. Brand image has a significant impact on customer satisfaction and brand loyalty. A positive brand image creates exclusive association of customers with the brand and increases brand loyalty.

Gap in study

The pervious researches have focussed more on customers’ emotional associations with the brand in evaluating the brand image, however, as discussed brand image is dependent on many elements such as utility of the product, marketing activities undertaken by companies to enhance brand image, and overall personality of the brand. Therefore, future studies could explore relation between brand image and customer purchase decision in context of organizational strategies of operating in the market.

The research methodology is deeply focused on the selection of appropriate methods for conducting the research. The proper methodology will be highly effective for effective outcome of the research work.

The research designs are the main part of methodologies which will select the proper hypothetical approach of the research work (Zikmund et al. 2013).

There are various different philosophies which are used in the research sector. These research philosophies are Realism, Interpretivism, Pragmatism as well as Post-positivism.

Value of the research

 Types of Research Philosophy

Figure 2: Types of Research Philosophy

(Source: Blumberg et al. 2014).

The research work will be adhered with the post positivism research philosophy. The post positivism attempts to finding out the underlying truth of the research issues. This particular research philosophy is highly depended on the structured method. Moreover, it relies on the logical deduction of the research issue. Therefore, the post positivism research philosophy will be most beneficial for actual impact of brand image on customer purchasing behaviour (Blumberg et al. 2014).

There are two basic research approaches which are the pillar of any kind of research work. These research approaches are deductive approach and inductive research approach.

Types of Research Approach

Figure 3: Types of Research Approach

(Source: as created by author)

On the one hand, the deductive research approach deals with testing research theories in order to find out its relevance with the current market scenario. On the other hand, the inductive research approach is mostly focused on exploring new theories on any given specific topic. As the current research work is not focused on generating new theories the deductive approach will most suitable for the study. Therefore, the respective research work will select the deductive approach (Hair 2015).

There are various strategies which will be highly effective for conducting the research work. First of all the study will define the problem which will help to develop objectives and questions. Then the study will conduct an evaluated data collection program followed by a detailed as well as systematic data analysis and interpretation. Lastly, the study will conclude the outcomes through research conclusion (Eriksson and Kovalainen 2015).

The study will cater with a high range of graphs, diagrams, charts figures as well as tables which will be most influential for providing the detailed understanding on the current research topic. The information will be synthesized with a five paragraph essay (Wilson 2014).

The study will be conducted within 6 months of time limit. The research work will be conducted from 10:00 a.m. to 6.00 p.m. Monday to Friday in every week. The research work will be able to complete the study within this prearranged time duration.

There are two different kinds of data those are used in the research work. These data are primary data and secondary data. Primary data refers to the fresh data collected from a selected sample. On the other hand, the secondary data refers to the existing data which are collected from various published literature such as books, journal articles as well as newspapers. Both of the data can be classified in two different parts according to the focus of data collection which are quantitative and qualitative (Creswell 2013).      

Research Questions and Research Objectives

Types of Data Collection     

Figure 4: Types of Data Collection

(Source: Creswell 2013). 

The research work will collect both primary data as it will immensely help to understand the contemporary perception of the customer. Both of the quantitative as well as qualitative approach will be selected for the data collection. This way the study will gain a detailed understanding on the research findings. The study will conduct survey on 85 customers chosen by probability sampling technique for collecting the quantitative data. Furthermore, the study will conduct interview session on 5 managers of apple chosen by non-probability sampling techniques for obtaining the qualitative data (Saunders and Lewis 2014).

Every research work must be conducted with several vital ethical considerations which helps the study to maintain a clear image. The current research work will comply with the Data Protection Act, 1998; that prohibits the breach of sensitive data. Moreover, every participant will be treated with proper respect. The research will not involve any individual without their consent (Deterding et al. 2015).


1st week

(2nd-4th) week

(5th-7th) week

(8th-10th) week

(11th -16th) week

(17th -20th)week

(21st-23rd) week

24th week

25th week

26th Week

Introducing the research issue


Review of the Literature


Methodology of the Research


Data Collection Designs and Techniques


Collection of Data


Analysis of the Data


Conclusion of the entire reserach and Recommendations


Proof- Reading


Submitting the Draft to Supervisor


Printing, Binding as well as Submission


(Source: as created by author)

The research will be conducted with a reasonable amount of fund. The budget of the research will consider various different research activities. Excel and MS project will be used for the analysis of data.


Aaker, D.A. and Biel, A., 2013. Brand equity & advertising: advertising's role in building strong brands. Psychology Press.

Aaker, D.A., 2012. Building strong brands. Simon and Schuster.

Apple (Australia). (2016). Apple. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Jun. 2016].

Blumberg, B.F., Cooper, D.R. and Schindler, P.S., 2014. Business research methods. McGraw-hill education.

Bonk, C., 2015. The impact of Apple's communication and French and Finnish consumers' product perceptions: case of the iPhone product.

Bryman, A. and Bell, E., 2015. Business research methods. Oxford University Press, USA.

Cheung, C.M., Xiao, B.S. and Liu, I.L., 2014. Do actions speak louder than voices? The signaling role of social information cues in influencing consumer purchase decisions. Decision Support Systems, 65, pp.50-58.

Creswell, J.W., 2013. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Deterding, S., Canossa, A., Harteveld, C., Cooper, S., Nacke, L.E. and Whitson, J.R., 2015, April. Gamifying Research: Strategies, Opportunities, Challenges, Ethics. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 2421-2424). ACM.

Eriksson, P. and Kovalainen, A., 2015. Qualitative Methods in Business Research: A Practical Guide to Social Research. Sage.

Hair, J.F., 2015. Essentials of business research methods. ME Sharpe.

Kapferer, J.N., 2012. The new strategic brand management: Advanced insights and strategic thinking. Kogan page publishers.

Malik, M.E., Ghafoor, M.M., Iqbal, H.K., Ali, Q., Hunbal, H., Noman, M. and Ahmad, B., 2013. Impact of brand image and advertisement on consumer buying behavior. World Applied Sciences Journal, 23(1), pp.117-122.

Nebenzahl, I.D. and Jaffe, E.D., 2013. Measuring the joint effect of brand and country image in consumer evaluation of global products. Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science.

Sashi, C.M., 2012. Customer engagement, buyer-seller relationships, and social media. Management decision, 50(2), pp.253-272.

Saunders, M.N. and Lewis, P., 2014. Doing research in business and management: An essential guide to planning your project. Pearson Higher Ed.

Severi, E. and Ling, K.C., 2013. The mediating effects of brand association, brand loyalty, brand image and perceived quality on brand equity. Asian Social Science, 9(3), p.125.

Wilson, J., 2014. Essentials of business research: A guide to doing your research project. Sage.

Wu, C.L., 2013. The Research of Brand Image, Experiential Marketing, Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty-Example of Starbucks Coffee.

Wu, J., Huang, L., Zhao, J.L. and Hua, Z., 2015. The deeper, the better? Effect of online brand community activity on customer purchase frequency.Information & Management, 52(7), pp.813-823.

Zikmund, W.G., Babin, B.J., Carr, J.C. and Griffin, M., 2013. Business research methods. Cengage Learning.

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