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Understand partnership philosophies and relationships in health and social care services.

Be able to evaluate the outcomes of partnership working for users of services, professionals and organisations in health and social care services.

Philosophies Related to Working in Partnership

Working in partnership is essential to ensure that a smooth working in done in any form of business organisation. In health care sector, working in partnership is essential to maintain a proper collaboration with the employees. The assignment focuses on the importance of working partnership by analysing the philosophy related with working of partnership in the health care sector. The philosophies in focus include the ethical, deontology and utilitarianism philosophies. Apart from this, the assignment provides an overview of the growing partnership that creates a bond in the health care sectors. As stated by Sivers (2018), partnerships tend to create mutual collaboration as well as issues due to the difference of opinion. The legislation and the policies involved while working in partnership is also stated in the assignment. The assignment analyses the barriers that may arise due to working in partnership in the health care sectors. Strategies to overcome the barriers and ensure that partnership work is effectively done are stated in the assignment.

As stated by Glasby and Dickinson (2014), the partnership is one of the essential strategies of working in health and social care. The current government policy advocates the working in partnership in health care institutes so that better result may be developed. The partnership is defined as the sharing of responsibility between two or more people. The need of action is assessed and a mutual agreement is made after carefully considering the advantages and disadvantages. Implementation of strategies is done by consulting every member that exists within the health care sector. The main aim remains to provide the extra benefit in terms of caring for the individuals. Such an act cannot be done alone and the need for a partner in this regard is required (Richardson et al. 2017). The philosophies related to health and social care is mainly a set of beliefs that relate while working in partnership. The underlined principles provide an opportunity for the people to gain the benefit that exists while working together in partnership. In this regard, Knox (2015) stated that different philosophies exist that define the working of partnership in health care organisations. These include ethical, deontology and utilitarianism. These philosophies have the ability to provide efficiency, quality and equity along with the achievement of the ultimate goal of the health care sectors.

Ethical partnership: As observed by Cameron et al. (2014) ethics consist of the philosophies, which provide the concept of undertaking actions that are morally correct. These actions need to be executed keeping in mind different situations that may arise in the workplace. This even involves taking complex decisions that may provide a scenario of moral dilemma. The issues related to ethic need to be understood so those correct judgements can be made and decisions regarding the things that need to be done in the health care organisations (Glasby 2017). Most of the choices that are made in the health care sectors involve dilemmas that may have an ethical concern. The conflicting principles arise during the time of more than two principles. Hence, it is required to maintain certain codes that help in the effective working of partnership in the health and social care organisations.

Growing Partnership in the Health Care Sector

Deontology: The deontology philosophy is mainly concerned with the right method that needs to be adopted in specific actions. The moral duty and obligation that exists within a person is the characteristic that defines a person. In the health care sectors, the deontology principle exists because every person remains obligated with the type of work that is performed in the sectors. Judgement about the wrong and right things needs to be analysed in such a way that dilemmas does not exist during its implementation. As stated by Brettet al. (2014) irrespective of the consequences, people working in the health and social care sectors need to take decisions are morally correct and help in the wellbeing of the sector.

Utilitarianism: As stated by Carpenter et al. (2017) the utilitarianism philosophy is normally depended on the utility of the people. This philosophy states that any action taken by people need to provide a proper balance that exists between positive value and disvalue of people. The positive part of this particular type of philosophy is the fact that the dilemmas, as well as the ethical decisions that need to be made by the people, are considered and the best outcome is derived so that the success and reputation of the health care sector can be renewed.

According to Bryson (2016), a partnership can be considered as an effective method by which problems can be solved. The mutual collaboration between each party present in a heath care sector makes a significant contribution to the proper development of the health care sectors. It has been seen that the single agencies have failed to tackle the growing problems that exist in a health care industry. It is for this reason that the Government have managed have legalised the partnership working among health care sectors. The effectiveness of the health care sector can be determined by this method. Smith, Swallow and Coyne (2015) observed that the network system that exists in health care sectors plays a major improvement in the effectiveness of the partnerships. The network system assists in providing better services and increases the knowledge capacity of the client. This can be done by providing the required information as enquired by a particular client. Barrington (2017) stated that clients trust organisations if the partnerships are synchronised and quality of service is done on time. However, a particular model of assessing the effectiveness of a successful partnership does not exist. Certain factors exist that provide ideas about the effectiveness of working in partnerships.

Legislation and Policies for Working in Partnership

As stated by Mason et al. (2015) working in partnership provides the following factors that may be beneficial for health care organisations. These factors include:

Leadership and Vision: Partners in an organisation need to have the same visions and similar goals need to be shared so that the effectiveness can be maintained. In the case of decision-making, concern with one another is required so that no miscommunication takes place particularly while treating a patient.

Organisation and involvement: Equal contribution is required for partners in a community. This is because the objectives of the partners are same and any discrepancies may hamper the health and safety of the service users. Hence, as stated by West et al. (2014) every partner need to contribute with the required capability for the development of a health care sector.

Strategy and Development: Every partnership needs to consist of certain policies, objectives as well as processes that the employees need to follow so that stability can be maintained in the organisation. The strategies of a partnership need to be evaluated by identifying the needs of an organisation.

Learning and development: As stated by Bacon and Samuel (2017) partners need to have shared goals and the opportunities for learning need to be given equally. One of the best methods of learning is done from others as it generates effective partnership while working in the health care sectors.

Resources: The resources are the most important factor for an organisation. Resources in an organisation include valuable information, employees, financial stability as well as technology (Moss 2017). These along with knowledge sharing provide health care organisations with continuous improvement opportunities.

Evaluation and review: Like every sector, health care sectors also undergo evaluation and review techniques. This is particularly important in health care sectors as the review is mainly done in the partnership that exists between the parties. It identifies the effectiveness of the partnership and the manner in which it can be developed for better results in the future.

  As mentioned by the National Research Council, partnership assessment helps in monitoring the progress of an organisation both internally as well as externally. The internal process defines the effectiveness and skills of the partners that are involved while the external factors deal with the impact it has on the overall outcomes of the health care sectors.

In the case of Barrington, the health care organisations need to ensure that proper strategies are developed so that the centre can provide the required assistance to him. The internal process of the care centres need to be developed so that the organisation can take proper care of Barrington. The internal factors can control the external factors of the centre and ensure that Barrington gets the required service that can help him to be cured.

Barriers in Working Partnership in the Health Care Sector

Working in partnership in health care sectors can be in form of various parties. The parties that can be involved in the partnership include the community, heath care specialists, nurses as well as the society. The success of these partnerships can be related to the effectiveness by which a health care sector can be effective. Apart from this Government, business employment, as well as education providers, form partnerships with one another to assist the health care sectors (Westwood et al. 2015). A contribution made by the citizens of a society is considered as effective for health care sectors as the citizens can provide proper insight about a particular place.

 In this regard,certain models can be identified that highlight the effective working of partnerships within an organisation. These models are stated as follows:

Unified Model:  This model includes the structural level of management. The unified model provides a basic structure that defines the hierarchy as well as the process involved in health care sectors. The structure comprises of management, employees, staffing and training. According to Gelech et al. (2017), separate structures are not provided for these activities and due to the reason, the model is considered as a complex development that describes the partnership model. The purpose of this particular model is to ensure that the services provided by a particular health care sector are distributed among the people of the society. This covers all types of people that exist in the society. According to Green (2015), some of the benefits provided by this model includes following a single delivery system for all the services rendered by the health care sector along with the activities. The unified model follows a separate financial system that provides opportunities for the health care service to maintain one effective strategic approach along with a properly defined goal and objective.

Coalition Model: The coalition model provides various activities that are associated together but function separately. For example, the management, staffing as well as the training of employees are associated with one another however, the method used for undertaking these activities are different. These are associated together with the help of the federation that exists in different departments ( 2018). The separation is basically based on the method required for undertaking these activities. Staffing and training are not involved individually, as without staffing a particular employee in an organisation, training cannot be provided. The benefits derived from coalition model involve the joint actions as well as the services that are provided by the health care sectors. According to Parrott (2014), coalition model works individually hence data of every activity and segments are not interrelated. This is mainly segments perform the activities that are assigned to the service sectors.

Strategies to Overcome Barriers in Working Partnership

Engagement in a partnership involves a two-way link that consists of function as well as a lever that are essential for delivering the core purpose of an organisation. Partnerships provide opportunities for innovation as well provide identification for various new methods. Different parties are linked together so that the functions of each of the department can be analysed. The setting up of the link is done based on the effective manner in which the health care sectors perform individually and in a group. Pelletier et al. (2015) stated that in a health care sector the partnership that is involved in the different departments provide an opportunity for success in the business industry. The application of the models can be done by ensuring that healthy practices are carried forward within the organisations.

Like all other organisational sectors, the existing laws and policies of a particular country also affect health care sectors. The laws stated in the UK regarding the health care sectors govern people with any type of basic principles that exist in the organisations. As stated by Johnsonet al. (2014) most of the current legislation affect on the working of partnership in health care particularly in situations that involve the safeguarding of children, creating a diversity, maintaining social care and equity of treatment among all people. It has been observed that the partnership working in health and social sectors can be difficult due to the existence of a large number of barriers. These barriers include the policies and procedures that are laid down by the Government of a particular country. According to Gradinger et al. (2015), the rules laid down by the Government can be mitigated by applying proper methods related to the standards and ethical practices that exist in a particular society and organisation. In the UK, the Government aims to provide a best legal environment for the health care sectors.For example, in partnership with the Government of the land, the Department of Health managed to develop joint work with the Pharmaceutical Industry Competitiveness Task Force (PICTF), Healthcare Industries Task Force (HITF) and Bioscience Innovation and Growth Team (BIGT). This is normally done to maintain a competitive advantage in the market.

Many organisations take place with various Clinical Research Departments that exist in the UK. Some of the legislation that has been developed to solve the problems related to health and social care include:

  1. Children’s Act of 1989
  2. Data Protection Act of 1998
  3. Human Rights Act of 1998
  4. Carers and Disabled Children Act of 2000
  5. Equal Opportunities Act of 2004
  6. Mental Capacity Act of 2005
  7. Mental Capacity Act Code of a practice of 2007
  8. Welfare Reform Act of 2009
  9. Health Act of 2009
  10. Equality Act of 2010
  11. Health and Social Care Bill of 2011

These laws look after the welfare of the health care sectors and ensure that the code of conduct that governs the law is not violated. The laws provide many opportunities so that the society can gain proper benefits. At the same time, these laws take into account the interest of the health care sectors. For example, the mental capacity act of 2005 provides opportunities to people that suffer from brain disease. The main aim of this law is to provide empowerment to these types of people so that they can take decisions regarding life and professional matters without assistance. The decisions taken by these people need to include the plans that they make for the betterment of their lives as well as that of the society in which they reside. As observed by Raman and Björkman (2015) every person has the right to make decisions regarding the welfare of their lives so that they can remain happy. People admitted to mental hospitals are provided with this type of opportunity so that they do not feel deprived by the society. This can also be considered as a method of assisting the people with quick and proper care.

Factors that Make Partnership Effective in Health Care Organisations

Barrington has been doing outreach work in the community consequently he will be able to collaborate with many partners and individuals in the community context however there will be ways in which Barrington can improve his effectiveness in the community and this may include adhering to legislation which will support his activity in the community context .

In this regard, an example can be provided that led to the establishment of such laws. The unpleasant incident of a death of a baby in a cot was much debated among the people of the UK. The deaths of these children stir unpleasant conversations, abuses and angry reactions from the public. This led to the establishment of the Children’s Act in 1989. Other cases involved the death of old people due to negligence. Safeguard of the adults as well as the children are the topmost priority that is provided in these acts.

Thus, every health care organisation need to acclimatise itself to the changes in the modern environment and ensure that the laws related to the protection of children is upheld. The health care centres can be partners with the Government so that it gets full support from them and face new challenges that arise in the legal market of the health care centres. This can provide the centres with an opportunity to remain updated about the modern laws in the society and ensure that the laws are upheld so that it can continue with the good work in the industry.

It has been stated that policies and frameworks laid down by organisations have a recurring effect on the partnership working (Uvhagen et al. 2018). The effect of this can be seen in statutory, voluntary as well as private practices that involve risks that health care organisations cannot afford. The employment practices and risk management policies need to be re-framed so that working in a partnership does not have a catastrophic impact on the lives of the care seekers. Hence, to counter this threat the National Health Service had introduced the Social Care Act of 2012. It also identified four important aspects that govern the working of partnerships in health care institutions. Of the four aspects that were developed, two of the found significant places in the health care sectors. These aspects include clinical commissioning group, health and well-being boards. According to Braithwaite, Matsuyama and Johnson (2017), the parliament of UK have a significant effect on the policies as well as the practices while working in partnership in the health care sectors. For example, the Mental Health Act of 2005 suggested that detention and proper treatment of people with mental health issues are important for the quick recovery of the problem. The individual mental capacity of a person needs to be accessed before providing the patients with the liberty to make decisions. Oborn, Prince and Barrett (2016) observed that due to the internal structures and purchase services provided by the Community Care Act of 1990, the role of the health authorities was divided.

Models for Effective Working of Partnerships within an Organisation

The advice was provided to the service users based on the needs and preferences of the assets that they possess. Other areas that raised issues in the health care departments were covered by the existence of the Children's Act of 1989. These areas included the emergency protection, parental responsibility, child welfare, needs assessment and planning for the welfare of the children. In the words of Torchia, Calabrò and Morner (2015), the NHS Act particularly in areas that used the boards provided by the NHS Commission Board affected the working in partnership. This was done to ensure that decision-making ability, accountability of the patient and improvement of voice and quality were considered under the UK legal system. The Care Standards Act of 2000 provided power to health care organisations regarding the set of standards within the organisation. The social care inspectors set the standards so that the regulatory system standards can be defined from this practice. Biginas and Sindakis (2015) stated that such standards could be relevant in hospitals, residential care home as well as homes of children. The establishment of CQC was also made under the Health and Social Care Act that provide regulations to the social service care to children and adults. Some of the policies and procedures used by different organisations including:

NHS: The service care provided by the NHS is one of the benchmarks of services in the health care sector. NHS support policies that include courses for patients and the families so that awareness can be developed among them about the various diseases and stress factors that exist in the world. Mitigation techniques are also provided to avoid being victims of such threats.

Government:  According to Inkelas et al. (2015), the main aim of the UK Government is to assist the health care sectors. This also involves the people working in it and the people seeking care in the sectors. The Government maintain collaboration in the financial, resource allocation as well arrangement of different items necessary for effective working in the sectors.

Hence, it can be summarised that the differences in working practises and policies need to be adhered to by the health care organisations. The rules of the National Health Service provide the benchmark that can be used by the health care organisations to continue with the services. At the same time support from the Government is also an important aspect that health care centres need to undertake so that it can maintain and arrange its resources in a proper manner.

According to Ginter, Duncan and Swayne (2018), the implementation of partnership provides certain performances in the health care sectors. These performances are aimed at providing the best practices that can be served to the adults seeking care in the health and service homes. Certain possibilities that exist that provide an opportunity for positive as a well negative outcome that may befall from the working in partnerships in an organisation. The outcomes developed to form a leading role in maintaining the standards of a health care organisation and the regulations of the state. For example, the death of the child in the cot stirred negative results among the people residing in the UK. However, as stated by Holloway and Galvin (2016) one set back cannot justify the role of the service providers in the society. Better outcomes are achieved due to the proper care is taken by the health and service sectors. The investigation in deaths and abuses of the adults can be attributed to the sole performance of the people working in the health care sectors. In this regard, certain outcomes that are possible can be identified that may justify the effectiveness and importance of working in partnership with an organisation. It needs to be kept in mind that the partnership working can be in the form of services as well as while working as a professional. Working in an organisation can also create outcomes while dealing with partnerships. Either way, the outcomes of both the possibilities are taken into consideration.

Possible positive outcome for working for users in service sectors:

  1. Improved nature of services after comparing it with the services provided earlier
  2. Improved decision-making due to the existence of skilled employees as well as collaborative decisions
  3. Empowerment of service users
  4. Autonomy

Possible negative outcome for working for users in service sectors:

  1. A difference in opinions may cause conflicts, which in turn can cause problems for the service users
  2. Increased level of miscommunication due to the untimely delivery of messages and personality
  3. The increased frustration level of employees due to the dominant nature of one partner
  4. Excess opinions may hamper the clarity of thoughts and thus a proper decision cannot be taken
  5. Increased chances of duplicate of data as well services

Possible positive outcome for working for professionals:

  1. A professional approach is created that helps in the future development of the people
  2. Co-ordination increases between the people and it provide better outcomes for the service users
  3. Clear mention of roles and responsibilities make it easier for the professionals to continue work
  4. Communication is done in an effective and organised manner that prevents misinterpretation of information
  5. The minimum duplicity of information
  6. Resources can be used efficiently and effectively

Possible negative outcome for working for professionals:

  1. The rivalry between the professional people can increase due to the difference of opinion and rise of personality
  2. Due to the rivalry, valuable information about the service users may be withheld that may cause problems for the service user
  3. Mismanagement of trust and funds may occur

Possible positive outcome for working for organisations:

  1. Comprehensive service provision may be provided within the organisations
  2. The principle of sharing can be introduced that may have a positive effect on organisations
  3. Integrated services are provided
  4. Common practices in work make it easier to maintain collaboration
  5. It follows a coherent approach towards work

Possible negative outcome for working for organisations:

  1. Increase cost due to the various demands of items for care
  2. The existence of ego among the professional may result in the loss of purpose
  3. The breakdown in communication due to over competitiveness among each other
  4. Organisations from public to private and charitable sectors may not have the same Human Resources and long term funding structure, to be supported by commissioners etc...

According to Six smithet al. (2017), working in partnership in health and social care services may pose certain barriers. These barriers are mentioned below:

Structural barriers: The structures of health and social care services are different from one another. The structural difference that exists in these organisations pose a challenge as with a change in structure, the roles and regulations also change. The division of services in the organisation pose challenge for the workers, as they need to get accustomed to the change type of scenarios and activities. Cook, Mulherin and Seditas (2015) stated that at times it is seen that organisations may not be ready to undertake and provide the services that are required for the continuation of the business. This may be due to lack of infrastructure and resources.

Procedural barriers: Procedures in every organisation are different and this is another barrier that is caused while working in partnership. The demand required in terms of services and obedience changes across organisations and across cultures owing to the existence of different managers (Hunter and Perkins 2014). Hence, regular and quick adjustments need to be made so that rules and regulations are not violated. This can contribute to the downfall of things as the entire policy regarding work needs to be changed and partnership needs to be established again for the betterment of the organisational services.

Financial barriers: Finance is important as the organisations involved in partnership need to support one another in terms of financial resources. In this regard, an example can be used to explain this particular barrier. The financial resources of a Government institution such as NHS are different from the private organisations. This is because private sectors gain more money and dependence on the Government sector can cause a financial crisis. This may adversely affect the partnership, as support is required to be provided by both sectors in order to ensure proper working of the organisation (Bee et al. 2015).

Professional barriers: Similar to the procedures, the professional ethics in organisations vary from place to place.The values, as well as the behaviours set for the employees, are different and workers need to adjust to the changes in the policies. They need to ensure that the respect of the rules and regulation set up in different organisations are provided. The adjustment in the professional behaviour is clearer if the partnership is formed beyond the organisational business culture. Hence, this can create chaos in the partnership and threaten the existence of the social service sector that suffers such a barrier.

Apart from this, time plays an effective barrier in the partnership. This is because the time provided by one partner may not be similar to the time provided by the other partner. Employment environment is another factor that causes barriers to the working with partnerships (Frew et al. 2017).

After analysing the barriers to working in partnerships and the negative possibilities that may arise in three different aspects, it can be said that mitigation techniques are required that provide strategies to change the outcomes of partnership working. The strategies can help to improve the condition of the health and social care while working in partnerships. Every strategy is made keeping in mind the analysis conducted about working in partnership and the manner in which the implementation can be made.

Fischbacher-Smith (2015) stated that the Health and Social Care and Security department forms a procedure that supports the public development and maintains a structure that needs to ensure that the welfare of the people is managed. The plans and outcomes made by the health care sectors need to be significant and the outcomes need to be set in a manner that remains to be ambitious as well as achievable. The partnerships have been designed to encourage the stakeholder setting and ensure that the employees provide the top-level service so that service sectors can be maintained in a proper manner. As observed by Oliver et al. (2014) the strategies adopted by the health and social care services are aimed at improving the planning of specific groups and complete tasks by mitigating the barriers that exist in the organisations. These clusters are different from one another based on the resolution it has and it involves the continuous resolution of the partnership (Sivers 2018). In the case of health and social care services, the organisations ensure that patients and staffs are empowered to take spontaneous decisions if necessary. The freedom provided in this case provides an opportunity to cure the service users in a rapid manner.

Another strategy that can be adopted is the sharing of the knowledge with the concerned parties. The parties involved in working in partnerships need to understand the importance of the work and the effectiveness that can be derived from such a collaboration (Richardson et al. 2017). Sharing the awareness can help to ensure that the people are well informed about the advantages and the disadvantages that exist in an organisation while working in partnership. The policies and procedures required in the social care services also need to be involved in a manner that provides an understanding of the flexibility required in organisations. However, Cameron et al. (2014) were of the opinion that along with spreading knowledge and abilities it is essential that the responsibility of the employees working in partnership is informed.This involves the nurses as well as the doctors that are involved in the working of partnerships. Goals and objectives need to be assigned keeping in mind the capabilities of the people and the manner in which it can be achieved. Apart from this implementation of a risk assessment plan need to be provided so that any threats that may occur from the barriers can be limited.


It can be concluded that in health care sectors, partnerships are required for the betterment of the services. Partnerships in health care sectors occur between different parties involved in a particular health care institution. The function of each of the partnership is useful to understand the core principle that exists in the health care sectors. The laws of the country that sometimes provide effectiveness for the useful delivery of services affect the health care services. The basic principle of the UK law guide deals with the situational analysis of the people. The organisational practices as well as the policies are current and provide relevancy in the effectiveness of working in partnership. The parliament of UK also has a significant effect in working in partnership within health care services. A huge range of validation of the services has been analysed in the assignment that highlights the involvement of working in partnership. It has been seen that at the time working in partnership can lead to better performance among organisations. However, at times poor performances can also be witnessed due to the existence of excess opinions of people. Thus, working in partnership has both advantages as well as disadvantages.


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