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Write about the Human Rights in International Relations.

Strengths of ASEAN

ASEAN is a group of ten countries which consist of Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. The main object of ASEAN integration is to promote economic growth, political progress, and cultural development and maintain good relations among different countries. It was formed in august 8, 1967 with the sign of Bangkok declaration. Asian has signed six free trade agreements with other regional economies to provide corporation and mutual assistance in different countries (Chin, 2007). The ASEAN charter entered into the force on 15 December 2008, therefore after the entered into the force ASEAN established its legal identity as an international organization (Khadav, 2013). There are three pillars of Asian are political security community, economic community and socio cultural community. ASEAN signed on the various agreements for economic growth and development of the countries. The given report is based on ASEAN and its impact on Southeast Asian stability; it is also describing strengths and weaknesses of Asian and its importance among different countries. ASEAN provides regional framework for resolve disputes and conflicts and provides self help mechanism for these countries which are enable to concentrate on nation building and economic development.

ASEAN provides a single market for production and its principle plays significant role in Asian. The activities of ASEAN countries are carried out by different members of different countries. Members of ASEAN conduct meetings every year in various countries for the success of Asian (Bitzinger, 2010).  

Association of Southeast Asian nations signed on ASEAN tourism agreement on 4th November 2002. The object of ASEAN tourism agreement is to identify tourism industry for socio economic growth of the Asian members’ and provide diversity in culture, economic and the complementary advantages across the region. The object of ASEAN tourism agreement are (1) to facilitate travel in ASIAN (2)To enhance cooperation in the tourism industry among ASEAN members states in order to improve efficiency and competitiveness. (3) To reduce restrictions in tourism and travel services. (4) To establish an integrated network for tourism and travel services.

ASEAN provides a framework for cooperation and coordination cultural, economic fields and encourages members to curb their differences and disputes (Møller, 2007). ASEAN provides well developed business sectors like Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia ( Narjoko & Amri, 2007). It reduces export and import cost in such a way it will become easier and cheaper to expand its business for export and import of goods and services in different countries. In such way it contributes in stability of Southeast Asian.

Weaknesses of ASEAN

People become more creative and innovative to face competition with other countries, it improve and increase quality of goods and services. Huge investment is to be done at ASEAN countries which are the good source to generate many jobs and projects for Southeast Asian people. It provides a framework for regional conflicts and disputes. ASEAN facilitate free flow of production and skilled labor which allow people to work in foreign countries, it helps in increasing productivity and new job opportunities for people. ASEAN formed ASEAN comprehensive investment agreement (ACIA) which includes assurance towards liberalization, transparency and protection investment operations among different countries. 

It promotes foreign direct investment for economic development and acquiring resources among other countries.  ASEAN free trade area (AFTA) was formed in 1992 in Singapore; it is an agreement by the ASEAN promoting local manufacturing in all ASEAN countries which helps in production of Southeast Asian countries. It provides structure for regional stability and regional peace and well developed options for entertainment. It is located in dynamic Asian region and provide market approx 600 million people, therefore it maintain strong track record for regional collaboration and production network. ASEAN social and cultural community formed to solve the different evils which are related with social and cultural environment, unemployment, population growth, education and health. It promotes teamwork and mutual assistance on common matters like economic, cultural, technical, scientific and social fields.

It provides a platform for assistance, integration and collaboration; it also promotes prosperity, development, unity and sustainability of the countries. ASEAN acts as an intellectual leader and it provides flexibility and ability to control higher diversity (Caballero-Anthony, 2014).   It eliminates the limitations and gaps among the different countries and improves the status of the ASEAN nations by reducing the poverty level and promotes economic growth. It also provides training and workshop to focus on intellectual property rights and regulations of different countries. The AEC (Asian economic community) improves competiveness and development of SME in Asian through different projects under the strategic action plan for Asian SME growth.

ASEAN established official conversation relations with ten external partners including Australia, Canada, China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Russia, and the USA.  ASEAN also has maintained good relations with the United Nations and a sectoral partnership with Pakistan. All strengths plays significant role in stability of Southeast Asian and it provides guidelines to different countries for improving their business and economy (Sutter, 2010).

The major weaknesses in ASEAN is poor infrastructure, information and communication technology (ICT) which affect the Southeast Asian countries people who use the telephone and mobile network and international seaports. If the ASEAN countries increase its infrastructure like international seaports and domestic airports then it can increase economic growth of ASEAN countries. In Indonesia, 95% export import activities conducts through sea transport rest of 5 percent activities are conducted by air transport. Therefore it is assumed that infrastructure and technology issues affect the success of ASEAN countries; therefore it should be improved by these countries. Human and financial resource problem usually appear in Asian countries. 

There is large development gap between ASEAN countries and other countries and there are inequalities in population growth, rules, regulations, and governance. Lack of funds for reallocation of resources and lack of coordinated policies to control labor mobility in ASEAN countries are other consequences in ASEAN which affects Southeast Asian trade and investment policies. Lack of education and skilled workers it is the biggest weakness of ASEAN. Another side changing balance of power in the region is affecting its own members and members of other countries. Asian only focuses on processes it does not focuses on the results and some of the Asian countries do not have enough financial sectors policies and infrastructure facilities, some challenges also associated with Asian countries such as financial services liberalization, capital market development and Asian currency operations (Davies, 2012) .

There is inactive teamwork in ASEAN countries, marketing campaigns has not integrated and undersized marketing intelligence has not been solved. Maritime disputes in the South China Sea have the biggest problem among ASEAN members. It progress has limited due to the various issues present in ASEAN such as lack of policy commitment to open the services in market; negotiation structure is quite weak, legal and institutional restrictions. These all problems affect business of ASEAN countries.

ASEAN market is not well known in lengthy markets in such way countries have to face many difficulties and need to takes more time in transit among countries. Its security challenges include boarder disputes, human trafficking, and food security, cross boarder terrorism. Most of the ASEAN countries are divided in low middle income countries and only few countries are in good economically positions. Therefore it affects the business of Southeast Asian. High inflation rates also the biggest challenges for ASEAN countries this could become result of dissimilar price level, unequal purchasing power of people and dissimilar level of investment. ASEAN is critical to regionalism East Asian therefore it should identify and control all these weaknesses for development of Asian nations and economic growth. Social instability and military imbalances also affects the stability of Southeast Asian (Narine, 2012). So ASEAN should control all these challenges and issues for the stability of Southeast Asian.  

ASEAN is a group of ten countries whose object is to promote economic growth, cultural development and maintain good relations among different countries. ASEAN economic community has significant impact on universal economy. It provides a single market for production, equitable region for economic development therefore it is the essential strengths of ASEAN (Stubbs, 2014). Another side AFTA (Asian free trade area) also creates one market for whole production with abolition of tariff and non tariff constraints in ASEAN countries. AEC generates economic opportunities in Indonesia. With the help of ASEAN tourism has become easier in different countries and it provides a platform for coordination and cooperation in various sectors. ASEAN provides a platform for well developed business activities in different countries and increases foreign direct investment (FDI). It integrates the global economy and eliminates export-imports duties in such way it plays significant role in Southeast Asian stability. ASEAN agreement of the Movement of Natural Persons (MNP) provides a legal framework for cross border trade of goods, services and investment. ASEAN comprehensive investment agreement (ACIA) protects interest of investors and cross border investment. ASEAN has reached in geothermal resource, therefore Indonesia and the Philippines are second and third in terms of geothermal resource (Shi, 2016).

Other sides ASEAN also consists some weaknesses which adversely affects its business among different countries like poor infrastructure, shortage of human and financial resources, lack of education and skilled workers. Macroeconomics constancy provides tool for growth and ASEAN is home for many universal competitive companies. Small countries like Singapore and Brunei are always in fear from the biggest countries like Indonesia and Malaysia, Therefore ASEAN established to ensure sovereignty of these countries. ASEAN is open for participation in all states in the Southeast Asian region and it follows the principle of noninterference. It promotes collaboration and mutual assistance on common interest in the economic, cultural, social, technical fields (Collins, 2008).

ASEAN role in 2017 is very wide and extensive; therefore it will maintain leadership in Asia and it will provide full cooperation to China. Asian success depends on United States and it will give contribution in Thailand foreign policies. In the social, cultural fields Thailand is a strong promoter of ASEAN. ASEAN is the leader of East Asian trade, security integration, economy, promoting trade integration and generating regional forums. It has also improved the architecture sector and plays vital role in balance economic disparities. It has provided regional stability and regional peace in ASEAN countries, Australia is doing hard work to increase business and opportunities in ASEAN market. ASEAN conducts different kind of seminars, conference and workshops to focus on intellectual property rights and increase its business among different countries. It provides strong track records for production and collaborations. Now it can be assumed that Asian important for 630 million people by providing helps to them (Koh, 2008).

Conclusion:

This report has been explained the strengths and weaknesses of ASEAN, the objective of this report was to know about ASEAN and its impact on different countries. It analyze that ASEAN is the global platform and it provides collaborations and mutual assistance to its countries. It plays vital role in region stability, tourism, trade and foreign direct investment therefore ASEAN signed various agreements for the development of ASEAN countries. Asian and its members acts according with the following principles such as (1) ASEAN maintains sovereignty, equality, integrity and national identity in Asian countries. (2) It follows the rules of law, regulations, governance and principle of democracy. (3) ASEAN respects different countries languages, culture, and fundamental freedom. (4) It protects and promotes human rights and resolves disputes and conflicts peacefully. (5) It enhances regional peace, prosperity, security and it follows the rule of noninterference for internal affairs of the ASEAN countries. (6) It eliminates and removes barriers and gaps among different countries for doing business (Dang, 2008).

The overall structure of ASEAN has been changed after the adoption of AEC (Asian economic community). It promotes south East Asian studies effectively and maintains close relationship with other countries. Malaysia and other ASEAN countries are gaining more economic cooperation with the help of ASEAN. It established ASEAN free trade area (AFTA) in 2008, the primary objectives of ASEAN free trade area (AFTA) are to enhance and improve competitive production in the global market. ASEAN is also encouraging foreign direct investment and intra Asian investment and trade. Hence, ASEAN has become the fourth largest trading entity in the world and Asian GDP also has been grown at an average annual rate of 7%. Now it can be said that scope of ASEAN is very wide in different countries and it plays significant role in stability of Southeast Asian (Intarakumnerd & Lecler, 2010). 

References 

Bitzinger, R. A. (2010). A new arms race?: explaining recent Southeast Asian military acquisitions. Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs, 32(1), 50-69.

Caballero-Anthony, M. (2014). Understanding ASEAN's centrality: bases and prospects in an evolving regional architecture. The Pacific Review, 27(4), 563-584.

Chin, K. W. (2007). Introduction: ASEAN—facing the fifth decade. Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs, 29(3), 395-405.

Collins, A. (2008). A people-oriented ASEAN: a door ajar or closed for civil society organizations?. Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs, 30(2), 313-331.

Dang, T. T. H. (2008). Examining the engagement between civil society in Southeast Asia and ASEAN in the ASEAN Community building process.

Davies, M. (2012). The perils of incoherence: ASEAN, Myanmar and the avoidable failures of human rights socialization?. Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs, 34(1), 1-22.

Intarakumnerd, P., & Lecler, Y. (Eds.). (2010). Sustainability of Thailand's Competitiveness: The Policy Challenges. Institute of Southeast Asian.

Koh, T. (2008). The United States and Southeast Asia. America’s Role in Asia: Asian and American Views, 35-54.

Leifer, M. (2013). ASEAN and the Security of South-East Asia (Routledge Revivals). Routledge.

Møller, J. Ø. (2007). ASEAN's relations with the European Union: obstacles and opportunities. Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs, 29(3), 465-482.

Narine, S. (2012). Human rights norms and the evolution of ASEAN: moving without moving in a changing regional environment. Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs, 34(3), 365-388.(weaknesses)

Narjoko, D. A., & Amri, P. D. (2007). The developmental gap between the ASEAN member countries: The perspective of Indonesia. ASEAN Economic Bulletin, 24(1), 45-71.

Shabri Abd. Majid, M., Kameel Mydin Meera, A., & Azmi Omar, M. (2008). Interdependence of ASEAN-5 stock markets from the US and Japan. Global Economic Review, 37(2), 201-225.

Shi, X. (2016). The future of ASEAN energy mix: A SWOT analysis. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 53, 672-680.

Stubbs, R. (2014). ASEAN's leadership in East Asian region-building: strength in weakness. The Pacific Review, 27(4), 523-541.    Impact

Sutter, R. (2010). The United States and China in Southeast Asia: Conflict or Convergence?. Southeast Asian Affairs, 2010(1), 44-59. Strengths

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