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Symptoms of End Stage Kidney Disease

End stage kidney disease also termed end stage renal disease or renal failure usually occurs due to a chronic disorder in the kidney that happens due to a gradual loss of the main functions of the kidney (Wang et al., 2016). This chronic disorder gradually reaches a severe state that results in the end stage renal failure where the kidneys fail to work and fulfill the needs of the human body. One of the main functions of the kidney is to filter waste products as well as excess fluids from the bloodstream, and these waste products are then excreted out of the human body through urine. When the kidney fails to filter the waste products from the blood, excessive amounts of dangerous fluid levels, wastes as well as electrolytes get to build up in the blood, which is ultimately harmful to the body. When an individual suffers from an end stage renal disease, the body needs dialysis or a transplant of the kidneys in order to stay alive and healthy. However, several researchers have also opined that patients can also choose conservative care in order to manage the symptoms of end stage kidney failure. This can, in fact, provide the patient with a better quality of life during the time that is remaining.

In the case of a chronic or end stage kidney failure, there can be no symptoms or signs, since this is a gradual process (Costantinides et al., 2018). Therefore when an individual reaches the end stage of kidney failure or kidney disease, they go through a number of signs or symptoms that include swelling of the ankles and feet, nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, chest pain, headaches, sleeping problems, fatigue, weakness, changes in urine patterns, shortness of breath, hypertension, muscle cramps, declining mental abilities, metallic taste, itching in the body and many more.

Several researchers have opined that older people are always at more risk of contracting kidney diseases as well as urinary tract disorders (Singh & Khunti, 2020). In the case of older adults in Australia, end stage kidney disease puts them at a high risk Of acquiring heart diseases. People with age related kidney disorders are comparatively more likely to have a heart attack or develop a cardiovascular disease which can be one of the leading causes of death for these patients. Several researchers have also stated that in the elderly generation, patients in Australia are more likely to suffer from renal failure. In this case, the body will be filled with extra waste products and water causing uremia. This might lead the hands as well as the feet of the patient to swell. They can feel tired as well as weak as the body needs to clean its blood so that it can function accurately. Developing an end stage kidney disorder at an old age decreases the life expectancy of the individuals. One of the main causes of end stage kidney disease is long term blockage in the urinary tract either by an enlarged prostate, from cancers, or by kidney stones (Ramanathan et al., 2016). Apart from that, inflammation in the kidney filters, urine flows to the kidneys or congenital abnormalities can catalyze the disease to the end stage. Several researchers have also revealed that the poor people in Australia are at a major risk of developing end stage kidney disease. Poverty has been associated with multiple risk factors including end stage renal failure, Obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and many more. All these diseases slowly and gradually give rise to end stage kidney diseases and failures., and many more. All these diseases slowly and gradually give rise to end stage kidney diseases and failures.

Risk Factors for End Stage Kidney Disease

One of the common factors that impact both the chosen community and population which includes the poverty stricken community and old age population is the lack of care received (Jorm et al., 2017). Poverty stricken people are unable to afford the basic necessities of their life, which includes proper health care facilities. Similarly, the older generation of Australia does not have the physical capability of assessing their own health care needs and availing the facilities as per their needs. This is the reason the death rate due to end stage kidney diseases and renal failures are high in Australia among the old age population and the poor communities. Therefore, one key point of change can be made both for the community as well as the population which includes the proper intervention and care encompassing accommodation facilities, personalized care for the patients as well as palliative treatment. The homeless population in Australia is generally poor and suffers from several physical and mental health diseases. Similarly, the oldest population lives in ignorance and is generally not cared for by their family members (Broady, Stoyles & Morse, 2017). In this case, both the community and the population lack the basic necessities of diagnosis and treatment. Several researchers have opined that even though it is impossible to reverse the damage caused to the kidney in case of an end stage renal disease, these symptoms of the patients can be managed with proper care and palliative treatment (Raina, Krishnappa & Gupta, 2018). Here comes the role of a nurse who can work as a professional caregiver as well as a primary caregiver for the patient. you can not only help the patients socialize but also manage their symptoms using personalized care and proper treatment recommended by physicians and doctors. Social work organizations and institutions can help the poor people and the old age population to cope with their conditions in case they are suffering from end stage renal disease in Australia. Their priorities will be to maintain homeostasis. They will also be in charge of the prevention of high levels of complications in the patient. Apart from that, they will be in sole charge of providing information about the disease prognosis as well as process and also report the doctor about the treatment needs of the patient. The role of the nurse will be to support the adjustment of the patients to the changes in lifestyle that they are going to undergo (Grant et al., 2017). The nurse will also have to look after the mental health needs of the patients, especially in the case of old age and poverty stricken patients.

The most important action plan that has been sought for the chosen community and the population growth is social work intervention and palliative care (Daddow & Stanley, 2021). The role of the nurse will be crucial in palliative care for patients suffering from end stage kidney disease. Palliative care can be defined as a specialized and customized form of medical care in order to help patients that are living under serious conditions and illnesses. Palliative care is more focused on offering relief from the signs and symptoms of the disease to the patient. it is about providing the patient with a good quality of life while still struggling with the symptoms of the chronic illness. therefore it is extremely important for nurses and social work departments to help the poverty stricken communities as well as the oldest population to lead a good quality of life. According to the health promotion planning cycle, in stage two it is mentioned that in order to create an effective action plan, the primary and medical caregivers of the patient must conduct a situational assessment of the patient (Lewis et al., 2016). Therefore the first stage of all the action plans will be to conduct a situational assessment. This will not only include the physical needs assessment of the patient but will also include the mental needs assessment. This will help the nurses and the caregivers to understand what exactly the patient is suffering from and will help to design the treatment process as per their physical, mental, psychological, emotional, as well as social needs. the next step will be to offer a safe setting and accommodation for the chosen community and population. this will include offering a place of stay for the patients that will allow them to feel safe and secure, and it will also allow them to enhance their self care possibilities. The next part of the action plan will be to ensure effective palliative care. The nurses will be in a role to provide a curative treatment that will help the patients to gain relief from other conditions that are related to kidney disease including heart diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, and many more (Stavropoulou et al., 2017). The nurses will also allow smooth communication with the doctors so that the alternative treatment options can be evaluated for the patient. These options can include kidney transplants or dialysis. The nurses will also be with a spawn symbol for explaining to the patient about what they are getting into and what to expect out of the illness and treatment options. This will help the patients to gain confidence about their condition and will also encourage and motivate them. Lastly, the palliative caregivers will help the patients cope with depression, stress as well as fear. they will address the emotional, practical as well as spiritual concerns of the patient as well as their families (Watson et al., 2019). 

References

  • Broady, T. R., Stoyles, G. J., & Morse, C. (2017). Understanding carers’ lived experience of stigma: the voice of families with a child on the autism spectrum. Health & social care in the community, 25(1), 224-233. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12297
  • Costantinides, F., Castronovo, G., Vettori, E., Frattini, C., Artero, M. L., Bevilacqua, L., ... & Di Lenarda, R. (2018). Dental care for patients with end-stage renal disease and undergoing hemodialysis. International journal of dentistry, 2018. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9610892
  • Daddow, A., & Stanley, M. (2021). Heidi’s legacy: community palliative care at work in regional Australia. Social Work in Health Care, 60(6-7), 529-542. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/00981389.2021.1958128
  • Grant, J., Lines, L., Darbyshire, P., & Parry, Y. (2017). How do nurse practitioners work in primary health care settings? A scoping review. International journal of nursing studies, 75, 51-57. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2017.06.011
  • Jorm, A. F., Patten, S. B., Brugha, T. S., & Mojtabai, R. (2017). Has increased provision of treatment reduced the prevalence of common mental disorders? Review of the evidence from four countries. World Psychiatry, 16(1), 90-99. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20388
  • Lewis, S. L., Bucher, L., Heitkemper, M. M., Harding, M. M., Kwong, J., & Roberts, D. (2016). Medical-Surgical Nursing-E-Book: Assessment and Management of Clinical Problems, Single Volume. Elsevier Health Sciences.
  • Raina, R., Krishnappa, V., & Gupta, M. (2018). Management of pain in end?stage renal disease patients: Short review. Hemodialysis International, 22(3), 290-296. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/hdi.12622
  • Ramanathan, S., Kumar, D., Khanna, M., Al Heidous, M., Sheikh, A., Virmani, V., & Palaniappan, Y. (2016). Multi-modality imaging review of congenital abnormalities of kidney and upper urinary tract. World journal of radiology, 8(2), 132. Doi: 10.4329/wjr.v8.i2.132
  • Singh, A. K., & Khunti, K. (2020). Assessment of risk, severity, mortality, glycemic control and antidiabetic agents in patients with diabetes and COVID-19: a narrative review. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 165, 108266. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108266
  • Stavropoulou, A., Grammatikopoulou, M. G., Rovithis, M., Kyriakidi, K., Pylarinou, A., & Markaki, A. G. (2017, September). Through the patients’ eyes: The experience of end-stage renal disease patients concerning the provided nursing care. In Healthcare (Vol. 5, No. 3, p. 36). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare5030036
  • Wang, V., Vilme, H., Maciejewski, M. L., & Boulware, L. E. (2016, July). The economic burden of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. In Seminars in nephrology (Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 319-330). WB Saunders. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semnephrol.2016.05.008
  • Watson, M., Campbell, R., Vallath, N., Ward, S., & Wells, J. (Eds.). (2019). Oxford handbook of palliative care. Oxford University Press, USA. 
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