Using GLOBE Study’s cultural dimensions as a point of reference, identify and discuss the cultural similarities and differences between Brazil, Malaysia and USA illustrated in the case. Using GLOBE Study’s cultural dimensions as a point of reference, critically analyse how cultural similarities and differences could affect combined results for consumers and non-consumers in each of these three countries so that Alizee can optimise online marketing activities which are specific to each. Please give examples to support your analysis. As consultants, your analysis should both explain the major similarities, differences and provide insights into what could have been done to enhance online behaviours of consumers and non-consumers of the Alizee airlines company from Brazil, Malaysia and USA in the cultural perspective.
The first similarity in the three countries relates to the power distant. It is an indication that all the three countries are concerned about the accommodation of the business classes those they belong to. Also, they are sensitive to the privileges that specific individuals enjoy and the acceptance of the authority differences in the rendering of services (Chhokar, Brodbeck & House, 2013). It seems that power distant is a factor that is of a great essence to the three countries as long as online airline services are concerned.
Also, there is the element of uncertainty avoidance. It is given a low score in the three countries after the in-depth study. It is an indication that the consumers of the online services are less concerned about the factor. The consumers and the non-consumers are certain that there is no essence in depending on the social norms in the delivering of the airline services. Most of the customers do not expect the airline to rely on the social norms to curb the uncertainties that may take place in future. Though the results of the factor were low, there was an aspect where individuals were for the idea that they should be treated with some level of formality. Lastly, it was imperative that the consumers were risk averse.
Moreover, another similarity relates, to the general perspective of the online consumers of the three countries in the light of the future orientation. Though it is a small number of consumers that are concerned, there is the need to look into the fact that consumers look at the level of satisfaction that they acquire from the services that are their requirements being considered (De Mooij, 2015). It also matters to the consumers of this country that planning is imperative for the company. That the services that they deliver should be those that are well reasoned out and sustainable to the consumers. Lastly, they are keen on the way the company is prepared for the future so that they can be able to make more informed decisions. Customers thus are gratified by an institution that is organized and that which portrays an ongoing concern aspect of the business.
Furthermore, both USA and Brazil have the same cultural behavior in regards to the institution collectivism. The consumers are concerned through to a low extent about the need for good decision making in the provision of the online services, maintenance of friendship with the service providers, the aspect of individualism and lastly the compliance to social equity or fairness.
The differences that emerge between the cultural expectations of the three countries are significant. To begin with, performance orientation as a factor to be considered by the Alizee Company is a something that does not require both most of the consumers in Brazil. Factors such as self centeredness, innovation, good performance and high standards are looking at but a lower sensitivity as compared to how consumers of USA hold so high these very factors (Unger, Rank & Gemünden, 2014). The consumers of Malaysia consider the performance orientation aspects in a higher sensitivity than the consumers in Brazil but less than the online consumers in the USA.
Besides, institutional collectivism is also a factor that brings forth disparities amongst the cultural considerations of the consumers from the three countries. Brazil and USA have the same level that is a low score in considering the aspects of institutional collectivism. On the other hand, Malaysia has an average sensitivity to the institutional collectivism; the country is more concerned about the aspects of effective decision making, social fairness, and friendship being factored in the online services that are availed.
The results that are acquired from the critical analysis of the differences and the similarities indicate that the overall results of the consumers will be affected in some critical ways. The similarities that have occurred for instance in the aspect of power distant, future orientation and uncertainty avoidance are vital. It is thus obvious that the similarities in the case of the power distant will be taken seriously because a higher degree of concern was related to it. The cultural dimension is imperative in the three countries, and this makes it clear that the company has to dedicate more resources in realizing the cultural requirements of the consumers of the three countries. In the case of the future orientation and the uncertainty avoidance, it is clear that the factors may not be factored in the frame work due to the lower sensitivity that they portrayed amongst the consumers and the non-consumers in the three countries (Carter et al. 2016). The lower sensitivity rate towards the two identifies that less concern should be dedicated to the encompassing of the cultural requirements of the customers.
Differences bring forth individuals analysis of the factors that were forward by the countries. The first factor would be the performance orientation, in the case of Brazil that has a low concern to it, it is clear that there is a limited call for the implementation of the dimension into the online services (Zhao, Shen & Collier, 2014). In the case of USA, performance orientation factors relate to excellent performance, meeting of high standards and continuous innovation must be considered in the online services that are rendered to the consumers of the countries. The general effect that the difference that Malaysia portrays in the light of how future oriented the online services is an indication that the services should incorporate an aspect of performance orientation.
The second difference is brought about by the institutional collectivism. The dimension relates to the institution of friendship, social equity or fairness and self centeredness. Both Brazil and the United States showcase that the dimension is not so significant in the online services. In this case, it indicates that the Alizee as a company has to consider these cultural perspectives of the two countries by including the dimension is a limited extend (Gnanlet & Yayla-Kullu, 2014). On the other hand, the company has to consider the inclusion of the institutional collectivism in a greater level for consumers in Malaysia than in the case of Brazil and USA due to an average number of consumers and no consumers indicating that they are concerned about the cultural dimension. Optimization of the online services is ideal more so in the differences that emerged in the analysis of the cultural dimensions.
The fact that customer satisfaction is paramount to any organization, Alizee should also consider this through the inclusion of the cultural diversity of its consumer and the non- consumers. It is recommended that the company should customize the online services to meet the cultural requirements of the consumers (Basfirinci & Mitra, 2015). Like in the case of Brazil, what should be enhanced is the implementation of power distance aspects and less constituents of the other cultural factors due to a low score in them. The customization of the online services in Malaysia will include the factoring in of power distance, an average quality of performance orientation and institutional collectivism and low levels uncertainty avoidance and future orientation. Lastly, in the USA the case will include the achieving of high levels of power distance and performance orientation and lower levels of future orientation, institutional collectivism and uncertainty avoidance.
The factors out of the analysis propagate to the fact that a company has to take into consideration the classes that individuals are divided in (De Mooij, 2015). Consumers should be treated with the dignity that they deserve so that they can feel respected and treasured by the service providers. Also, customers should be handled with limited discrimination due to the continuous insistence on social equity. And thus to be able to reach its strategic and tactical goals concerning the online services, Alizee should have policies that promote equity and fairness.
Alizee has to promote innovation. Innovation is a factor that is significant in the eyes of consumers that are time averse and those that want to be on par with the recent technologies. Like in the case of USA, consumers are moved by the ability and capacity of the company to be able to incorporate technology into its services. To capture such consumers and non- consumers, there is the need to associate the services rendered with up to date technology.
There is also the aspect of wealth management. Some consumers and non-consumers in all the three countries are to a limited extent concerned with the relationship between the cost of the services and the satisfaction that is acquired. The company should thus ensure that the expenses of the services are those that are reasonable in all the three countries so that it does not lose any of its customers to the competitors (Ye et al. 2014). Lastly, it is important for the company to reduce the risks that can be experienced by the customers as they are enjoying the services to convenience customers that are risk averse.
Basfirinci, C., & Mitra, A. (2015). A cross cultural investigation of airlines service quality through integration of Servqual and the Kano model. Journal of Air Transport Management , 42, 239-248.
Carter, L., Weerakkody, V., Phillips, B., & Dwivedi, Y. K. (2016). Citizen adoption of e- government Services: Exploring citizen perceptions of online services in the United States and United Kingdom. Information Systems Management , 33 (2), 124-140.
Chhokar, J. S., Brodbeck, F. C., & House, R. J. (Eds.). (2013). Culture and leadership across the world: The GLOBE book of in-depth studies of 25 societies. Routledge.
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Gnanlet, A., & Yayla-Kullu, H. M. . (2014). Impact of national culture on the quality of information delivery in services. Service Business , 8 (1), 135-169.
Unger, B. N., Rank, J., & Gemünden, H. G. (2014). Corporate innovation culture and dimensions of project portfolio success: The moderating role of national culture. Project Management Journal , 45 (6), 38-57.
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