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You have already analysed the conceptual design of a project in assignment 1. In this assessment, you are required to write a report which critically analyses the preliminary design and detailed design and production phases of the project discussed in assignment 1.

Particular attention is to be paid to the system test, evaluation and validation processes employed, human factors and any optimisations that were required.

To demonstrate your research skills and understanding, the report should:
Include relevant theories and models
Draw upon relevant sources like journals, books or reputable trade publications in analysing the project (at least 5 publications, including a minimum of 2 peer reviewed research articles)

Systems and Engineering

The water mining report is focused on analyzing the conceptual design of water mining since water is a non-renewable resource which is significant. Since water mining plays a significant role and it is scarce, it has brought various problems in the mining industry which has brought it much recognition in the recent past. Several risks are associated with mining of water and through overcoming the risks is when water mining can be improved. As a result, this is aimed at focusing on critical analysis of the system test, evaluation process, validation process and human factors by addressing the preliminary design, detailed design and production process of water mining using theories and principles in systems. The expected outcome of this report is aimed at achieving the following outcomes. To begin with, it aims at clearly elaborating the significance of the theories used in engineering management for purposes of applying the processes of development and management of systems over the life cycle which involves the analysis, evaluation and synthesis cycle of water mining (Browning & Ramasesh 2007).

It also aims at applying the conceptual process of the system design through looking at different phases of the preliminary as well as simulation method involved in the system design. Also, the report is aimed at providing appropriate processes in the system testing and evaluation process of water mining. More so, it will explain the implementation and optimization of the systems. The report is also centered on understanding the reliability testing and evaluation of the system by looking at human factors in the system through explaining disposability and sustainability of the conceptual design process. Key issues will be identified as prerequisite implementation tools that are necessary for systems management. Additionally, a common management process used in the development and implementation of the system will be addressed.

Systems and engineering is classified according to elements of a system, categories of a system which includes natural and human-made, physical and conceptual among other such as static and closed systems.  A system in engineering is often referred to as a collection of functionality which a related top form a unitary system. An example of a system includes a river system, transportation system and water mining system. Systems are defined based on components attributes and relations (Kumar 2009). The components of a system involve each part that comprises a fully functional system. The attributes of a system involve characteristics of each part that comprises the whole system while the relationship involves with each component of the makes the system operate effectively to achieve its right purpose (Liou & Chen 1994).

The system test is the most significant and important stage of the system blueprint and development procedure. This stage is crucial because it is the infant and high-ranking development role that has the potential to determine the cost and growth process for the system needs and its functionality (Haponava & Al-Jibouri, 2010). The process of system engineering process begins with the identification of need based on the demand available for that particular need. For this reason, water mining plays a significant role and therefore it satisfies the need for mining water that is used in the extraction of various minerals such as iron, gravels, petroleum and natural gas. In this case, system test for water mining project is the need it will serve in the mining industry. Here, the first process is to identify the issue and then work backward to determine how effective the system can handle its capabilities. After the need has been identified an analysis is then performed by answering the following questions.

System Test

What is the main role of the system?  What are the basic and advanced roles of the system, what measures can be taken to improve the system inefficiency, time frequency, where and how frequently must these functions be accomplished? After the above questions have been answered to satisfaction, an advanced system planning and architecting is unidentified for purposes of improved systems. This is a crucial part of bringing new and improved capabilities of the system. This process is guided by the results in a development of a program management plan. The combination of system functionality and systems engineering management contributes to the program implementation. The systems design and testing is the developed after identifying the need for the system through identifying various systems blueprint strategies or alternative methods that would help to solve the problem.

Also, after identifying process, evaluating the viable strategies to determine system wanted regarding production, potency, continuance and long lasting support (Makarova & Sokolova 2014). An analysis of the system is also conducted by looking at possible options centered at the physical and realizable within the schedule requirement and available resources. The available alternatives for the feasibility considerations will have an important impact on operational characteristics of the system as well as its design for contractibility and sustainability among other design characteristics. There are system operational requirements that must be met once the need and technical approach have been identified. Such operational requirements include mission definition which focuses on identification of main and additional purpose of the water mining facility (Salah Eldin 2009).

It also includes the presentation and manual variables such as the meaning of operating features of the structure. Besides, the systems performance is identified based on the standard of the system, application and staff members. Additionally, the development of a system is based on the duration that the system is going to be operational. On the other hand, utilization prerequisite focuses on anticipates usage of the system and its elements (Kumar, Groth, & Vlacic 2016). The effective factors include the system features that make the facility to perform its work as expected.

Environmental factors in a system design are focused on the kind of environment which the system is expected to operate such as temperature and humidity (Karamouz, Nokhandan, Kerachian, & Maksimovic 2009). Lastly, in the system test, maintenance and support is a crucial stage for the structure blueprint. The continuity and sustainability of the system is centered on corrective and preventive aspects which may be performed on the whole system or a part of the system. The maintenance of a system is classified as an organizational, intermediate and manufacturer. This included repair policies that command the elements to be structures in a manner that in the event it fails in its operation, a part of the system can easily be replaced.

The evaluation of the system design is based on initial system stage. This rectifies the meaning growth of the desired system application and assigned properties for other smaller sections of the system. The purpose of evaluation of the water mining system design is to demonstrate that selected system concept will live up to its performance capabilities as well as specifications. The process of evaluation purpose can be produced and constructed with available methods as well as establishing that the cost and schedule constraints are met (Rakodi 1982).


The conceptual system design of the water mining facility assess whether the needs will be satisfied by the application of the mining facility. This analysis phase included different phases in facilitating the balancing of water mining facility as well as its monitoring. Further, knowledge will be provided for the water mining facility in unique parts of the mine site. This evaluation is necessary for the investors and stakeholders for purposes of crucial decision making process.

The preliminary design essentials are obtained from the system design prerequisites.  This could be achieved by determining what conceptual design can be produced from the evaluation process. This process has to be considered by the initial blueprint through the assigned prerequisites. The production, product, methods and medium requirements include the specialized presentation, functional and aid features of the structure as a whole. Therefore, the systems specification is dependent on the results of a viable analysis, functional necessity and the continuance framework. The evolution characteristics involves the mechanical features for a new item under the structure elevation where analysis, blueprint and growth are needed (Parkes & Davern 2011).

The product specification includes the quantitative and qualitative requirements for items under the system level in the inventory that can be produced. The process specification involves the service offered by the function of any element of a system. The material specification involves the technical requirement that involves raw materials, liquids and semi-fabricated materials. The functional analysis and allocation focus on two main areas which include the operational research process and requirement assigned. The functions can be further classified into smaller categories ultimately describing major subsystems. The function of a system often begins with the need followed by the feasibility analysis, functional analysis divided into the second phase and third phase to explain the functional flow.

The analysis of the functional process is completed by evaluation of each block that defines the important inputs and the expected output. This describes outside control and problems by examining mechanism of the concrete material necessary for achieving the objective such as tools, applications, individuals and equipment. The important part of the functional analysis is that the process enhances firmness and anthology of the material prerequisites for each operation (Lyneis, Cooper & Els 2001). The requirement allocation involving the evolutions of the blueprint goal at the initial stage, significance are set by determining the performance factors as well as qualitative and quantitative design requirements.

The above prerequisites then grow to the linkage of the correct blueprint features in the design stages. The basic preliminary design criterion is pegged on the objective of the design. The basic objective design has to be in line with the structures functional prerequisites, continuance and support concept including total productive maintenance. It has to also agree with assigned blueprint to a framework and in line with all the specifications in the various applicable scenarios The preliminary design criteria focus on design for functional capabilities, design for interoperability, and design for maintainability, sustainability, reliability, usability and safety (Fong, Avetisyan & Cui 2014).

The validation process and employed involves a comprehensive design and evolution stage of the system long term use which is maintenance of iterative growth procedures. This process involves eight key stages. The new design features for all-level elements of the structure, executing the required mechanical aspects to fulfill the blueprint goals, merging the structure components and approaches, selecting and making use of blueprint requirement and aids, preparation of plan and information compilation, emerging engineering and samples, executing blueprint evaluation and response capabilities as well as incorporating the design changes as appropriate (O'donnell & Galat 2008).

The conceptual design in water mining is developed in several phases. These phases include providing model objectives definitions, choosing a s modeling platform, developing a conceptual design model, resolving key limiting factors and determining conducting a common restrictions among others. The conceptual framework of the water mining model is made up of phases. The phases include conceptual design with prefeasibility, construction phase, operational phase and maintenance phase respectively.

The actual prerequisites on this level are often developed from characteristics of the structure and develop through relevant minor aspects. The requirement to continue with the system blueprint and evolution process faster for some of the activities to accomplished. Besides, the development of comprehensive design is pegged on the outcome of prerequisite that were considered at the conceptual and initial system stages. The comprehensive blueprint development follows the primary procedure of all the functions that water mining system performs. This procedure is also technical implying that it begins with the systems initial phase to a product development that is developed to produce multiple quantities. In this step, various examinations in the form of testing at different level of blueprint development, and a response is established for purposes of rectifying errors (Larson, Kirono, Tjandraatmadja & Barkey 2016).

The review may be informal and occur continuously as the level increase. Further, the data is represented in the form of a digital description of items in electronic format, design, drawings and reports. After being provided with the primary settings of structure features, the developer has to make a decision on how to ensure the systems faults are addressed with efficiency. There are alternative options in the of resources such as selecting appropriate element that can be accessed easily from stores to improve the current one or come up with a new equipment that is unique and meets its basic objective (Mavukkandy, Karmakar & Harikumar 2014). The natural systems are those that come into being through natural processes whereas the human-made systems are those that have been influenced by human interaction through components, attributes and relations. On the other hand, human-modified systems are those systems embedded into the natural world.

Human factors occur in all the phases and crucial for the water mining facility. However, the operational and maintenance phase is where monitoring input data and reactive geochemistry type. A chemical reaction then provides simple mass transport and mixing information. Monitoring of water quantity and quality is also influenced by human factors.

Recommendations for the water mining systems based on systems theory include checking the hydrological sizing for mine construction to facilitate it, check the assessment failure priory, install water treatment system to improve the functionality, monitor the mine based in areas as well as monitoring the outcome for further development in water mining (Brands & Rajagopal 2008). The system should make sure that water treatment systems can adjust based on the environmental conditions. Other recommendations include having a better level of water in the mining constructions as well as the condition of the dam. To safeguard the mine and its facilities, monitor the weather conditions, maintain proper management systems, follow best practices and gain knowledge of the groundwater functions and operations.


This report has extensively examined the water mining system through systems theory for purposes of ensuring that the system is efficient, sustainable and productive in water mining facility. It is centered on the systems test, evaluation, validation and process employed as well as human factors such as repair and maintenance. This report aimed to ensure proper implantation of water mining systems through a conceptual analysis.  

Reference list

Brands, E. & Rajagopal, R. 2008, "Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part II: Design and development of place-based monitoring strategies", Environmental monitoring and assessment, vol. 143, no. 1-3, pp. 91-102.

Browning, T.R. & Ramasesh, R.V. 2007, "A Survey of Activity Network-Based Process Models for Managing Product Development Projects", Production and Operations Management, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 217-221,223-240.

Fong, C.K., Avetisyan, H.G. & Cui, Q. 2014, "Understanding the Sustainable Outcome of Project Delivery Methods in the Built Environment", Organization, Technology & Management in Construction, vol. 6, no. 3.

Haponava, T. & Al-Jibouri, S. 2010, "Establishing influence of design process performance on end-project goals in construction using process-based model", Benchmarking, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 657-676.

Karamouz, M., Nokhandan, A.K., Kerachian, R. & Maksimovic, C. 2009, "Design of on-line river water quality monitoring systems using the entropy theory: a case study", Environmental monitoring and assessment, vol. 155, no. 1-4, pp. 63-81.

Kumar, S., Groth, A. & Vlacic, L. 2016, "A tool for evaluation of lifecycle cost of water production for small-scale community projects", Water Policy, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 769-782.

Kumar, V. 2009, "A process for practicing design innovation", The Journal of business strategy, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 91-100.

Larson, S., Kirono, D.G.C., Tjandraatmadja, G. & Barkey, R. 2016, "Monitoring and evaluation approaches in water resources project design: experiences from an urban water system climate change adaptation project in Indonesia", Water Policy, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 708-726.

Liou, Y.I. & Chen, M. 1994, "Using group support systems and joint application development for requirements specification", Journal of Management Information Systems, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 25.

Lyneis, J.M., Cooper, K.G. & Els, S.A. 2001, "Strategic management of complex projects: a case study using system dynamics", System Dynamics Review, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 237.

Makarova, E.A. & Sokolova, A. 2014, "Foresight evaluation: lessons from project management", Foresight : the Journal of Futures Studies, Strategic Thinking and Policy, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 75-91.

Mavukkandy, M.O., Karmakar, S. & Harikumar, P.S. 2014, "Assessment and rationalization of water quality monitoring network: a multivariate statistical approach to the Kabbini River (India)", Environmental science and pollution research international, vol. 21, no. 17, pp. 10045-66.

O'donnell, T.K. & Galat, D.L. 2008, "Evaluating Success Criteria and Project Monitoring in River Enhancement within an Adaptive Management Framework", Environmental management, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 90-105.

Parkes, A. & Davern, M. 2011, "A challenging success: a process audit perspective on change", Business Process Management Journal, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 876-897.

Rakodi, C. 1982, "The role of monitoring and evaluation in project planning, in relation to the upgrading of unauthorized housing areas", Public Administration & Development (pre-1986), vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 129.

Salah Eldin, A.H. 2009, "Monitoring and controlling design process using control charts and process sigma", Business Process Management Journal, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 358-370.

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