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History of TQM

1. Discuss the strategies used to manage quality within an event

2. Evaluate how management within staffing will differ in an event

3. Present finding effectively through a variety of techniques

4. Analytically interpret data in quantitative and qualitative forms to manage the quality of an event.

Total Quality Management refers to the continuous efforts directed towards process improvement that involves every entity in a business organisation. This is done to optimise overall performance at every level through the attainment of cross-functional goals such as reducing cost, increasing sustainability, and improving quality and service (Rao, 1996). TQM is the consolidation of systematic management techniques and tools with concurrent efforts towards overall improvement, in a disciplinary way that mainly focuses on increasingly satisfying customers. While total quality implementation methods for each company are influenced by its unique operational environment, distinct opportunities and challenges, there are common features in their quality management systems. These features include a corporate focus on internal and external customer orientation, continuous improvement, business process control, organisation wide preventive management, ongoing preventive activities and positive leadership and teamwork (Peratec Ltd, 2012). The aim of this paper is to discuss the history of total quality management and evaluate the impacts that successful implementation of total employee commitment and staff training and development at Q Hotels Group by comparing with examples on good practices in this regard from Hilton Worldwide and the Walt Disney Company.

The concept of total quality management first originated in the description of the Japanese inspired management approach adopted by the Navy Systems Command for quality improvement (Klock, 2004). TQM has developed over the years through several different theories that guide its practices, which are as follows:

Deming's theory of Total Quality Management includes fourteen points of quality management (SkyMark, 2016) which he identified as the creation of constancy in the purpose improving products and services; adopting a new philosophy; ceasing the dependence on inspection to attain quality, ending the policy of awarding business based on price; instead, reduce total cost by engaging a single supplier; constantly improve every process related to planning, production and service; implementing on-the-job training; instituting leadership; driving out fear; breaking down communication barriers between staff and departments; eliminating slogans, exhortations and targets for the employees; eliminating numerical quotas and goals for all employees; removing factors that negatively affect the pride of workmanship; eliminating annual rating /merit systems; implement an environment of self-improvement for employees; and involving every employee in the accomplishment of transformation. (See Appendix 1); the system of profound knowledge consisting of system appreciation, variation knowledge, knowledge theory and psychology theory; and the PDCA Cycle i.e., Plan-Do-Check-Act (See Appendix 2). He propounded that focusing on costs results in deterioration of quality, which can be tweaked through awareness about the different types of knowledge associated with an organisation.

Deming’s 14 Point Theory

Hygiene factors such as remuneration, administrative policies of the organisation, additional fringe benefits, tangible working conditions, and job security are extrinsic to work adequately pacify employees and do not make them dissatisfied (Miner, 2005). According to Herzberg, motivational factors such as recognition at place of work, a sense of achievement in the workplace, opportunities for growth and promotion, and increased responsibilities are essential, satisfy the employees and motivate them to perform even better.

Maslow Hierarchical theory can be applied to the methods in which organisations treat and engage with their staff (See Appendix 3). The most basic need for survival stems from having a sense of financial independence, followed by job security that provides a sense of stability in the volatile job market. The next type of needs is a sense of belonging which is achieved by holding trust and acceptance within a work group. This leads to importance, which is gained a feeling of significance and affinity towards the paymasters. The final need of self-actualization is met when employees have access to opportunities within the job (Scan Capture, 2016).  Meeting these needs within the organisation will allow the staff to be successful in their work and strive towards becoming a useful resource for the organisation.

Benchmarking involves the examination processes used by external organisations of a particular business to achieve their performance levels (Sweis, et al., 2016). Companies can benchmark business procedures of other organisations with their own existing processes, and implementing the necessary policies to eliminate performance gaps to facilitate improved performance in key areas of the business.

Kurt Lewin change theory model consists of a 3-step process i.e., Unfreeze, Change, Refreeze, that denotes a framework for change management (See Appendix 4). This model can help the management in making extraordinary changes, minimise the operational disruptions within the organisation, and ensure that the implemented change is permanent and irreversible (Burnes, 2004).

Most organisations in the events sector provide services, which are experienced by consumers, and are often categorised by various subjective perceptions. The intangible nature of services makes quality difficult to define, but can include responsiveness to customer needs, promptness in resolving complaints, courtesy and friendliness of staff, and the service atmosphere. The main areas posing challenges in the events industry are factors like the amount of waiting time and consistency of the service.

Q Hotels offers 300 conference and meeting rooms which have the capacity to host large events such as board meetings, exhibitions and weddings (The QHotels Group, 2016). Total quality management represents a systematic way of managing an organisation's results (Koller, 1995), and the implementation of a systematic TQM approach in Q Hotels Group will require the adoption and development of various managerial processes, for improving service quality of its 26 hotels.

Herzberg’s Employee Motivation-Hygiene Theory

The implementation of the continuous quality improvement in Q Hotels will start with the outlining of quality goals for customer service, and the identification of the target group of customers and their needs and wants (Ross & Perry, 1999). Next, the features of the service and the processes that produce these services needs to recognise. Finally, process controls have to be established and transferred to the operations stage.

Providing staff training and development in the at the appropriate time helps develop needed job skills and accelerate awareness regarding TQM effort within the organisation (Owoyemi, et al., 2011). It also aids in providing experience in the techniques necessary to make TQM a part of the employee's day-to-day work life. Comprehensive, intensive, and continuous staff training and development results in permanent quality improvements.

The management needs to first establish the objectives to be followed in designing the training programs that will assist in attaining permanent improvement in all activities. An ideal staff training and development program for Q Hotels will consist of three basic areas as per the use of total quality management tools. These include training in communication skills, providing superior quality service to customers and techniques for problem-solving, which will enable the training aimed at improving business processes. Centring the training programmed on the basic principles of understanding the organisational processes and the relationship between different processes and will lead to the eventual improvement of these processes.

The implementation of staff training and development should be done at Q Hotels Group by first collecting data will the help of a checklist regarding the gaps in the existing training programs (See Appendix 5). A subsequent Pareto chart will help the training and development department identify problems which are preventing the organisation from delivering professional quality and customer friendly services to meet and exceed customer expectations (See Exhibit 6). This will also enable the management to refer to the checklist to understand the changes that have been incorporated in the system and whether they have brought permanent improvement in the organisation. Positive training and development measures within the hotel will enable the staff to deliver better customer services, through error-free interactions with customers. This will result in fewer complaints which will lead to increased market share, increased customer loyalty and reduced cost through lesser resource allocation for customer grievance handling.

Q Hotels group can benchmark their staff training and development efforts against the existing best practices at Hilton Worldwide, which has earned an ISO 9001 certification for its advancements in total quality management systems (Carman, 2011). Some of these innovative and advanced training policies include:

Maslow Hierarchical Staffing Model

To align training and development activities with each of Hilton World wide’s brands in their diverse portfolio, their regional level training manager’s work in close connection with each property. Hilton Management Services, associates with the human resources department, to deliver training on recruiting, employment relations, collective bargaining agreements and employment law (Hilton Worldwide, 2016). Hilton’s management services also offers a library with specialised texts on hotel training and uses updated human resources systems such as People Soft and Success Factors for recruitment, training and retention its talented staff.

Hilton Worldwide utilises an advanced technology for staff training and development , known as Ultimate Team Play, which upholds their commitment to delivering superior customer service. The training is in the form of an interactive, 3-D, graphically-intense, first-person video game customized by Virtual Heroes, Inc for Hilton Worldwide. (Wire, 2008).

Hilton Worldwide tied up with eCornell to widen opportunities for employee participation in online, instructor-led training in hospitality management, strategic leadership and revenue management to senior executives and general managers. The social aspect increased of collaborative learning effectively engages employees and increases the average rate of course completion. The programs also delivered measurable results and drive employee performance. The eCornell courses are self-paced and facilitated by an instructor to help learners through challenging, exercises with practical and real-world applications. (Hipwell, 2012).

Total employee commitment through teamwork drives improvement efforts through the application of diverse skills and experience to business processes and problem solving. An atmosphere of teamwork within the organisation positively impacts formal team efforts and allows all individuals to cooperate and participate in that effort. Encouraging teamwork within natural working groups will motivate employees to focus on the objective of continuous improvement of the processes through total commitment.

The management can utilise a teamwork approach for problem solving and reach the root cause of low service standards. In order to understand different staff related potential causes for fall in customer service ideas a cause and effect diagram can be utilised by Q Hotels (See Exhibit 7). This needs to be followed up with the team’s brainstorming to encourage lateral thinking regarding processes, facts, feelings, creativity, benefits and cautions through the use of a 6 thinking hats approach (See Exhibit 8). Since employees will be empowered to determining what the problem areas are, they will also be able to come up with a robust solution that involves inter-departmental teamwork and commitment.

Total employee commitment can be described involvement of staff in the managerial functions at an increased level, through employee empowerment and engagement. Engaged employees value the job that they are assigned and are willing to provide assistance to co-workers, eager to take up more job responsibility, motivated to increase their productivity and believe in freely sharing knowledge and information with colleagues (Njie, et al., 2008). Although the most essential factor of employee commitment efforts is on programs that encourage teamwork, nonfinancial rewards and surveying employee opinions, it is important to note that egalitarian pay structures are also related to increased employee involvement, engagement and satisfaction (Scott & McMullen, 2010). Total employee commitment and cooperation is associated with overall organisational performance and achievement of corporate goals. The participation of employee’s totals quality management can lead to a positive impact on job satisfaction and overall morale. This also reduces the turnover rate and subsequent cost acquiring and developing a new workforce.

Benchmarking Theory

Q Hotels group can benchmark their total employee commitment efforts against the existing best practices at the Walt Disney Company uses an innovative vision of creating the world’s happiest place, to motivate employees to achieve newer heights of customer satisfaction. Through this form of employee engagement, special focus is given on the role of employees in good quality service delivery. Employees are looked upon as the most important resource in the organisation and, with every staff member being titled cast members, regardless of their job roles. Employees receive extensively trained in communication and teamwork to achieve systematic total quality awareness. An effective administration quality is ceaselessly observed, and workers as often as possible meet in groups to assess the adequacy of their contributions. Every representative is made mindful about how the nature of their own job duties and obligations adds to the general achievement of the recreation centre.

Disney also conducts external and internal benchmarking programs, which has resulted in the implementation of an efficient appraisal system for rewarding performance of employees. Employees are not rewarded based on the seniority of their ranks, but depending on the number of individual projects undertaken (Sweis, et al., 2016).

Moreover, the nonstop quality administration is the standard technique for development helps the organization to meet the unique needs of clients through high quality of administration (Davis, 2011). Disney offers an organisational environment of innovation and design engineering organisation (IDEO), which is characterised by a non-hierarchical culture. Leadership is engaged from the top to bottom, which is supported by all the levels of their management. There are several total quality management techniques used by Disney which includes innovative design, increased communication, ongoing training, optimal production, and minimised losses. This is done through a Six Sigma programs (Pike & Barnes, 1995) which focus on the policy of integrated communication between all employees and departments within the outside the organisation. This ensures that every employee is aware of the ongoing activities within the organisation and are in tandem with ongoing organisational changes.

Conclusion

Present day customers in the events sector have high demands from hospitality companies and expect extremely high-quality services. Hospitality chains that do not prioritise continuous quality improvement might face risks in maintaining long-run sustainability. The reason for an increase in popularity of a systematic total quality management is that business firms now realise that poor service standards result in the occurrence of high costs for the organisation. Additionally, poor quality has consequences such as the creation of dissatisfied customers and the eventual loss of business. Implementation of total service quality improvement by Q Hotels such as staff training and development and total employee commitment is a modern day survival necessity. Benchmarking against best practices by organisations such as the Hilton Worldwide and the Walt Disney Company will enable Q Hotels Group to experience an overall improvement in efficiency and performance through the establishment of productive employee, better inter-staff work relations, and increased satisfaction of consumers, improved profitability and rapid growth in market share.

Kurt Lewin’s Change Model

The implementation of total quality management is different for different organisations in the events sector, even they have similar structures and functions. In this context, it is firstly recommended that Q Hotels Group thoroughly investigate the various types and tools of total quality management and adopt the procedures and changes that is appropriate  for the company. Secondly, an integrated approach to total quality management and quality assurance must be selected that positively impacts the people, processes, and physical evidence within the organisation. Thirdly, all the employees must be given clear knowledge about the total quality management tools and processes that are being adopted so that they can appreciate the changes and provide their full support by actively participate in the change themselves. Thirdly, it is important for the management to keep in mind the technical applicability and human relations factors of total quality management, which can be addressed with the help of staff training, development and empowerment effort.

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