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Discuss about the Social Work Climate Change And Global Cooperation.

Change in precipitation, Sea level, Humidity, Wind and Temperature factors in Melbourne

Climate change is one of the changes that happen for long-term cases and statistical priorities will be changed at for this reason. There are some extreme cases when the climate changes radically, rather human is also responsible for some of the reasons. All the reasons are directly or indirectly associated with the people (Barnett et al. 2015). Natural resources like Sun's radiation, volcanoes, the composition of the use of land use, or the energy imbalance situation in the earth, or the atmospheric change due to greenhouse gases all these are important for the climatic change in any region. In this report, the concerned area of discussion will be Melbourne.

The principles of Climate Change Adaptation Strategy Refresh 2017 project are leadership, innovation, knowledge sharing, and multiple benefits, build a partnership (Melbourne.vic.gov.au 2017). The major goals are green spaces for the municipality, urban renewal projects, and culturally diverse community system, improve and defend the diverse economy of the city, capabilities and expertise of the city.

The average level of precipitation in Melbourne is around 650mm, which is less wet than Sydney. Australia is one of the countries that encounter low average rainfall of 419mm and for that is the reason the rainfall trending map shows that declining amount of rain in cities. April is the only month when most rainfall happen in Melbourne. The recorded rainfall was in 1960 was 172mm in three days. On the other hand, April month was considered as the rainless month in the calendar in 1923 (Melbourne.vic.gov.au 2017). This is the change in climate that the month as well as the city encounters. The general rainfall aspect in Melbourne is unpredicted and most of the times it comes during the afternoon. There is a cloudy and windy situation and chances of rain will be 10% to 70% (Ozcoasts.gov.au 2018).

The process of sea level determination is not affirmative for Melbourne. Rather, it shares a concern situation awaiting for the city. The HAT value (Highest Astronomical Tide) process has been tested and that states high value for Melbourne (Nursey-Bray et al. 2013). The rise in sea level in Port Phillip Bay will 0.5m, Open Coast area will 0.9m, and Western Port Bay will 1.5m. This is the current situation that evaluates the flood fear in quick time (Prior and Eriksen 2013). Three sea level rise scenario of 0.5m, 0.8m and 1.1m will cause a big storm in 2100 and even some areas will be flooded. At east, Melbourne, Lara, Cario, Breamlea, North Shore, Geelong, Avalon all these areas are under threat.

Water supplies, Food supplies and Refugee movement in Melbourne

The place will experience 35º Celsius by 2030 and the process will last for 2050. The reason behind that change is globalisation. The top end of the land gain huge temperature and the mean temperature has increased by that process (Ozcoasts.gov.au 2018). Most of the cities in Australia are valuable for their tourism purposes but the essence is missing due to that humidity and temperature change. The average temperature of the city is 14º Celsius and thunder and showers are there but that is in a normal range (Alston 2015). Evaluating the range from December 2017 to February 2018, the highest average temperature is 27º and the minimum will be 13º Celsius (Ozcoasts.gov.au 2018). Windy nature is persisted in the city and in between 25kh/hr, the speed of the wind measured. 20.4 km/h gusts and 13 km/h NNE is the trending nature of wind (Melbourne.vic.gov.au 2017).

Water supplies are one of the government-owned statutory authority, which control the entire water system of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia and different reservoirs around the nation. Greenvale Reservoir has the capacity of 27,000 megalitres of water and the establishment is necessary for western suburbs in summer (Melbournewater.com.au 2018). On the other hand, Cardinia Reservoir was started in 1969 and it filled with 287,000 megalitre capacity. The entire Melbourne storage at that time was 610,000 mega litres (Melbournewater.com.au 2018). Some highest quality drinking water has available in Melbourne. The supply network is associated with

  • 156, 700 hectares of catchments
  • 2 major treatment plants
  • 38 service reservoirs
  • 12 minor treatment plants (Melbournewater.com.au 2018)
  • 10 storage reservoirs

Some of the protected and open catchments are there in Melbourne and this is protected. 90,810 hectares of national park outlined by the Melbourne water and 2,109 hectares of private land is available in case of safeguard activities (Melbournewater.com.au 2018). The Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011, was developed by the National Health and Medical Research Council and the process is added for the bulk water supply that is drinkable for living beings (Melbournewater.com.au 2018).  

Metropolitan food services provide quality food for the city. The international quality maintenance is the key approach in that Melbourne tried to cope up with and ensure the quality of food through distribution (Graham et al. 2012). Bulk food supply, packaging, organic goodies and healthy appetites are the main reason that people cherish the food quality of Australia (Melbourne.vic.gov.au 2017). Freshness and quality is the concern internal procedure that delivers the best product outline for the marketplace. Convenience and variety is another option for food and through online ordering process most reliable approach of supply chain management has evolved (Jamieson 2014). The networking is formulated by a single chain and the process of intensive and extensive diverse factors are aligned with the process (Melbourne.vic.gov.au 2017). The competitive pricing process is another core strategy that enhances the food business in Melbourne. Offering best quality foods at an affordable price is the main concern of this process.

Climate change projections in Melbourne

Refugee development is one of the important programmes that the Australian government has done and Melbourne is the major contributor to this programme. Projects like “Melbourne Refugees Studies Program (MRSP)" is the important aspect of project that initiated for the refugees. This is the reason, people from other countries will come in Australia and have their space in this nation. These are the collective programme that provides commitment and facilities to all the refugees accumulated there. There are some border engagements and people from different place enter the nation. Thus, effective policies are important in that case (Melbourne.vic.gov.au 2017). There are some reasons, where in extreme conditions people in Australia go for some other places. This will be a reason that can be projected soon in Melbourne and in 2030 the climatic condition will be responsible for that. There are some features that has been already taken by the city government like the deep exercise of schooling those children and community border projects, where better schooling has provided to refugees. The social movements are important enough in Melbourne and "Refugee Week" is one of the enhance processes of that (Moser 2014). The change in climate will be major reason that encounter in 2030, 2050 or even after, however the developmental initiative taken by the people or the government to ensure better climate is the possible way that will be good for refugees as well.

In case of a projected change in climate temperature, rainfall, cyclones, storms, heat waves all these are important factors. Through the factors, most of the changes are notified in climate and social life will be changed by that process (Guy et al. 2014). Coastal areas will slightly less warming (0.7-0.9 degree Celsius) whereas inland of Australia will encounter greater warming experience in 2030. In 2050 the percentage will be greater and have 550 PPM stabilisation process and no migration situation persists (Garnautreview.org.au 2018). In North-West Australia, 4.9 degree Celsius another increment of temperature will be found in 2100 and the process is not good for the sociological perspective of the nation.

In case of rainfall, -3.5mm rainfall will happen in Melbourne. The decrease in precipitation signifies the topographic change and potential change in climatic existence. The change will be the reason for the mitigation process and in 2050 the less number will be -11.5mm and that become the actual reason for the drought situation (Garnautreview.org.au 2018). -19.0mm decrease in rainfall will be in 2100 and that will be the drastic situation for the nation as well (Garnautreview.org.au 2018). The wet outcome will increase by 5.1 in 2100 and rainfall pattern is the major process in that case.


In case of storms and cyclones intensity, 44% increase through 3 or 5 cyclic reasons will be occurred and this indicates 60% of total intensity will rise in 2030 which will be furthermore increased  to 110% in 2050 (Garnautreview.org.au 2018). The model of the cyclone and their latitudinal factors are important in this case and the factors of globalisation harm the process (Morzaria-Luna et al. 2014). Due to the heat waves, the rate of mitigation will increase and that will not a good aspect for Melbourne. The current mitigation process shows it 9 as status, but in 2030 the process increased by 12 and in 2050 the range will raise up to 18 and in 2100 the highest mark of activity will be noticed, it signifies 27.

Conclusion

Therefore it is concluded that change in climate is not a considerable thing for any city. Melbourne is one of the growing city in Australia as well as in the world. The change in the extreme condition of temperature will change along with rainfall, wind, pressure, and humidity. Thus, these factors are important when issue of climatic change is considered for Melbourne. Climate adaptation strategy has already been taken by the city so the process of sharing climatic condition and diversified change in the city has been noticed in this paper. Water supply, food and refuge movement along with the climatic change projection shows the situation of the city and that will be tough for the existence of the city. The changes in the city in case of climate will be worse. 2030, 2050 and 2100 are the three projections that was discussed in this paper and in every level of year the situation will be worst for Melbourne.

References

Alston, M., 2015. Social work, climate change and global cooperation. International Social Work, 58(3), pp.355-363.

Barnett, J., Evans, L.S., Gross, C., Kiem, A.S., Kingsford, R.T., Palutikof, J.P., Pickering, C.M. and Smithers, S.G., 2015. From barriers to limits to climate change adaptation: path dependency and the speed of change. Ecology and Society, 20(3).

Cairns, G., Ahmed, I., Mullett, J. and Wright, G., 2013. Scenario method and stakeholder engagement: critical reflections on a climate change scenarios case study. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 80(1), pp.1-10.

Garnautreview.org.au 2018 Projecting Australian climate change retrieved from: https://www.garnautreview.org.au/pdf/Garnaut_Chapter5.pdf [Accessed on 29th August, 2018]

Graham, S., Barnett, J., Fincher, R., Hurlimann, A., Mortreux, C. and Waters, E., 2013. The social values at risk from sea-level rise. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 41, pp.45-52.

Guy, S., Kashima, Y., Walker, I. and O'Neill, S., 2014. Investigating the effects of knowledge and ideology on climate change beliefs. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44(5), pp.421-429.

Jamieson, D., 2014. Reason in a dark time: why the struggle against climate change failed--and what it means for our future. Oxford University Press.

Melbourne.vic.gov.au 2017 Adapting to climate change retrieved from: https://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/about-council/vision-goals/eco-city/Pages/climate-change-adaptation-strategy.aspx [Accessed on 28th August, 2018]

Melbourne.vic.gov.au 2017 Climate Change Adaptation Strategy retrieved from: https://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/about-council/vision-goals/eco-city/Pages/climate-change-adaptation-strategy.aspx [Accessed on 29th August, 2018]

Melbournewater.com.au 2018 Water Quality retrieved from: https://www.melbournewater.com.au/community-and-education/about-our-water/water-supply/water-quality [Accessed on 29th August, 2018]

Morzaria-Luna, H.N., Turk-Boyer, P. and Moreno-Baez, M., 2014. Social indicators of vulnerability for fishing communities in the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico: implications for climate change. Marine Policy, 45, pp.182-193.

Moser, S.C., 2014. Communicating adaptation to climate change: the art and science of public engagement when climate change comes home. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 5(3), pp.337-358.

Nursey-Bray, M., Blackwell, B., Brooks, B., Campbell, M.L., Goldsworthy, L., Pateman, H., Rodrigues, I., Roome, M., Wright, J.T., Francis, J. and Hewitt, C.L., 2013. Vulnerabilities and adaptation of ports to climate change. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 56(7), pp.1021-1045.

Ozcoasts.gov.au 2018 Melbourne region retrieved from: https://www.ozcoasts.gov.au/climate/Map_images/Melbourne/mapLevel2_West.jsp [Accessed on 28th August, 2018]

Prior, T. and Eriksen, C., 2013. Wildfire preparedness, community cohesion and social–ecological systems. Global Environmental Change, 23(6), pp.1575-1586.

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