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Profiling Childhood Obesity In Urban Location Add in library

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Question: 

Describe the Urban Health Profile on Childhood Obesity in Queensbridge Road in the London Borough of Hackney?

 

Answer:

Introduction

The definition of health by World Health Organization (WHO), is the good state and wellbeing of individual with respect to the physical, mental and social state. The present report is linked with one of the crucial health aspect that is prevalent across the globe including developed and developing countries. The adopted health problem for the opportunity of this report is thus based on one of such crucial health aspect that is the childhood obesity, especially prevailed in the urban location (Prentice, 2006, pp.93).

Obesity is one of the main concerns in the present world, which is associated with varieties of health issues such as cardiovascular disease, infection of skin, organ dys-functioning, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, diabetes and various other complications (Kopelman, 2000, pp.635). Obesity is the condition where excess deposition of body fat in correlated to body height/weight affects the well-being and health status of individuals in community (Ogden, 2014, pp.806). It is the low BMR rate and incorporation of junk food in daily life, which provokes obesity as a serious public health concern worldwide (Fraser & Edwards, 2010, pp.1124). With the growing age, the concern of obesity fetch more complication as cells use to grow old and immunity factor is reduced. On the contrary, the same is more vulnerable when associated with the small age group individuals in the community that is at the childhood stage (Looker, 2010, pp.485). In early childhood, the concern of obesity gives rise to many damage and disorder in the organ functioning and normal physiological state (Cole, 2000, pp.1240; Cole, 1995, pp.25). Other than this the concern is also associated with the increase in the basal metabolic rate (BMR), which leads to reduction in cardiac output, deposition of fat in the blood vessels and weakening of the neurotransmitter functioning in the cellular signaling (Low, 2009, pp.57). The present report is based on collection of data and its evaluation in conjunction to childhood obesity in the location of Queensbridge Road in the London Borough of Hackney.

 

Methodology

The concern of childhood obesity is more prevalent in the urban location, compared with the rural locations worldwide. This is associated with the adoption of life style, lack of physical activities and food habits rich in fat and unsaturated fatty acids. In conjunction to these facts, the scope of the present research is based on the health profiling of childhood in the urban location, more specifically in Queensbridge Road in the London Borough of Hackney. The concerned age group for the profiling is thus children of age ranging from 3 years to 15 years. For the purpose of data collection, the adopted materials were searched from the internet sources such as web links, research articles and reviews presented by experts. Notably, the sources of the information has been cited in the report, for cross-referencing as well as use as for the evidence in the future time. The concerned data were analyzed in qualitative terms, in order to obtain relevant inference.

Data collection, representation and analysis

The first data collected in this regard is related to the percentage of children of age 6 years in the location of Queensbridge and Hackney. According to the report by National Health Services (NHS, 2009-11) pertaining to the data collected in the year of 2008-2009, it was revealed that more than 20 % of the school-going children of age 6 are obese. Likewise, the data obtained for children in the ward of Hackney, nearly a quarter of children are obese. The relative statistics of these wards have been shown in figure 1, where the resident children of various locations have been displayed to show relative percentage of the obese children in various wards (Harden, 2009).

Figure1: Figure representing the data collected by NHS, for various urban locations in the year 2008-2009, pertaining childhood obesity upto age of 6 years old. The highlighted region are marked for queensbridge and Hackney ward.

To the next, the data collected referred to the statistics obtained in the year 2009-10 by National obesity observatory. The collection of these data have been done in conjunction to the Healthy weight strategy aiming to maintain healthy state. The data pertaining to various locations in conjunction to London and England has been displayed in figure 2. Remarkably the data is more important as it shows that Hackney (Bowyer, 2009, pp.452), which is one of the popular urban location in London is having the highest percentage of obese pupil compared to all the variable locations. It should be noted that the information as such contained in this figure is most important, as it helps in revealing that the figure is alarming as the location depicts the highest percentage compared to all other locations.

Figure2: Proportion percentage of obese children in various locations, collected by National Obesity Observatory for the year 2009-2010.

Figure3: Proportion percentage of obese children in various locations, collected by National Obesity Observatory for the year 2011-2012.

In order to analyze similar data of successive years, the figures pertaining to obese child in various locations is shown in figure 3, collected for the year 2011-12. As depicted in the figure, it can be observed that the proportion percentage for the obese children are more in the location of Hackney. The increment in the proportion percentage can be found to be higher by 26 % of the total number of children in the ward. These data indicate that the deterioration in the community health is more rigorous for successive years. On the other hand, it can also be said that there is absence of healthy activity in the community, which leads to such increment in the statistics. No doubt, these health conditions will surely give rise to number of other complications, which are linked with obesity.

 

It was more important to collect the information related to the children age-group that are obese or overweight in the ward of hackney or Queensland. Figure 4 shows the children categorized by age group that are overweight. The comparative frequency of age group 2-5 years old, pupil is obvious to be low and that of 11 to 15 years old pupil is high. Notably, the trend of increase in percentage of children to be considered as overweight is increasing with time. Such increasing trend in the age can be seen from the given plot (Conrad, 2012, pp.e000463). 

Figure4: Percentage of children that are overweight. The various color codes used in the graph has been shown in label for various age group. 

Overall, these figures suggest that there is an increase in the trend for total number of obese pupil in the successive years. Other than this, it is also indicative that the frequency or proportion percentage of obese pupil in the ward is more in comparison to other wards. It is hence the situation should be considered more seriously, to make appropriate measures in life style, food habits and physical activity for a healthy future. 

Implementation

Obesity no doubt gives rise to many of the deleterious health related problems. Common list of these complications include high blood pressure, myocardial infarction, strokes, ischemic heart condition and other similar health risk (Reilly & Kelly, 2011, pp.891). Sleep discrimination and sleep apnea is another complication that is linked with the childhood obesity (Han, Lawlor & Kimm, 2010, pp.1737). This will not only leads to poor health quality but will also impart many problems with respect to learning skills and growth. Other than this, the discrimination in the society is also one of the concerns in children having obese conditions, which includes emotional traits such as guilt and shame (Galvez, 2010, pp.202). These discriminations are seldom present among the family members and friend circle. Often these condition leads to depression related scenario in children, which have the potential to offer psychosis and synergistic deleterious health related problems. The main implication should be framed among the community member, which can be found in following rebuttal points:

  • It is necessary to raise the concern and awareness among the community members. This awareness should be associated with the ills effects and deterioration in the health condition with obesity (Edwards, 2010, pp.194).
  • Lack of motivation for physical activity in children. Often children fails to generate interest in physical exercise, playing outdoor games and sticking to video or computer games. It is hence this motivation should be brought in forward by parents as well as by the social health workers in the community.
  • Junk food, oily food and diet that have high caloric content, should be avoided. These food habits should be restricted especially in conjunction to the obese children (Skidmore, 2010, pp.1022).
  • Implementation with respect to orientation program in school, community center and public gathering, where opportunity to advocate for the beneficence of balanced and nutrient diet can be community. This will not only help the families to raise awareness and knowledge of appropriate food habit, but will also help in incorporating healthy eating habits.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it can be said that the present report is based on the collection of data, elucidating the fact-figures and finding the possible profiling of the obesity health concern in the community. Urban life style not only include suitable and easy means for the routine work, but also include reduction in physical activity, lack of exercise and incorporation of junk food. These prospects are common across all the urban location in the globe. Other than this, the data and statistics presented in the report pertain to specific location, time-period and proportion percentage, which are helpful in profiling the obesity rate among children in robust and appropriate manner. The concern of obesity is important for children as because they are linked with the hormonal and physiological growth. Complications induced at early stage of life is deteriorated as the disorder and physiological concerns are reflected by the progress and wellbeing state of the community. It is hence, government agencies and other concerned members should be engaged in finding possible solution and measure to reduce the prevalence rate of childhood obesity (Waters, 2008, pp.196). Such approach are worthy as they will ensure the health future state and as well reduced incidents of ill health concern in society.

 

References:

BOWYER, S., CARAHER, M., EILBERT, K., & CARR-HILL, R. (2009). Shopping for food: lessons from a London borough. British Food Journal, 111(5), pp.452-474.

CONRAD, D., & CAPEWELL, S. (2012). Associations between deprivation and rates of childhood overweight and obesity in England, 2007–2010: an ecological study. BMJ open, 2(2), pp.e000463.

COLE, T. J., BELLIZZI, M. C., FLEGAL, K. M., & DIETZ, W. H. (2000). Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. Bmj, 320(7244), pp.1240.

COLE, T. J., FREEMAN, J. V., & PREECE, M. A. (1995). Body mass index reference curves for the UK, 1990. Archives of disease in childhood, 73(1), pp.25-29.

EDWARDS, K. L., CLARKE, G. P., RANSLEY, J. K., & CADE, J. (2010). The neighbourhood matters: studying exposures relevant to childhood obesity and the policy implications in Leeds, UK. Journal of epidemiology and community health, 64(3), PP.194-201.

FRASER, L. K., & EDWARDS, K. L. (2010). The association between the geography of fast food outlets and childhood obesity rates in Leeds, UK. Health & place, 16(6), pp.1124-1128.

GALVEZ, M. P., PEARL, M., & YEN, I. H. (2010). Childhood obesity and the built environment: a review of the literature from 2008-2009. Current opinion in pediatrics, 22(2), pp.202.

HARDEN, A., ESTACIO, E. V., TOBI, P., ADAMS-EATON, F., BERTOTTI, M., & LAIS, S. (2009). A review of effectiveness, including cost effectiveness wherever possible, of commissioned healthy weight-related projects in City and Hackney: final report.

HAN, J. C., LAWLOR, D. A., & KIMM, S. (2010). Childhood obesity.The Lancet, 375(9727), pp. 1737-1748

KOPELMAN, P. G. (2000). Obesity as a medical problem. Nature, 404(6778), 635-643.

LOOKER, H. C. (2010). Childhood obesity, other cardiovascular risk factors, and premature death.New England Journal of Medicine, 362(6), pp.485-493.

LOW, S., CHIN, M. C., & DEURENBERG-YAP, M. (2009). Review on epidemic of obesity. Annals Academy of Medicine Singapore, 38(1), pp.57.

OGDEN, C. L., CARROLL, M. D., KIT, B. K., & FLEGAL, K. M. (2014).Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012.JAMA, 311(8), pp.806-814.4

PRENTICE, A. M. (2006). The emerging epidemic of obesity in developing countries. International Journal of epidemiology, 35(1), pp.93-99.

REILLY, J. J., & KELLY, J. (2011). Long-term impact of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence on morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood: systematic review. International journal of obesity, 35(7), pp.891-898.

SKIDMORE, P., WELCH, A., VAN SLUIJS, E., JONES, A., HARVEY, I., HARRISON, F., ... & CASSIDY, A. (2010). Impact of neighbourhood food environment on food consumption in children aged 9–10 years in the UK SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) study. Public health nutrition, 13(07), pp.1022-1030.

WATERS, E., ASHBOLT, R., GIBBS, L., BOOTH, M., MAGAREY, A., GOLD, L., ... & SWINBURN, B. (2008). Double disadvantage: the influence of ethnicity over socioeconomic position on childhood overweight and obesity: findings from an inner urban population of primary school children. International journal of pediatric obesity, 3(4), pp.196-204.

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