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  • Understanding the key requirements in the design and development of a range of L&D.
  • Understanding how organisational L&D needs can be met, the application and use of a range of methods.

In this research, the researcher has taken Twin Group and its values to make diversity in UK and other countries. Twin Group involves developing relationships with the major people. Twin Group makes various policies that provide opportunity to major individuals through integrity, legislation frameworks, responsibilities and monitoring the structure on personnel data. The researcher has also taken various aspects that will lead to policies and procedures on recruitment and selection. This would be helpful in coordinating with the management through HR activities on sex race, age, disability, etc. Sustainable organisation performance can be termed as the maintenance of the of the high performance level of an organisation. The financial indicators, societal contributions, people management and environmental contributions over a long period, measure these particular levels.

It would also drive the effectiveness of organisation through models and frameworks by creating a self-assessment workshop and giving a good approval among the customers (Yuan and Kim 2014). Hence, Twin personal appraisal would be developed with numerous opportunities, business reviews, meetings and an effective induction process on the management structure.

Twin Group is a major provider of English courses and international summer school programs organised by the British Council, offering residential and home stay accommodation for students. The British Council accredits the English courses and this provides a comprehensive study to the students seeking help in English. They provide enhanced skills while teaching English and this helps the students to gain more knowledge. On the other hand, the Twin Group also provides internal summer school programs as well as tennis and football coaching to the students of the United Kingdom. This further helps the students to develop their extracurricular skills along with their knowledge of English.

As an award winning provider of education, travel, work experience, volunteering and employment services, both in the UK and internationally, ‘ Twin is committed to helping people realise their full potential through life enhancing experiences’ (Twinuk.com, 2015).

With over 400 employees,  the company believes that people are their greatest asset and work hard to create a dynamic working environment with plenty of opportunities for personal development. Hence, L&D should be an integrated part of the company’s strategic planning, to ensure employees perform well and the organisation achieves its objectives and targets.

The company aims to provide a continuous L&D opportunities and support to their employees and students, to enable them to meet the rapidly changing demands and priorities of the company. The Management believes that L&D is crucial because:

  • the organisation can only grow, expand and develop through its employees. Hence development and retention of highly skilled workforce is essential.
  • needs employees with the appropriate levels of skills to perform their jobs. Employees will feel valued whilst having the knowledge and skills to perform adequately in their roles.
  • Needs the most effective and efficient employees to be able to survive, due to high competition and tight budget. Hence, improving employees’ performance will increase sales and customer satisfaction ratings.

Target Group

In order to achieve this aim, Twin Group believes that L&D needs should be reviewed on a regular basis and employees should be engaged in identifying their own learning needs, selecting suitable learning interventions and assessing the learning outcomes.

According to CIPD, Learning and Development (L&D) needs can be described as a gap between current and desired capability of an individual, team/department, occupation group or the organisation (CIPD, 2015).

Twin Group has identified that the L&D needs have arisen within their organisation due to:

  • new market opening, new products and services offered
  • new staff members
  • budget changes
  • high competition
  • drive for greater efficiency and HPW- High Performance Working

Twin Group operates in a niche market, where both internal and external training and development opportunities are geared towards training of:

  • Sales Representatives and Work Placement Officers who have direct contact with potential, existing and past students and customers. Their performance and sales skills have a direct impact on the company’s financial situation.
     
  • Tutors and employees who have direct face to face contact with customers and provide study materials to students enrolled onto various courses. Their knowledge and customer service skills directly influence the customer satisfaction rates.

Their immediate learning skills can have either a positive or a negative effect on the business. Therefore, it is very important for this organisation to analyse the current situation and design suitable ways for the people seeking knowledge. Proper evaluation can be done by developing solutions and implementing them to satisfy the needs of its potential customers (Engel 2013).

Figure 1: Self-assessment process of learning needs

(Source: Twin Group, HR , Department: (SAR) 2009/2010).

The sales representatives and the workplace officers need proper training to deliver best services to the customers of Twin group. They should be designed and trained properly to provide support to the learners (customers) of the Twin group.

The learning needs of the tutors are to understand the needs and demands of the students or the customers of the Twin group. The tutors should be aware the difficulties of their students and help them to overcome the problems. This will improve the performances of the students and help the company to gain reputation in the competitive market.

CIPD describes Organisational development interventions as a set of structured activities in which selected organisational units engage or set of tasks directly or indirectly leading to organisational improvement(CIPD, 2015).

Successful organisations have the capability to sustain their performance with the changing time and  take shorter decisions by relating to the long-term strategies and goals to maintain a long-term focus. It is very important to maintain coordination and integration between the long-term values of the organisation and the behavior of the employees.

According to Beevers & Rea, L&D initiatives should address the needs of the organisation but also take account of the needs of individual learners (Beevers & Rea, 2013). Every employee needs to be given the opportunity to develop throughout his/her career and live. Hence, fair and equal access to learning and development must be ensured.

How learning interventions link to organizational performance

It is believed that employee engagement leads to long-term performance of the organisations. However, it is important to understand the reasons that engage the employees. Therefore, the learning needs of the employees must be adhered to expect positive results and fruitful returns on investment.

It is further believed that effective strategies and HR policies implemented in the process of high individual performances help in motivating the individuals and provide them with the opportunity to perform better. This helps in increasing the performance of the organisation.

It is very important for any organisation to create a healthy working environment. Hence, it should adopt certain measures to implement policies of maintaining healthy and fair working conditions. This would bring together the employees of the organisation to work collectively and increase the profitability of the organisation (Arts 2013). The employees should be provided with Health & Safety and security and this would further help the organisation to increase their productivity and provide excellent services to the customers. This will be effective to make learning interventions that would operate on organisational performance (Balapure 2013).

There are many learning needs analysis (LNA) methods Twin Group could use and some of them are listed below:

Learning Needs Analysis Methods

Advantages

Disadvantages

Where most useful

Suitability (or Not) considering organisational factors, Equal Opportunities, H&S, target audience and cost effectiveness

Direct observation

Doesn’t interrupt work, can be more reliable than other sources, provides data relevant to work environment.

Time consuming, observer needs time to collate and  needs to know what he is looking for, employees’ behaviour may be affected by being observed, difficult to capture entire job cycle

When the training in about simple skills, when observer is familiar with the topic

Suitable for Tutors and Employees who have direct contact with customers, Ideal method to observe tutors and  customer service employees.

Relatively cheap as can use existing resources

Interviews of existing post holder

Provides information about attitude, Provides greater understanding of issues, uncovers details of training needs as well as causes and solutions of problems.

Time consuming for everyone involved, Interviewee may be shy to respond, interviewees only provide information they think you want to hear, needs skilled interviewer, may be difficult to schedule, possible lack of communication

When you are not familiar with the topic or area, when the training is about complex issue

Suitable for Tutors, Employees who have direct contact with customers, Sales Reps,, Work Placement Officers, Students

Inexpensive

Questionnaires and surveys

Quick, relatively easy and simple, can collate a lot of information and data from a large number of people, data can be easily summarized.

May not get important information, may luck details, possible inappropriate responses, may be difficult to understand and may not be send back,

Require time, become less useful where the employees luck verbal skills

When you know a lot about your topic and can combine them with other methods to encourage response

Suitable for Students and customers, employees and Managers.

Economical to use

Group discussions

Relatively Quick and easy, provide clear responses, useful with complex or controversial issues that one person may not be able or willing to explore

Participants may be shy and not honest in a group, others may dominate discussion, time consuming to organise,

When Team work is essential, when there is not enough time to use other more time consuming methods

Suitable for Tutors, employees, Sales Reps, Work Placement Officers, Managers, Students,

Inexpensive

Review of references

Objective,

allows to  collect a lot of factual information

May be inaccurate and out of date, need resources to obtain relevant information

When you need factual previous work related information

Suitable for every member of staff

Review of performance data

Provide an in-depth review of an employee’s performance, identify problem areas and areas on which to focus on further development

Time consuming, length and content may vary depending on evaluator’s writing abilities, narrative evaluations are difficult to compare

When you need factual previous performance related information

Suitable for Sales Reps, Work Placement officers, Management.

Job analysis including job description and job specification

Present immediate information, help in screening and hiring an appropriate person for an appropriate position, help in designing training & development programs, help in evaluation and appraisal process

Requires a lot of time and human effort, involves collecting detailed information hence information will likely be biased and not 100% accurate,

When you need to explore duties and responsibilities of a job, when you need to explore skills, education and experience needed for an individual to perform a specific job

Suitable for every member of staff

Very time consuming, hence more expensive than other methods

Skills Matrices

Simple visual tool, highly effective,  help in assessing training needs, review skills and competences required for roles within teams

Time consuming, needs reviewing and updating as teams are not permanent

When you need to explore learning needs/skill gaps  in a team

Suitable for Tutors, Sales Reps and other members of staff.

Inexpensive


E-training like computer-based coaching is best suitable because it is much cheaper than the standard classroom-based teaching. It is quite cost-effective and produces high returns on investments. It is a long-term strategy. The students have easy access to learning and it is suitable for the target groups like the tutors, sales representatives and the customer service representatives. On the other hand, internal coaching costs much less than hiring new staffs or employees. It is very cost-effective, as there are no direct costs involved in the process of internal coaching.

The management should consider using a number of different methods, because it is unlikely that any one method will provide all the necessary information. Identification of training needs should however start with the determination of skills and knowledge essential for maximum effectiveness in an organisation. Hence, Twin Group should use the:

  • Job analysis method- as it will allow the company to link the training needs with their short and long-term organisational objectives. Information gathered through a job analysis can be used for the purpose of HR planning, recruitment and selection, employee orientation, performance appraisals, training & development and Health & Safety.
     
  • This method will enable Twin to summaries duties and responsibilities of a job and determine the minimum skills, education and experience that employees need to perform a job, then match them accordingly to ensure a maximum benefit. Employees will also benefit from a job clarity and possible training opportunities which will increase their morale, commitment and job satisfaction. Furthermore, it will allow the employer to identify, assess and control potential hazards of a job and protect employees from illness and injury. Despite the considerable amount of work required, it does ensure the return on investment.
     
  • Reviewing of performance data- as it is essential to the financial success and safety of the organisation. Performance documents are a great source of actual performance related information, show strengths and weaknesses of employees and thus can be used to establish skill development and learning activities. Data should be reviewed regularly to look for trends and changes in performance, as it will allow the management to make better decisions related to promotions, pay rises, adding additional responsibilities or terminating an employee. Moreover data should be reviewed for legal purposes, to support decisions and reduce disputes.
     
  • As it is an ideal method to note the physical activities of Tutors and Customer Service Officer. It provides first hand data and reduces distortion of information.

The analysis proves that the company was in need of a proper and suitable learning method to provide a fair and equal access to the methods of learning and development. The learning methods of the company affected both the target groups and the customers. Hence, the company adopted the learning methods or the strategies to distribute access to learning and development fairly.

Learning methods and techniques

Learning needs can be met through the following methods:

  • On &off the job training
  • Qualification based training
  • Internal and external interventions
  • Sector/organisational culture e.g. values, attitudes and management support

Decisions about L&D methods however, will always be influenced by contextual factors such as costs, operational issues, time pressure and preferences of target group.

All learning methods/interventions should be applied with an aim of improving performance and some of them have been described below:

Learning methods/ interventions

Advantages

Disadvantages

Suitability (or Not) considering organisational factors, Equal Opportunities, H&S, target audience and cost effectiveness

Job shadowing

Observer is exposed to job related tasks,

 training alongside real colleague

Limits the involvement of the observer/trainee,

Effectiveness of job shadowing depends on the person selected to be shadowed, if wrong person observed it may give false picture of the job, takes place for a limited period

Suitable for new starters , students or employees moving roles. Suitable for both small and larger organisations,

Generally cost effective,

Role play

Develops and improves positive bahaviour, communication and interpersonal skills, improves future performance levels, effectively resolves conflict situations, enables right decision making, helps to handle difficult situations,

Time constrain and resource allocation problems, affect the learning time for the employees, training objectives may at times remain unfulfilled, may be dominated by a few participants

Increases counter productivity,

Immediate outcome and feedback will save time and cost.

Suitable for Customer Service and Sales Reps

E-training e.g. computer based

sales training

The fastest growing training delivery method, reduces employee  learning time and allows privacy of learning, flexible access to learning, allows learning at an individual pace

High initial costs due to program development costs, requires access to computers and internet

Cheaper than standard classroom based training,

Very cost effective in a long run,

Easy access to learning, suitable for the identified target group: Customer Service and Sales Reps, Tutors etc

Internal Coaching

Used for inadequate performance, one-to-one interaction, provides direct personal guidance, can be provided over the phone, mails, chats or face to face,

Allows continuous evaluation and correction of mistakes, provides quick feedback, builds trust and respect,

Requires a lot of time and effort from the managers/coaches,

involves training line managers in coaching and teaching skills, it may be difficult to create an  internal coaching culture, manager/coach may not be able to alter his communication style,

Coaching costs less than  hiring new employees,

There are no direct costs involved in internal coaching

Job rotation

Increases multitasking skills,

Increases performance, include task rotation, position rotation, function and responsibility rotation, reduces employee boredom, increase skills and competency levels,

More suitable for bigger organisations e.g. supermarkets, employees can be stressed in the new role, employees will need time to learn and perform new tasks which may affect the workflow,

It is one of the most effective tools for  big companies that are forced to cut down the number of employees, a great process of preparing an employee to replace another employee at a different or higher level,

provides optimum cost and resource utilisation


Twin Group has selected the e-training and internal coaching as their learning methods. It is because both the methods have proved beneficial for the company. The e-training or the computer-based training is the fastest growing delivery method. It has reduced time for the employees and allowed flexibility and privacy in the process of learning. On the other hand, the internal coaching method allows one-to-one interaction with the students or the parents and allows them to identify or rectify the mistakes on the spot. The Twin group has rejected the other methods because the above-mentioned learning methods proved quite efficient for the company and therefore, they did not find the need to adapt any other method.

Coaching would be the preferred methods for the tutors. This would help the students to benefit and score high marks. On the other hand, the sales representatives should prefer the e-learning methods. This will develop their training skills and help them to increase their efficiency. They will gain more students in the long-run.

To meet the learning needs, the researcher has made an approach for evaluating models through a literary framework. This will have a contrast to assess ideas from the Twin Group (McCracken 2012).

ADDIE model- The ADDIE model helps in training the developers and instructing the designers. It is a guideline for building tools for performance support and effective training in five phases namely the Analysis phase, the Implementation phase, the Design phase, the Evaluation phase and the Development phase. The model is very helpful in identifying the learning needs of the company. It helped the Twin group to analyze the current situation and design plans and methods for amending the necessary changes. It helped the Twin group to choose the e training and he internal coaching methods that helped the company to identify the process of learning intervention. The company benefitted by adopting the above-mentioned learning methods and it helped the customers of the company to benefit too.  

The ADDIE model is best suited for the Twin group. As earlier discussed, it helps in training the developers and instructing the designers. This helps in identifying the learning needs of the tutors as well as the sales representatives and the workers. Therefore, this model is beneficial to Twin group.

This further helps the company to increase the efficiency of the workers and helps in improving the performance of the company. The company adopts specific policies with the help of the ADDIE model, which adds to the reputation of the company.

The principles of workplace learning can be effective by implementing the ADDIE model on the organisational affairs. The ADDIE model provides a step-by-step guideline to plan and create training programs with a framework, to maximise effectiveness and efficiency. This model attempts to save time and money by identifying and catching problems while they are still easy to rectify. It consists of five phases:

Analysis-This includes clarifying objectives in the learning environment in identifying needs of the individual. It identifies a major problem on knowledge and skills of the individual. Thus, the question includes how the desired behavior may be, what may be the timeline and what are the other learning limitations (Moody, 2012).

Design-This includes learning objectives that would plan to create a subject matter. It would be specific in developing a matter that attains major goals of the organisation. It also identifies the planning strategies that executed well in underpinning the learning interventions.

Development-This includes instructional designers that assemble in making the project prolific. It sets up in developing programs that integrate technological firms in learning (Park 2014). This would be periodic if learning interventions would develop the firms strategically.

Implementation-This would develop procedures on training facilities and learning events. The training facilities include learning through software and hardware development process. This phase includes the base of project managers that assesses tools, CD-ROMS, and software in learning.

Evaluation-This consists of two aspects mainly (Watson 2012). The formative evaluation presents each stage of ADDIE model whereas the summative evaluation is conducted through instructional programs.

Figure 2: ADDIE model

(Source: Manners, 2013)

Evaluation of Learning and Development (L&D).

Organisations are investing a lot of money in L&D  in order to gain a competitive advantage. Thus, it is extremely vital to assess the effectiveness of the training programme and determine if the money, time and effort devoted to the L&D made a difference.

Evaluation should answer:

  1. What and Why should be evaluated,
  2. Who and How should evaluate it,
  3. When to evaluate it

The main and most widely used evaluation models include:

  • Kirkpatrick’s Four Levels of Evaluation

This model also has an importance on organisational development in enhancing individuals. It describes four levels of training evaluation. This would facilitate through reaction of the student on how they feel with the training programs. It may also increase opportunities for an individual. There may be the lack of behavior that could improve the environment on training and motivation (Yuan and Kim 2014). It would be meaningful to see how this change has made a complexity among individuals. Hence, the researcher has made a grid that is depicted below:

Evaluation type and level

(what is measured)

Evaluation description and characteristics

Examples of evaluation tools and methods

Relevance and practicability

1. Reaction

Reaction evaluation is how the delegates felt about the training or learning

‘Happy Sheets’, feedback forms.

Verbal reaction, post-training surveys or questionnaires,

Quick and very easy to obtain.

Not expensive to gather or to analyse.

2. Learning

Learning evaluation is the measurement of the increase in knowledge-before and after.

Typically assessments or tests before and after the training.

Interview or observation can also be used.

Relatively simple to set up; clear-cut quantifiable skills.

Less easy for complex learning.

3. Behaviour

Behaviour evaluation is the extent of applied learning back on the job-implementation.

Observation and  interview over time are required to assess change, relevance of change and sustainability of change.

Measurement of behaviour change typically requires cooperation and skill of line managers.

4. Result

Result evaluation is the effect on the business or environment by the trainee.

Measures are already in place via normal management systems and reporting-the challenge is to relate to the trainee.

Individually not difficult, unlike whole organisation.

Process must attribute clear accountabilities.


Kirkpatrick’s Four Levels of Evaluation

Source: Google.com

  • RAM Approach

What is measured

Evaluation description and characteristics

Examples of evaluation tools and methods

Relevance

Relevance evaluation allows to envisage how learning interventions are developed

Statements of expectations, costing

Alignment

Alignment evaluation ensures that learning interventions have a real business impact and that the stakeholders’ needs have been  met.

Records of meetings, assessments

Measurement

Measurement evaluation means embedding evaluation into the process and ensuring that correct data have been collected., evidence of change

360 degree feedback, questionnaires, appraisals, surveys, KPI’s,

ROI= ( benefit- cost) / cost     


The RAM model

Source: CIPD Guide (2010) Real World Coaching Evaluation page 9

  • CIRO Framework

What is measured

Evaluation description and characteristics

Context

Describes the contextual factors in which the learning has taken place, involves collecting information about organisational deficiency, identifying  needs and setting objectives

Inputs

Describes the inputs and costs to the learning intervention, involves obtaining and using information about training resources and allows to choose between alternative training methods

Reaction

Describes the overall reaction to the learning intervention, involves obtaining and using information about participant’s reaction

Outcomes

Describes the results and effectiveness of the learning intervention, involves obtaining and using information about results


CIRO evaluation model

Source: ccp.co.il

Evaluation Model

Advantages

Disadvantages

Focuses on

KIRKPATRICK

Well established and widely used approach, has been used as a basis for other evaluation models,

Simple, flexible, easy to understand within and outside the field

Very weak relationship between the levels, too simplistic in some cases, many companies implement only level 1&2 ignoring learning transfer

Most attention is focused on evaluation of training at the reaction level, as it is difficult and costly to measure the other levels.

This model emphasises on customer satisfaction.

RAM

It keeps record of statements and assignments of expectations for inputs of coaching. It also keeps record of the surveys and appraisals and helps the company with appropriate probabilities and sensitivities.

The method has high level of coaching audit, which incurs higher costs. This becomes a disadvantage of the model.

This model focuses on the outcome of the L&D programme, rather than the process itself

CIRO

Evaluation of context involves data collection methods about the deficiency of performance and assessing the information to establish the needs of training. Input evaluation is concerned about the planning, managing and designing of the learning event with an analysis of the available resources. Reaction evaluation uses the obtained information and resources and Outcome evaluation assess the performance of the learners at the learner level, the workplace level, the team level and the organizational level.

Not accurate because of several factors such as people not responding accurately or honestly. The questions or the instructions are misunderstood most of the times.

This model focuses on the costs, cost benefit analysis must be done before each training intervention, to make sure the expenses don’t exceed available budget


The Twin group uses the CIRO model of evaluation because it is an efficient method to identify the learning needs of the organization and helps in evaluating the impact of training on the learners. The unique four-level approach of the model helps in classifying the process of evaluation. The model is quite cost-effective and that is why it would be easy for the company to implement the model. It has swift delivery methods and helps the learners to optimize the process of learning. It helps in meeting the ultimate, intermediate and the immediate objectives of the organization. It manages designs and of course plans the delivery methods to achieve maximum possibility of the desired objectives. The learners react to the methods of learning, which further helps the company to use the collected data in an objective and a systematic matter. Outcomes are observed at all levels and this is why it becomes easier to community practices as a whole. The resources are collected from the learner level as well as the organizational level and therefore, it becomes easier to develop activities (at all levels) and improve their quality. It can prove beneficial for the adult learners as well because the model is suitable for all levels of learners.

The learning methods prove beneficial for the organisations, as they are very effective. The methods help in increasing the performance of the organisations and provide various opportunities to the employees. They feel motivated and crave for working more. The Twin Group has been successful in implementing the learning methods on the employees of the organisation. As a result, the employees have improved their performances, which proved beneficial for the organisation as well as the employees. The organisation has gained competitive advantage in the potential market and increased their profitability factor (Watson 2012).  The organisation has considered various approaches to  make the process of learning an effective one. This would be varied by taking Twin Group on learning identities. Thus, the major ideas for making an effective approach would be considered through:

There are key elements to boost the brain of individuals. It helps the employees to learn something new every day. They become familiar with unknown activities to bring out the employees from their comfort zone. This further helps in learning new things and developing new skills for the employees. The elements are very challenging as well as rewarding. When the employees accept the challenges and win them, they receive awarding benefits.

This particular process helps in improving and developing the basic knowledge of the employees (Arts 2013).  Once they are aware of the fundamental functioning process of the company, they can provide effective learning skills to their fellow employees.

The learning methods should be implemented practically, as they can help the employees to have a better knowledge of their work and their appreciation. When they visualise the activities, they perform better.

The employees of the organisation have varied levels of experience and qualifications. Supervisors should find their skills of knowledge and this could help the organisation to assess the knowledge of the employees (Engel 2013).

This can be achieved by following the ADDIE model, which would help the organisation to analyse the problems and develop solutions to the problems by proper implementation and evaluation. 

Conclusion

Various methods have been pointed out by the research in the context of Twin Group. This would balance the credentials of Health & Safety activities of the Twin Group on the learning needs. It can be  concluded ADDIE and evaluation model that would contribute learning and development needs. These models help in assessing the fair and proper treatment of the employees at the organisational level. The sustainable strategies that are adopted by the organisation help it to gain competitive advantage in the target market and gain fruitful returns on investment. Hence, the comparison makes an effective area to establish L&D interventions on successful areas of development. Therefore, all the models can be considered as justified for the firm Twin Group. They keep on adding to the fact that the organisation can improve their process of functioning with the creative strategies. If the strategies are implemented properly, the organisation has a bright future in the competitive sphere.

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