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This assessment covers the following learning outcomes:

  1. Critically analyse concepts and determinants of nutrition related to health.
  1. Critically evaluate academic literature relating to nutritional requirements of special populations.

Construct a case study which outlines the nutritional requirements of a client who fits within one of the ‘special populations’ covered in this course. Design a dietary plan to address the needs of the individual.

Take into consideration the physical activity requirements in conjunction with the dietary recommendations.

Critically evaluate the Ministry of Health guidelines which fit best with your client using relevant, up-to-date, peer-reviewed publications.

Your case study is expected to include APA references to peer-reviewed academic literature. Support on referencing, access to resources and essay writing can be found through learning services.

Your case study should include the following components:

  • A scenario relating to a client who fits within a clearly defined ‘special population’. You will need to include their gender, age, height, weight, Physical Activity Level (PAL) and their Estimated Energy Requirements (EER).
  • A determination of the dietary requirements for your client, as set out in the Ministry of Health guidelines, and according to the academic literature, including exercise considerations.
  • An individualised dietary plan for the client covering a 24-hour period.

Plans should be based on the MOH guidelines but should take into consideration evidence of specific dietary requirements from academic sources.

Plans should meet the energy requirements for your client as well as fall within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for the macronutrients.

Energy Requirements for a Triathlete

Mark is a 25 year old tri athlete young male.  He often races quite often during weekends. He currently lives with a friend in a Lifestyle Block. He is a tri athlete engaging in cycling and running. He is 180 cm tall and weighs 84 kgs. He is physically active person of level 1.8. He has estimated energy requirements of approximately 2846Kcal/day.

BMR= 66 + (13.7 X weight in kg) + (10 x height in cm) – (6.8 x age in yrs)

= 66+(1150)+(1800)-170 = 2846Kcal. Giving us 11907kilojoules

Studies have shown that New Zealanders exhibit high consumption of fat and sodium and lack enough dietary fibre. The growing trends of obesity have shown that many New Zealanders consume energy high contents of energy foods. Many New Zealander shave high intake if vitamins and minerals, the exceptions how have exhibited lower than the required amounts. Dietary requirements of some of other nutrients such as selenium were shown to be lower than the required standards, (Food Standards Australia New Zealand, 2014).

Combined dietary risks such as low intake of fruit and vegetables and high salt intake have contributed total health loss. Higher body mass was indicated to contribute to about 9%, of decline health status.

New Zealand eating guidelines for adults have shown that there is need for balanced diet and meals. There is recommendation of eating plenty of vegetables and fruits, grains majorly whole grains, some milk products and legumes and nuts such as seeds, sea foods, eggs, poultry and even red meat, (DGAC, 2010).

The choice of food being consumed having unsaturated fats such as canola, rice bran or vegetable oil. Further consumption of foods that are low in slat with little sugar added are consumed.

On activity levels, the New Zealand guidelines recommends for sitting less, doing exercises for at least 2.5 hours of  moderate or 1.5 hours of vigorous physical activity. Further it recommends doing muscle strength on at least 2.5 weeks each week, (Brown et al, 2012).

A tri athlete requires more intense exercise which requires higher energy needs for the body. Tri athletes tend to lose more electrolytes such as magnesium, sodium and potassium through perspiration process.

The New Zealand dietary requirements recommend limiting of processed meats, red meats, drinks and foods with added sugar and highly processed foods. It recognises the need for increased vegetables, legumes, fish, nuts and whole and less processed foods, (Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, 2010).

New Zealand Ministry of Health Guidelines

Further there is need to exchange various foods such as refined grains, butter, high fat milk products and sugar sweetened beverages. In return it recommends for intake of whole grains and high fibre foods, unsaturated vegetables oils and oil based spreads, low fat milk products, water and low fat milk, (Hooper et al, 2015).

On recommendation of physical exercises, the Guidelines allows for increased physical activity, vigorous activity, muscle strengthening exercise activity in exchange of limiting prolong sitting and prolonged screen time.

The guidelines give advice on the use of cycling, regular breaks, using stairs, moderate activity, light activity and moderate activity. The guidelines discourage the use of driving for short distances, taking lifts or escalators, light activity, (Lee et al, 2012).

Dietary recommendations on eating patterns allows for intake of essential nutrients which lowers the risk of non communicable diseases. Thus the guidelines promoted different kinds of foods for different nutrients. Healthy eating habits involve consumption of food from all the four food groups. The four food groups have been provided in a framework which contains key nutrients. The food provide clear amount on the food to be eaten, (Mann, 2012).

Vegetables are very good source of vitamins, minerals and fibre and other phyto nutrients. Examples of these foods include the folate greens leafy vegetables, pro vitamin A, green , organic or yellow vegetables. Consumption of vegetables and fruits are key in ensuring prevention of excess weight gain and obesity as these foods have low energy. Further they protect the body from non communicable diseases such stroke, cancers and even heart related disease. Evidence and studies have shown the importance of non starchy foods and vegetables in the diet.

The Ministry of Health recommends consumption of at least three servings of vegetables and 2 servings for fruits per day. Servings’ sizes for vegetables include half a cup cooked vegetables or half cup if salad or mixed vegetables from non starchy group. Starchy vegetables recommend a one medium size potato approximately 135 g, (MoH, 2008).

Choosing fresh vegetables and fruits offers great choice for health patterns. Frozen and canned vegetables are often good and easier to prepare. If choosing canned vegetables it is advisable to select fruits and vegetables which have less minimum salt.

Grain consumption entails recommendation from whole grains. Whole grains and fibre are beneficial in providing energy, dietary fibre and vitamins. Grains play big role in ensuring that diets are stabilized, they are generally conserved as staple foods and they are easily affordable. Whole grains offer high fibre content and provide essential health benefits compared to refined grains, (MoH, 2012).

Vegetables and Fruits

Refined grains have there been removed, leaving the whole of endosperm. They provide higher energy but fewer nutrients. These refined grains are rice, white pasta, puffed rice. Products such as biscuits, scones, savouries are often made from the refined grain products. Fibre enriched foods are basically from the refined white flour which have added fibre such as insulin and polydestroxe. However no evidence has been documented by MoH New Zealand on the beneficial effects of fiber enriched products on health status o individuals, (MoH, 2014a).

The New Zealand Ministry of Health, recommends for at least 6 servings of grain s per day. The food group of section are usually whole meal grains which are high in fibre. The recommended servings per day are 6 servings. Few of available food grains are available as 100%. Mostly the processed grains are easier to digest. Intake of whole grains has the greatest the highest amount of impact. Whole grains like the oat have the ability of providing high amounts f nutrients, (MoH, 2014b).

Milk is recommended due to their nature of being highly nutritious. They contain proteins, vitamins and minerals. The specific mineral and nutrients found on food include riboflavin, vitamin A,D and B12. Milk and cheese products have high amounts of saturated fat. The ministry of health recommends intake of low and reduced fat milk and other products which leads to reduce intakes of saturated fats and total energy, (Monteiro et al, 2013).

The ministry of health , New Zealand recommends that adults consume at least two servings of milk per day. The milk products highlighted include milk, yoghurt and cheese. The recommended servings are 2 per day for the low fat serving’s potions. Selecting low fat milk products is key to reduced fat intake. Further using reduced fat milk is key, they can be incorporating break fasts with cereals, hot drinks or in cooking.

Treated milk or evaporated milk, ultra heat treated or the dried milk are the best alternatives for fresh milk. Choosing cheese needs selection of low or moderate fat chesses. Minimise sugar added milk or favoured milk as they have more energy dense content, (Moubarac et al, 2012).

The eating patterns entails consumption of legumes, nuts, sea foods and fish, as they are liked to lowered levels of cardiovascular disease, reduction in weight gain and prevention of certain types of cancers.

Legumes, seeds and nuts are rich in nutrients and are very good sources of proteins. Other types of nuts are useful for specific nutrients like the almonds which provide calcium and Brazil nuts which are rich in selenium. Nuts have high content of unsaturated fat, thus eating small amounts on daily basis is recommended.

Grain Consumption

Intake of oily fish such as salmon, tuna and sardines have good source of omega 3 fatty acids. These nutrients lower the risk of heart disease and stroke occurrence.

Consumption of eggs is key as they provide key nutrients which are part of the healthy diet. Poultry serves as a good source of protein and have high nutrient content for minerals such as iron and zinc.

Red meat provides an excellent source of key nutrients like iron and zinc. Reduced levels of iron have show t cause problems to many New Zealanders especially young women. Reports from World Cancer research Fund have reported that intake of higher than 500 g of cooked meat every week is liked to increased risk of colorectal cancer, (MoH, 2014a).

Consumption of processed meat foods such as salami, bacon and ham are associated with increased risks of colorectal cancer. Further processed meats often have high levels of fat and salt.

The Ministry of Health, New Zealand recommends at least intake of two servings of legumes, nuts per day, further at least one serving of fish or any other sea food, eggs, poultry or red meat in a day,( New Zealand Ministry of Health, Mclntyre & Dutton, 2015). 

In the case for the individual in the case study, dietary plan is aimed availing nutritious foods which have rich amounts of fibre rich complex carbohydrates. These can include whole grains and fresh vegetables and fruits, lean protein sources and healthy fats as per New Zealand Ministry of Health recommendations, (MoH, 2014a).

The dietary plan for the tri athlete needs to incorporate moiré rich of calcium, selenium, potassium sources, iron and Zinc sources. There is need for balancing carbohydrates throughout the day with every meal having 2-3 servings of carbohydrates with an estimate of 30-45 g of carbohydrates, and further a snack having 1 carbohydrates serving which is equals to 15 g of carbohydrates. The calories and carbohydrates estimates are listed to offer meal and snack pattern so as to offer meals with similar nutrient content.

Protein intake for the patient needs to be 1.1g/kg which is based on the activity levels of the patients. Tri athletes in the case study require more protein for tissue repair and maintaining aerobic metabolism in the body. Thus there is need to increase dietary proteins for the athlete so as to meet the body minimum needs.

The meal plan for the case study person will ensure that there is adequate intake of energy and he remains active despite the disease condition he is facing. Thus the meal plan will entail the following meals;

  • 1 cup of non fat yogurt
  • 1 cup of blue berries
  • 1½ table spoon of chopped walnuts
  • 2 teaspoon of honey

    Small sweetener can be added in the yogurt , for this case honey has been used. Addition of honey on plain yogurt apart from buying sugary flavoured yogurt allows for control of sugar. Hence putting proteins with fibre ensures that there is slow digestion and absorption rate which is key in ensuring that blood sugar don’t rise quickly.

Milk and Dairy Products

Tea break snack meal

Snack intake (51 calories, having 13 g of carbohydrates)

  • Six dried apricots

Lunchtime (Consist of 333 calories, having 39 g of carbohydrates)

Turkey and cheese melt

  • 1 teaspoon Dijon Mustard
  • 1 slice of whole wheat bread
  • 2 thin slices of sodium turkey
  • 2 slices of tomato
  • 1 slice of cheese
  • 1 small apple

Evening snack meal

Snack intake in the veining (62 calories, supplying 15 g carbohydrates)

  • 1 medium orange

Dinner (total calories intake is 550 calories, having 45 g of carbohydrates)

Spiced black beans and shrimp

  • Shrimp of 5oz., cooked in 1 teaspoon of olive oil and seasoned with salt and pepper
  • A cup of vegetables cabbage cooked in 1½ tea spoon olive oil with pinch of salt
  • 2/3 cup of black beans seasoned with red paper
  • ¼ size medium avocado

Black beans are essential for delivering fibre, carbohydrates and protein which keeps the blood sugar balanced and offer more satisfaction. 

Food nutrient analysis

Food

Amount

Energy (kCal)

Protein (g)

Fat (g)

CHO (g)

Fibre (g)

Potassium (mg)

Calcium mg

Iron (mg)

Zinc (mg)

Yogurt

2cup

1000

4

3.1

160

0

1000

300

berries

½ cup

100

1.2

0.016

7

3.6

114

8.9

0.4

0.2

Walnuts

1½ tablespoon

33

0.16

1.5

4

6.7

470

278

2.7

3

Honey

2 teaspoon

27

0.004

0

0.0796

55

0.4

0.1

18

Turkey

20 g

110

53

0.8

0

0.2

85

12

1.2

2.3

Mustard

1 teaspoon

     

0

 

Whole wheat bread

1slice

590

1

0.1

100

1.9

9.6

2.3

0.1

-

Tomato

2 slices

120

0.3

0.3

4.1

20

10

2.1

0.8

Cheese

1 slice

150

2.5

1.2

0.2

0

26

100

20

-

Apple

1 small size

100

0.3

0.3

8

1.4

9

7.7

0.2

-

Orange

1 medium

     

0.3

40

0.09

0.06

Shrimp

5oz.

53

1.8

0.16

0

0

60

50

3.3

1.5

Olive oil

1 teaspoon

 

13

 

0

 

Mixed vegetables

1 cup

100

2

0.5

72

12.1

220

27

1.1

0.8

Black beans

2 cups

200

100

0.5

 

15

360

27

2.1

1.1

Ovacado

Medium  size

348

2

67.7

0.1

2.1

1000

50

0.03

-

Apricot

1 fruit

95

0.4

0.2

4

9

130

115

0.3

0.1

                     

TOTAL

 

2975

171.664

89.36

369.80

52.3

3558.6

1028.3

33.72

28.86

                           

1g of protein provides 16.74 kJ of energy  = 171.66g X 16.74 =   2873.6kj

1 g of fat provides 37.66 Kj of energy = 89.36g X 37.66kj = 3389.39kj

1g of CHO  provides 16.74 kJ of energy                = 369.80g X 16.74kj = 6190.17kj TOTAL = 12453kj (Caloric chart, 2018)

% energy from protein = (2873.65/12453)X 100 = 23.3%
% energy from CHO =  (6190.17/12453)X 100 =49.2%
% energy from fat = (3389.50/12453)X 100 =27.36%

Protein foods

The amount of protein consumed by physically active individuals has been drawn into dividing lines on how much an anaerobic exercise versus those engaging in resistance based athletes can undertake, (Fink, Burgoon & Mikesky, 2009). Studies have shown that athletes who want to gain weight and muscle strength are more likely to consume higher amounts of dietary proteins, (Philips & Van, 2011). However, the big analogy behind the consumption of large quantities of proteins to resistance trained athletes is for the key benefits of ensuring that more muscle protein is generated. A study conducted by Layman, (2013) on athletes has shown that they need to have more than the normal levels of protein meant for deficiency levels, which are needed to sustain high-intensity exercises.  A paramount rationale for assessing and recommending athletes’ diet having higher protein intakes has the ability to enhance stimulation of muscles protein synthesis. Recommended ranges have been suggested to be between 1.3-1.8g per kg in a day, in this intake of 3-4 iso nitrogenous meals is capable of enhancing protein synthesis, (Burd et al, 2011). However, these amounts often depend on the level of exercise being engaged.  The diet plan above for the athlete entails intake of black beans and a turkey meal which has been prepared to provide an overall estimate of 171g proteins. A triathlete meal plan protein-rich diet entails performance boosters on the sparing activity of glycogen and aiding fluid uptake in the body. Further higher proteins intake ensures that hunger is prolonged, (Mamerow et al, 2014).

Legumes, Nuts, Seafoods, and Fish

Studies have indicated that RDA for protein intake is estimated at 0.8 g per kg, which is aimed at maintaining nitrogen balance for the body, (Poole, 2012). For physically active persons such as athletes, this RDA size amounts may not be enough to ensure and provide optimal health. In order to maintain optimal health and maintenance of physical activity, more protein is needed to maintain this balance. For this, it stands out that athletes are active persons who require more protein which has a high biological value. Ensuring high-quality protein such as those recommended in the dietary plan ensures that there is an optimal health and improved athletic performance, (Philips, 2012).

In determining how much is enough for physically active persons such as athletes, factors such as physical activity levels, exercise duration's levels, protein quality and status of training determines the amount of the protein to be included in the diet plan. Studies have indicated that the general rule of approach is to include between 1.2 to 1.4 g/kg of protein in a day for endurance athletes who include the triathlete case study, (Colombani & Mettler, 2011). The longer the duration of exercise training, the greater the number of proteins spent. Other research undertaken have recommended up to 2g/kg of body weight for athletes who engage in long duration exercises and having high physical activity levels. Increase in physical exercises is directly proportional to the number of proteins being consumed. It is for this reason that the diet plan above accumulates to a total of 179g being consumed by the athlete based on a 2g/kg body weight. Compared to endurance training, single training sessions and shorter excurse durations have been shown not to need more proteins intake, (Mettler, Mitchell & Tipton, 2010).

The types of proteins consumed have a factor on bioavailability, in all essential amino acids; leucine has been shown to have a limiting factor on proteins bioavailability. Leucine-rich foods have been shown to have an effect on boosting muscle proteins. Including a mixture of proteins in diet such as above mixing plant and animal based diet is essential as they are rich in essential amino acids essential for muscle protein synthesis, (Helms, Zinn, Rowlands & Brown, 2014).

Carbohydrate foods

Intake of carbohydrates is linked to improved endurance levels which are key to high-intensity exercises, athletes and cyclists have been shown to experience high performance and high outputs after high intake of carbohydrates, (Bartlett, Hawley & Morton, 2015).  The intake of carbohydrates among athletes such as Mark is geared to towards performance in training. This key component is vital in order to maximize and optimize performance recovery process.an assessment by Burke et al, (2010), showed that low glycogen for athletes and long endurance sports persons yields muscle fatigue and the inability of the body to enhance high-intensity exercise. Both levels of exercises such as aerobic and anaerobic have been shown to deplete exercise glycogen stores in the body. 

Eggs and Poultry

Carbohydrate for exercise performance has been investigated and studies and results have great key influencing sports nutrition.  Carbohydrate recommendation of about 6-10 g/kg body weight has been recommended for high-performance athletes based on the duration of exercise, training, and physical activity levels, (Cermak & van Loon, 2013). For the athlete, the diet provides a total of 50% carbohydrates with 369 g of carbohydrates based on the level of physical activity and body weight. Consumption proportion to the number of servings varies in the athlete in that the number servings illustrated is able to provide the needed level of carbohydrates needed for the athlete. With the heavy demands of heavy long Carbohydrate intake for the athlete will entail consumption of 45-64% of carbohydrate while meeting the daily energy needs. Adequate carbohydrate is effective in long run efforts to avoid depletion and consequent dizziness and muscle fatigue. The above-recommended foods entail healthy carbohydrates. They are essential in ensuring digestion of sugars and starch which form complex carbohydrates, vegetables, (Jeukendrup, 2014).

Providing athletes with close to 200-300 g of carbohydrates is essential for enhancing and maintaining blood sugar levels and maximize the glycogen stores in the body. At exercise times athletes such as Mark can consume around 30-60 g of carbohydrates per hour for the blood glucose maintenances, hence the inclusion of the 4 meal pattern which has a carbohydrate source of food.  After engaging in exercise, recommendation shows that athletes need to consume about 10.-1.5g/kg during a period of 4-6 hours after exercise for maintaining and replacing muscle and liver glycogen stores, (Stellingweeff & Cox, 2014).  

Intake of fiber-rich foods which has fiber content allows absorption of food in the body. The fiber is key to ensuring the there is the maintenance of blood sugar levels; further food which is higher in fiber has been incorporated into the food plan. This is observed with the inclusion of wall nuts and baked beans, with the wholemeal bread, (Tey, 2012).

Fluid and water intake

The principles of electrolytes ensure that they are adequately available in the body for metabolic exercises. Imbalance on the athlete causes dehydration, nausea, vomiting muscle twitching and overall fatigue. The diet plan above is based on diet based goals which test lifestyle and improvement of eating habits, (Evert et al, 2014).

Intake of water is highly recommended for the population. Plain water has no energy thus has no effect on the total energy of an individual. According to Nutrient Reference values for Australia and New Zealand, (2006), it has recommended total fluid water intake of 3.4 liters per day. The total water of food and fluids should be 2.8 liters per day while fluids intake should be 2.1 L /day or 8 cups per day. Other drinks can be consumed which supplement drinking water. This includes intake of low-fat milk which has low energy and rich nutrients. Further black tea is often popular and can provide health benefits to the body. The Ministry of Health in New Zealand has recommended moderate intake of tea and coffee. For the athlete, caffeine will be key in ensuring alleviation of pain and reducing fatigue after exercises, (Anderson, 2016).

Red Meat

Fats  

Fat intake during exercise is determined by two phenomena which include metabolic crossover effect and duration effects on the athletes. Crossover entails lower intensity towards the use of carbohydrates as a source of energy. There is an established inverse relationship between fat and intensity of exercise. Duration effect shows the opposite relationship which is directly linked to the level of exercise. At prolonged intensity exercise such as for the athletes, there is an observed usage of carbohydrates over the use fats while in high-intensity exercise there is the usage of fat as a source of energy in the body. The overall exercise endurance activity for the triathlete ensures maximal aerobic power which is essential in sustaining the availability of substrates in the body, (Helms, Zinn, Rowlands & Brown, 2014).

This is of the essence in the diet plan as the meal plan entails food rich in the fat provision such as the cheese, yogurt, olive oil and avocado fruit for the athlete. This inclusion is key, as research suggests that performance endurance activities such as cycling depend on the aerobic power which can be sustained by fats substance the diet. This food plan has entailed incorporation of monounsaturated fat comprised on olive oil and avocado fruit and omega 3 fatty acid supplied by wall nuts representing healthy fats as they play a key role in ensuring an increase in high-density lipoprotein and lowers the vulnerability for unhealthy low-density lipoproteins, (Melin et al, 2016).

Further addition of fat has followed good fat principles whereby the monounsaturated and polyunsaturated foods help in cutting the cholesterol levels. This is seen with the inclusion of avocado in the diet together with the walnut and olive oil, (Tenforde, Barack, Nattiv & Fredericson, 2016).

Recommendation of intake of unsaturated fats instead of saturated fats is to manage cardiovascular health. There is a need for replacing saturated fats and replacing it with unsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats being linked to the lowered level of decreased cardiovascular disease. These recommendations support plant-based and marine fats. It is a recommendation of saturated fats and trans fats to not more than 10% of total energy intake, (Melin et al, 2016).

Micronutrients foods

The micronutrient intake for the athlete is essential for maintaining electrolyte balance in the body. Calcium intake is key for enabling strong bone density to sustain the body weight during exercise. Research undertaken has shown that calcium intake for athletes is essential for bone growth and prevention of osteoporosis later in life, hence increased physical activity calls for increased intake of calcium in the diet, (Ferguson, 2017). Athletes engaging in intense physical activity had higher physical activity level such as Mark, often lose calcium through sweat, thus replenishing them can be done through foods intake or intake of calcium supplements to compound the unlimited intake in foods. With the endurance cycling activity there is an increased need for calcium in the body, however, research has not explicitly stated the rationale for increased calcium intake, (Barrack et al, 2017). However in a survey conducted among 10,000 athletes aged between 7 years to 50 years showed that fewer of them consumed the recommended daily intake of calcium, (Guezennec et al, 1998).  Regulations based on New Zealand health guidelines suggest that an intake of 1000-1500mg per day is needed for athletes; however this depends on the age and gender. In the case study, the athlete dietary plan entails a total of 1083 mg of calcium obtained from the food.

Dietary Plan for a Triathlete

Physical activity state has been viewed as the primary determiner affecting bone growth stimulus and development growth among the younger population. Engaging in the regular physical; activity for the patient is key in enhancing mineral status. Dietary calcium for the athlete is key, as physical activity increases the demand for micronutrients in the body. Studies and research have shown that exercise levels can be immensely affected by those persons who have limited intake of micronutrients, (Ong, & Brownlee, 2017). However contrary to this,  other studies have shown that increased exercise doesn’t directly increase the needs for calcium in the body, however, there is an observed loss of electrolytes due to sweating in the exercise and for this case, dietary calcium is essential in compensating for the lost electrolyte imbalance and prevent deficits observed. Hence this is the reason for enhanced calcium, intake for the patient to meet these nutrient needs of electrolyte imbalance which might necessitate by sweating after exercise, (Burkhart & Pelly, 2016).

Further enhancing electrolyte balance, potassium forms a critical micronutrient which is key for the body. Rigorous and intense physical exercise leads to loss of potassium through the sweat. A recommended intake of potassium intake ranging between 3,500-4700 mg has been practiced. Potassium is crucial for ensuring that there is proton balance in the body as its loss is highly experienced with a loss of sweat during high-intensity exercise. The key factor of the essence with potassium is that it ensures that there are water retention and fluid balance in the body. For a triathlete such as Mark, the demand for electrolyte is essential, and hence consuming the average daily consumption as entailed in the diet is key towards effective body activity. No research has reported an excessive consumption through dietary means of sodium, as many surveys done, most the results show decreased intake in the body, (Pranell et al, 2016).

Zinc intake is essential for post-exertion repair of tissues. Studies done have shown that athletes have a lower intake of zinc compared to sedentary persons; hence this shows that there is a correlation between endurance exercise and depletion of zinc levels. Trials done to indicate that that athlete who engages in physical exercise tend to excrete zinc via sweat. Randomised trials show that zinc excretion is higher with increased exercise; hence zinc excretion and metabolism correlate to each other based on the level of stress subjected, (Holmes et al, 2016). The recommended intake for zinc is between 30-60 mg per day, the dietary plan in the case study gives a total of 28.8 mg for the athlete as it is essential during the intense period being undertaken, (Pryor et al, 2015).

Conclusion

Lastly, iron intake during exercise for casual athletes training for less than four hours in a week has shown no effect on dietary status. However, those athletes engaging in a training exercise for more than 6 hours per week have been found to encounter iron deficiency, (Holdaway, 2017). Triathletes have been found to use iron stores in the body quickly than nonathlete’s population. The normal recommendation for iron intake is between 10-15 mg per day. The dietary plan in the case study provides an estimate of 33 mg which is higher beyond the recommended dietary allowances. No effects have been reported regarding high intake of iron in the body, contrary to its under consumption which is linked to raising risks of diseases such as cardiovascular and colon cancers, (Chu et al, 2017).

Hence the dietary plan for Mark in the case study is essential in providing the required food nutrients based on his assessments and physical activity status. Dietary plan based on the individual physical activity is key in ensuring that the there is no deficiency of any food nutrients which might have an effect on the individual physical status.

References

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Barrack, M. T., Fredericson, M., Tenforde, A. S., & Nattiv, A. (2017). Evidence of a cumulative effect for risk factors predicting low bone mass among male adolescent athletes. Br J Sports Med, 51(3), 200-205.

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