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Synthesis is the process of creating a new idea by analyzing multiple disparate concepts or notions to discern the common thematic or connecting principles among them. Synthesis of research is a process learned through time and practice. In this assignment, you will engage in the first parts of the synthesis process: annotating and outlining.

General Requirements:

Use the following information to ensure successful completion of the assignment:

  • Review the journal articles assigned in Topics 5 and 6 (attached References/Bibliography) of this course (attached).
  • This assignment uses a rubric (attached Excel file for reading/follow). Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
  • Doctoral learners are required to use APAstyle for their writing assignments. The APA Style Guide is located in the Student Success Center.
  • Refer to the resource, "Preparing Annotated Bibliographies," located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on completing this assignment in the appropriate style.
  • Refer to the resource, "Annotated_Template_To_Use," attached to this assignment.

Directions:

Provide an annotated bibliography (750-1,000 words total) of at least five of the assigned journal articles for Topics 5 and 6. Including the following for each article:

  1. The article citation.
  2. A written summary of the key concept(s) of the article. Consider the following questions: Why was the study done What was the population studied What did the researcher(s) conclude What other information about this study do you believe is unique or important to recall Are there specific statements made by the author that you wish to retain

Construct an outline for a paper that will analyze a social concern through the lens of behaviorism. You will choose a social concern (example -  climate change, prejudice/discrimination, women's rights, terrorism, education, homelessness, etc.) and analyze it through a behavioral framework. What solutions can behaviorism offer What limitations exist in a behavioral interpretation of the problem.

General Requirements

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life's domains. Canadian Psychology, 49(1), 14-23. Retrieved from https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/docview/220818810?accountid=7374

Deci is a psychology professor at Rochester University and credited for his works on the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and basic psychological needs. On the other hand, Ryan is a psychology professor in Australia and the same time a research professor at Rochester. The two scholars are known for their contribution to developing the self-determination theory for motivation and personality. They are known for different other publications that they have individually done in the field of psychology.

This work builds is a follow up on the theory of self-determination that the two authors developed to understand the differences between autonomous motivation and controlled motivation. According to them, previous theories have regarded motivation as a unitary concept varying primarily in amount, which means that more motivation yields more results.

However, their theory people are self-motivated and active, eager and vital, curious and interested to achieve success. The work distinguished intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, analyses autonomous and controlled motivation by focusing on its consequences, and lastly studies the concept of autonomy and how it applies to different contexts. The outcome is a differentiation of autonomous motivation comprising of intrinsic motivation and well-internalized extrinsic motivation as a result of controlled motivation with external and interjected regulation.

Graham, S., & Weiner, B. (2012). Motivation: Past, present, and future. In K. R. Harris, S. Graham, T. Urdan, C. B. McCormick, G. M. Sinatra, J. Sweller (Eds.) , APA educational psychology handbook, Vol 1: Theories, constructs, and critical issues (pp. 367-397). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/13273-013 retrieved from https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2011-11701-013&site=ehost-live&scope=site 

Graham is an education of professor at the University of California with interests in academic research and social development. Weiner is a scholar of social psychology and is credited for his works on attribution theory that focusses on how emotions and motivation affect academic success. His role was to find differences in people’s achievement needs to understand the issues that they face.

When the competencies of the two scholars are put together, the outcome is the best match that represents education attainment research. The resource addresses the contributions of psychologists in understanding the concept of motivation. This is an analysis of the behaviour patterns of people and the reasons why they behave the way they behave by finding the reasons that direct, sustain and energize their behaviour.

Directions

By studying achievement behaviour as a sequence of initiated, directed and sustained behaviour that is eventually terminated, individuals choose certain patterns of behaviour that enable them to work on the required activities. To make the reader understand the topic well, the authors provide a historical overview that differentiates between motivation and learning. This is followed by a presentation of the contemporary approaches to motivation based on grand theories presented by other researchers. This chapter is limited by the fact that there are challenges in tracing the paths from grand theories to contemporary research since there are no clearly marked paths to follow when reviewing literature. However, the resource offers an on the general issues revolving around motivation research.

Mischel, W., & Shoda, Y. (1995). A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Re-conceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure. Psychological Review, 102(2), 246-268. Retrieved from https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=pdh&AN=1995-25136-001&site=ehost-live&scope=site

This article is traced back to the works of Mischel Walter where he argues that most empirical studies do not focuss on the fundamental assumptions that personality theory is established on. Mischel is a professor of human letters in Columbia University while Yuichi Shoda is a Japanese psychologist with contributions in cognitive-affective personality system theory. The article proposes a cognitive-affective theory of personality and the variability of behaviour. The article uses empirical evidence for intra-individual stability and revisits the paradox of classic personality to develop the new theory. In the new theory, the authors included the role of events, situations and context that exist in both the internal and external environment to develop the theory.

This new theory suggests that there are individual differences essential for the personality system. The new theory proposes that individuals differ inaccessibility to the cognitive-mediating units, how the relationships within which these units are organized and interact with each other. Therefore, the theory accounts for any differences that lead to predictable patterns of variability across various situations. This theory proposes a new way of understanding psychology and the issues that revolve around personality. The strength of this new theory is that the goals of dynamics and disposition do not have to be taken differently but are rather put together. The authors, therefore, propose a simpler way of studying process-structures, dynamics and personality dispositions together

Moore, J. (2013). Tutorial: Cognitive psychology as a radical behaviorist views it. The Psychological Record, 63(3), 667-680. https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=89562035&site=ehost-live&scope=site

A professional expert in psychology, behavioral Science and metaphysics, the authors are recognized as one of the erudite scholars of radical behaviorism and conceptual analysis. With further contributions to the experimental analysis of behaviour, he seeks to present cognitive psychology from a radical behaviorist point of view. The author states the philosophical differences that exist between behaviorism and cognitive psychology by justifying the explanatory differences between the two. The article traces the historical background of cognitive psychology and offers philosophical aspects of cognitive psychology.

Deci and Ryan's Understanding of Motivation: A Step in the Process of Self-actualization

This leads to an analysis of the relationship between the two concepts. From this analysis, the author concluded that cognitive psychology exists with conceptual affinities like neoliberalism and radical behaviorism. However, radical behaviorism is opposed to this conception of verbal behaviour and explanatory assumptions of cognitive psychology, neo-behaviorism, logical positivism and philosophical functionalism since psychology views behaviour differently and the way they manifest themselves. This article is useful to the study because it offers an insight into the nature of psychology and how researchers need to approach the topic.

Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2009). The path taken: Consequences of attaining intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations in post-college life. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(3), 291-306. Retrieved from  

https://www-sciencedirect- com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/science/article/pii/S0092656608001360

This study borrows from self-determination theory to understand the consequence of pursuing and attaining individual aspirations. The main focus of the study is college life and student life where students make choices and decisions based on their interests and what they want to achieve. This is because most graduates find the challenge of finding a career path when they graduate college due to failure to make proper choices in their academic and career life. Therefore, the examined the consequences of having life goals and the degree to which they achieve these goals through intrinsic and extrinsic career aspirations. The authors are scholars in in the University of Rochester specializing in the clinical and social sciences. This study is a project of the National Institute of Mental Health which funded the authors.

By drawing on the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations and the need to achieve satisfaction, the authors draw on the work of other researchers to understand the importance of attaining personal aspirations. This was followed by an analytical study that examined the hypothesis through the structural equation model for determining the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic aspiration and secondly, the use of the structural equation modelling with the Amos 6.0 variable to answer the hypothesis questions. The researcher used 246 senior students who were yet to graduate. The respondents were contacted one year after graduation from the survey with proper measures taken to admit them in time one study which focused on the importance of career aspirations. This was done using the 21 item basic psychological need satisfaction scale-general.

The findings indicated the importance of attaining intrinsic and extrinsic career aspirations. This reveals the role of broader psychology an individual lives and how it can be used to achieve career aspirations. However, the study was limited by the nature of the data gathered which was a result of self-reported measures, secondly, most respondents were Caucasian Americans thus limiting the diversity of the study and lastly, the findings were correlational thus limiting the conclusion. However, the study concluded that supportive context needs to be established for intrinsic aspirations to improve psychological health.

References

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life's domains. Canadian Psychology, 49(1), 14-23. Retrieved from https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/docview/220818810?accountid=7374

Graham, S., & Weiner, B. (2012). Motivation: Past, present, and future. In K. R. Harris, S. Graham, T. Urdan, C. B. McCormick, G. M. Sinatra, J. Sweller (Eds.) , APA educational psychology handbook, Vol 1: Theories, constructs, and critical issues (pp. 367-397). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/13273-013 retrieved from https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2011-11701-013&site=ehost-live&scope=site 

Mischel, W., & Shoda, Y. (1995). A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Re-conceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure. Psychological Review, 102(2), 246-268. Retrieved from https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=pdh&AN=1995-25136-001&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Moore, J. (2013). Tutorial: Cognitive psychology as a radical behaviorist views it. The Psychological Record, 63(3), 667-680. https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=89562035&site=ehost-live&scope=site 

Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2009). The path taken: Consequences of attaining intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations in post-college life. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(3), 291-306. Retrieved from  https://www-sciencedirect-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/science/article/pii/S0092656608001360

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