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1. Critically analyse the role of management information systems in sustaining successful organisations.
2. Critically evaluate approaches to business process management and systems, their associated risks and implementation processes.
3. Establish and justify governance processes for business process management change to ensure that all stakeholders are considered in technology change decisions

Current AS-IS Process

The business process management is the correction of enhancing the business process of an organization from end to end by thoroughly evaluating it and modelling how the processes function and then making changes in the process (Sikdar & Payyazhi, 2014). The Booking.com is an online website that handles the customer requests for hotel and flight booking. The website follows normal boking procedures like any other similar website available on the net. The customers and the service providers like hotels and airlines are the third-party entities that is external stakeholders of the business. The customer can register and login to the website. This facility has been integrated into the website so that the activities of individual customers regardless of connecting devices can be tracked accurately. The customer can choose the dates for booking hotels or flights. The system will input the search results and then will show the preferable result. The website will also show alternative days and services if the preferred service on that day is not available (Chong, 2014). The system will store all the data into the database for later usage. Booking.com allows the customers to cancel the booking.

The service providers can add, delete or update their services. The website will update those information in real time. The service providers are able to track their service history with the organization through the website.

AS-IS:

Login: The customer can incorporate the email address and mystery key gave among registration through Facebook or Gmail (Brocke et al., 2014). Login is a basic piece of the administration booking website. Add up to three alternatives through which the customer can login to the website.

Registration: Inside the registration procedure, customer will enter the telephone number. The telephone number check will be done dependent on this procedure as it were. The client won't should set any password at the present time. The customer can in like manner register through Gmail or Facebook. Keep in mind that the customer can login using a comparative technique that has been sought after among registration. For instance, if the customer has selected using Facebook then login ought to be conceivable through Facebook in a manner of speaking (Chang, 2016). The customer will be asked for to enter the name, phone number and distinctive unpretentious components once the registration is done.

Verifying Phone Number: The website will send OTP after the registration is done. The customer will tap on the yes catch and interface by means of the email. The sign in page will appear at a substitute tab. The client will get an OTP in the telephone number and will include that telephone number in the page (Brocke et al., 2014). The check of telephone number is completely related to selection using telephone number.

TO-BE Model

Reserve a Room: The reservation of room will be done simply after installment is finished. On the off chance that another client books a similar room around the same time before another customer, the room will be inaccessible. The customer can decide for how long a room will be reserved (Jeston, 2014). After the installment, the lodging proprietor will get a warning and book the acknowledge ask for and educate booking.com.

Search Flight: The customer can search for flights from a specific city to other. The customer will enter the flight date and number of explorers and class make. After all of the purposes of intrigue are entered, the customer will tap on the interest get.

Disadvantages of AS-IS Process: The ebb and flow process pursues the regular web procedures, for example, long enlistment process, tedious inquiry choices and some more. The clients will see the elements of the website when they will get to the website. In the old procedure, the client needed to explore to the coveted capacity present in various pages. The client will have the capacity to distinguish wanted alternatives that website offers, for example, room booking and flight booking. In regular enrollment process, the client needed to give every one of the subtle elements (Rosemann & vom Brocke, 2015). The points of interest is comprising of individual subtle elements, password and username. The looking alternative is likewise extremely old. The client need to tap on the inquiry catch each time they need to refresh look or scan for first the first run through. The advanced looking choices refresh the list items with each field refresh.

With the true objective to develop the model, a start and finish events has been executed. The customer will get to the site; it is the essential procedure. Among the pools, the messages have been used for showing process stream (Brocke et al., 2014). The particular entryway is for completing condition. For instance, the customer email may have checked or not. The going with procedures will depend upon the result of the condition.

TO-BE:

Recommendation for Improvement: Booking.com is recommended to utilize the propelled website plan traditions for enhancing the consumer loyalty level. The registration procedure must be snappy and precise. The client must have the capacity to enroll with cell phones so client might be reached later to give individual points of interest and set other registration subtle elements. The moment booking administrations will be imparted to the client through the cell phones. The administrations will be affirmed and the receipt will be sent to the client after the registration points of interest are given later. The website must have better searching choices. The searching element is the primary component of Booking.com. The search choices must be constant and programmed. The search choice must incorporate every one of the points of interest that can be utilized for encountering propelled search forms.

Cost Benefit Analysis

Advantages of TO-BE Model: The new procedure model expresses that the client won't give every one of the subtle elements at the season of registration. This will upgrade the consumer loyalty level. In the event that the client is new then to book a flight or room may not require filling every one of the points of interest toward the start. The client can book the administration and later give every one of the subtle elements when he/she has time. The second refresh is the search choice (Vom Brocke et al., 2014). The client don't have to tap on the search catch constantly. The website will refresh the search result when the fields are refreshed. The new model has some structure precision, for example, the client might need to refresh the outcome dependent on given choices or channels.

Cost Benefit Analysis:

QUANTITATIVE COSTS

Investment

Total ($000s)

Non-Recurring Costs

Hardware

Servers

1000

1000

Peripherals/Data centre equipment

1200

1200

Desktop (incremental due to project)

3000

3000

Telecommunication equipment

1000

1000

Software (packaged or custom)

Purchase

1200

1200

Facilities

Computer room upgrades

1400

1400

Furniture and fixtures

2000

2000

Other

300

300

Project organizational/support costs

Planning (upon approval)

1000

1000

Procurement

2000

2000

Contract negotiations

300

300

Labour

Infrastructure

3000

3000

Development

12000

12000

Business Process owners (users)

2000

2000

Management

1000

1000

Other labour

700

700

Other

Training of employees (pre-implementation)

1000

1000

Transition costs (parallel systems)

1400

1400

Post implementation reviews

400

400

Total Non-Recurring Costs

35900

35900

Recurring Costs

Hardware/Software

Software maintenance and upgrades

2500

2500

Computer supplies

3000

3000

Desktops (incremental to the project)

1300

1300

Help Desk support

2000

2000

Ongoing Additional Labour

IT staff costs (incl. benefits)

5000

5000

User training

500

500

Other

Telecommunications

500

500

Office leases

0

0

Total Recurring Costs

14800

14800

Total Costs

50700

50700

QUANTITATIVE BENEFITS

Year 1 ($000s)

Total ($000s)

Revenues

(Enter revenue here)

50000

50000

43000

43000

36000

36000

Total Revenues

129000

129000

Cost Savings

Decreased cost of services provided

5000

5000

Savings from Business process improvements

23000

23000

Productivity gains

15000

15000

Savings from structural changes

8000

8000

Savings from optimized information (or flow)

10000

10000

Decreased information publishing cost

2000

2000

Reduced staffing cost (incl. overtime)

7000

7000

Reduced staff turnover costs

3000

3000

Total Cost Savings

73000

73000

Cost Avoidance

(Enter Cost Avoidance Here)

20000

20000

0

0

Total Cost Avoidance

20000

20000

Other Benefits

(Enter Other Benefits Here)

5000

5000

0

0

Total Other Benefits

5000

5000

Total Benefits

227000

227000

Quantitative Analysis

Year 1 ($000s)

Total ($000s)

Cost Savings

73000

73000

Cost Avoidance

20000

20000

Revenue

129000

129000

Other

5000

5000

Total Benefits

227000

227000

Non-Recurring

35900

35900

Recurring

14800

14800

Total Costs

50700

50700

Net Benefit or Cost

176300

176300

Present Value of Total Benefits:  

$2,16,190.48

Present Value of Total Costs:

$48,285.71

Net Present Value

$1,67,904.76

It has been identified in Part A that there is requirement to improve existing business process within the online business “Booking.com”. The business is facing many difficulties and issues while managing their business operations. Hence, it has been determined that the existing business process should be improved with the help of some business improvement methodologies as mentioned in the below section.

Six Sigma

It was being introduced for minimizing the difference, drawbacks and the inadequacies with business process of an organization. It is termed as the consistent process that is related problem solving and aims to make improvements in the business processes. There are mainly five stages involved in this process that is:

1) Identification and qualification of issues

2) Performance measurement of the various departments within the organization

3) Analysis of the problems such as data and basic issues

4) Enhancement in the error counts and defects

5) Monitoring of process for ensuring sustainability of the process improvement

This method for process improvement provides mixed results hence, it is determined that the organization will be satisfied by implementing it for improving their business process. Although there are some drawbacks of this method as it does considers the involvement of customers or vendors.  

It is a process that comprises of constantly analyzing and measuring the existing business processes within the organization as compared to the processes being followed by competitive business. For attaining information, this method can be adapted by the organization so that evaluation and implementation of the best procedure for making process improvements. It is categorized into different types that is internal and external, competitive and generic benchmarking. The first organization to adapt benchmarking as tool for process improvement is Xerox.

Quantitative Analysis

The core objective of this method is to attain comprehensive improvement for the existing business processes within the organization. This method is termed as the process which is used for elementary rethinking and foundational redesigning of the business processes within the organization. It eventually enables the organization to attain the desired improvements in the business process of organization. The process improvement can be achieved through the calculation or estimation of costs in terms of quality of services or products such that the demands of the customers can be fulfilled. The main motive of this method is analyzing the existing business process so that an improved method could be applied rather than just modifying the existing business process. This method is target oriented and well defined procedure that involves cross questioning of hypothesis.

This method is considered as an effective tool for enhancing process improvement within an organization. It is termed as a technique that is developed for highlighting the correlation between the activities within the organization, statistics as well as fair intentions. It is divided into different types that is:

  1. Value added process mapping – It aims at inspecting the value added activities and the contribution of them towards the existing business process.
  2. Cross functional / process interaction map: It aims to reflect the actions taken by different undertaking and correlation between them.

This method highlights vital aspects such as resource utilization, obstructions, malfunctioning along with unnecessary measures then analyses the problems from the originating point.

The evaluation of the “To-Be” in terms of checking whether it can be converted to “Should Be” is provided as below:

  • The organization is increasing its target market and it focuses on young and old age groups such that the sales can be increased. The business process demonstrates that there are some essential procedures followed for booking of services.
  • The display of hotels and flights at a same place under one platform will help the customers to get all the required information. The customers get a chance to avail the required services without the need to visiting different sites.
  • The advertising campaigns or proper marketing strategies will help to attract more customers thus reducing the overhead cost and time required for involving with customers.
  • The business of the competitors should be analyzed properly to determine the required improvements in the business process. BPR can implemented within the organization to ensure that there is ample scope of implementing process improvement within the organization.

Hence, from the overall analysis it has been identified that the “To-Be” can be the “Should Be” as the process improvement within the organization could be achieved only through implementation of the “To-Be” process. The proposed business process will help to achieve the desired goals and objectives of the organization. The improvements can be in line with the business strategy or goals with the adoption of proposed business process.

From the analysis of Business Process Management approach it’s defined that its governance is referred to as a proactive, competent and a rapid development of process sets including sub processes. This is the process through which business organizations can efficiently deliver values to its consumers and other stakeholders.

Five different key elements of BPM are elaborated in the below section:

Measurement: Measurement of business process is one of the fundamental aspects of business organizations. It may happen that various actions are been taken but the process performance measurement approach is not adopted to give proper response to the measurements then that will never be identified as the process management. Therefore, it can be said that without proper agreed process management the entire concept of Business Process Management governance will be a completely meaningless approach.

Ownership: In order to successfully evaluate any process the organizations are required to appoint process owners respectively.  Starting from the top management of hierarchy for the all management stage process owners are required to be assigned to make sure that the requirement if that specific stage is meeting its objectives and goals. Again for other sub processes it may possible that specific process owners are allotted. The process owners are responsible to control and monitor all the processes accordingly. Though, sub process ownership may not be needed each time. All the intra functional processes are required to be managed by the process owners. The process ownership is materially different to the functional management while the processes are cross functional in nature.

Accountability: The role of process owners are about leadership but not regarding professional administration. On the other hand, this is not a clerical position. In order to response to the recent as well as forecast performance measurement data process accountability is very much crucial. For each part of the processes the cross functional processes owners act as the functional managers. The process owners are required to have a high experience which implies that they will have authority, capability as well as resources.

Control: Control is one of the most difficult actions for successful Business process management approach.  There should be an accurate balance between the collaborative leaders and process policies. The main things that are to be controlled include modeling conventions, process model change control etc. With valuable resource utilization the repository shapes can meet the detailed enterprise process architecture. The change control needed over the business processes also become easier with professional control approaches. Therefore, the process owners are needed to be involved with the formal improvement of the process changed. Not only this but, also continuous change management also become possible with the successful implementation of BPM.

Support: The process owners associated to business processes are also needed to be supportive enough. Professional process management needs a different mindset and the project team members should never assume that the process owners arrive as fully formed professionals. However, the BPM governance will be interrupted if any kind of inconsistent support is determined by the authority.

From the overall analysis of governance process for BPM change, it has been identified that a proper governance process will help to achieve process improvement.

The processes that will be followed to ensure the involvement of stakeholders in both process and technology change are provided as below:

Sponsorship: It should be ensured that sponsorship for the change is arranged well in advance prior to implementation of the change. The scope and context to the engagement will made clear to the stakeholders so that they assure involvement at every stage during the change.

Involvement: Right person will be involved for designing and implementation of the changes to ensure that right change is being made and it is effective. The stakeholders will be made aware about the requirement of their participation in the change.

Impact: The impact will be assessed and evaluated in context to the change so that stakeholders assure their participation throughout the change process.

Communication: The stakeholders will updated and communicated with process for change and the benefits that will be achieved on a regular basis to ensure success of the change.

Responsibilities: It will be ensured that every person involved with the change process within the organization are aware of their roles and responsibilities.

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