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1. Critically evaluate how HRM practices affect Knowledge Management processes. In your answer, you should consider an organisation you are familiar with and analyse the direct and indirect ways that HRM practices contribute to Knowledge Management.

2. Culture does play an important role in the success of a knowledge management effort (McDermott, O’Dell, 2001 p.78). Based on the statement, create a discussion about the impact of culture on Knowledge Management. In your analysis, you should provide the cultural characteristics of companies, (both profit and not-for- profit), that affect knowledge management practices.

3. Critically discuss the importance of communities of practice on sharing knowledge and information. Consider an organisation you are familiar with and propose a strategy that would enable the development of a product through virtual communities of practice. Ensure you include consideration of the ethical and professional issues raised by such strategic policies.

HRM practice affects the knowledge management processes

Knowledge management is considered as the method of creating, sharing and also it focuses on managing the overall information of the company. It is related with the multidisciplinary approach that helps to consider the organizational objectives by considering the use of good knowledge. So, in this paper the focus will be given on the various factors related to knowledge management.

Training and development is considered as one of the HRM practice that can affect the overall process of knowledge management. It can be seen that training given to the employees in the Nestle Company helps in enhancing the knowledge and skills. Through effective training, the knowledge of the employees can be enhanced in the workplace. Nestle is able to achieve positive outcome just because of training given to the employees as it not only enhances the knowledge but also helps them to manage the overall activities in the workplace. Nestle focuses on giving various training to the employees in many areas so that it can be easy to emphasize on the overall process of knowledge management. It can be seen that Nestle emphasizes on the training programs which helps to focus on knowledge management. To enhance the pool of high caliber managerial talents, the company focuses on the fresh management graduates in various streams of management. The company gives cross functional, multi-location training programs so that it can be simple to consider proper knowledge management process in an effective manner. Knowledge of the employees can only be maintained when there is proper training given by the top management and also it motivates the employees to give their best towards the overall activities of the company (Sung and Choi, 2014).

Training and development is the best way that can help in giving knowledge to the employees in the workplace. It can be seen that training and development in the workplace is considered as the important aspect that helps the employees to manage their activities with confidence. It can be stated that it is important to focus on managing the overall activities with confidence and also it emphasizes on boosting the entire organizational activities (Bell et al., 2017). Nestle offers training to the employees with the aim to motivate the employees towards the overall organizational activities and also it emphasizes on the overall goals and objectives.

It can be analyzed that if there is no proper knowledge with the top management then it can affect the overall process of recruitment and selection. It can be stated that Nestle conduct the process of recruitment and selection by having experts in a particular field so that positive outcome can be attained. Knowledge management in the human resource practice related to recruitment and selection is important as it helps to select the right candidate at the right job. It is important to recruit the right candidate at the right post so that it can it can be easy for them to give their best towards the activities of the organization (Hislop, Bosua and Helms, 2018).

Training and development

Nestle emphasizes on considering the recruitment and selection process and this  responsibility is given to the higher authority or the skilled person so that right candidate can be selected at the right post. It is necessary to emphasize on selecting the right candidate as the overall outcome is dependent on that only. Also, knowledge is considered as one of the important aspect that helps the employees to manage the activities with proper efficiency and dedication (Taylor, 2014).

In Nestle, it can be stated that knowledge management has a direct impact on the overall process of compensation process. It can be analyzed that by having proper knowledge it can be simple for the employees to earn incentives. Compensation is considered as a reward which is earned by the employees but by having proper knowledge they can easily earn incentives in the workplace. In Nestle, the employees are trained enough and this is the major reason that they give their best towards the organizational activities. Compensation is also considered as the human resource practice and it affect the overall process of the knowledge management (Martinez-Conesa et al., 2017).  It can be analyzed that in Nestle, the top management focuses on enhancing the knowledge of the employees by offering their compensation policies which motivate them to give their best towards the assigned activities.

Also, it can be seen that knowledge management if considered by the company can boost the overall productivity level of the employees in the workplace. If knowledge is there with the employees they will focus on the organizational activities and it can also enhance the overall efficiency of the employees in the workplace. Efficiency of the employees can only be maintained of they have the knowledge of the activities which are taking place on the routine basis in the workplace.  So, to maintain the overall efficiency of the employees in the workplace, it is necessary to focus on considering the knowledge management as it is one of the important aspect in the workplace (Becerra-Fernandez and Sabherwal, 2014).

It can be stated that talent management in the workplace is also considered as the best part of the human resource practice. Without proper talent management it is not possible for the company to accomplish its goals and objectives. By having proper talent management it can be possible for the company to achieve success in the competitive market (Inkinen, 2016).Knowledge management has an important role in maintaining the overall talent in the workplace. Talent is something which can be boosted easily of the employees and in the workplace it is important to have proper knowledge so that employees in the workplace can be talented towards the overall activities of the company. Talent in the workplace can be managed if there is proper knowledge of the activities with the higher authorities. They can easy give training to the employees that will enhance their overall skills towards the activities in the workplace (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014).

Recruitment and selection

In Nestle, it can be seen that top authorities appointed the highly skilled managers which offers proper knowledge to the employees. When top management gives knowledge to the higher authorities then it can be seen that confidence and talent of the employees is boosted in the workplace. There are various departments in Nestle and there is a manager in every department who focuses on managing the overall activities of employees and also helps in coordinating the activities in the workplace. The managers in the department analyze the talent of the employees in the workplace and according to that only the activities are assigned to the employees so that they can finish it on time.

It has been seen that it is important for the management to focus on maintaining the overall knowledge of the employees so that they can learn more about the different activities that takes place in the management. Through proper talent management in the workplace, it can be easy for the other employees to manage the entire practices in the workplace. It is necessary to have talented employees in the workplace as this can help to maintain the positivity in the workplace. It can also help in motivating the other employees to be dedicated towards the activities assigned by the management (Collings, Wood and Szamosi, 2018).

It can be stated that culture plays an important role in the success of a knowledge management efforts. If there is no proper culture in the workplace then it can be difficult to focus on managing the overall knowledge in the workplace. In the workplace, it is necessary to have positive culture so that it can be simple to boost the overall knowledge and also it helps the company to accomplish its goals and objectives in the competitive market. Without positive culture it will not be possible for the employees to acquire knowledge in terms of the overall activities of the company.  So, it can be stated that the culture impact the overall knowledge management. Also, there are many cultural characteristics of companies that impact the knowledge management practices (Lee, Shiue and Chen, 2016).  The characteristics are related to

  • Culture consists of attitude and value knowledge: it can be seen that the culture of the workplace can be determined by the attitude and also by the values with are considered in the workplace. If in the workplace the employees are not working with the positive attitude then it can be difficult for them to acquire new knowledge and skills in relation to the overall activities of the company. Culture of the workplace is also related with the group of people which focuses on behavior, beliefs, and values and also symbols which are accepted and also through proper communication it is passed from one employee to another. So, it is necessary to have proper culture as it can help in boosting the overall knowledge of the employees in the workplace (Chen and Fong, 2015). If there is no positive attitude of the employees then they will not be able to motivate other in the workplace and also it can lead to demotivation among the employees. So, it is necessary to focus on managing the knowledge as it can help to boost the productivity level of the employees in the workplace. Organizational culture can be one of the important aspects which are necessary to be considered as it can help in boosting the positive environment in the workplace. So, it is necessary to have proper culture so that positive outcome can be attained or success can be achieved in the highly competitive market (Bharati, Zhang and Chaudhury, 2015).
  • It is a learned behavior: It can also be analyzed that organizational culture can help to bring modification in the learned behavior and also it boost the overall knowledge of the employees in the competitive market. It is necessary to emphasize on bringing the best from the employees and it can only be done when focus is given on attaining the knowledge with the positive behavior. It is necessary for the employees to focus on enhancing the knowledge by maintaining the overall culture of the company in the competitive market. If the employees are having the behavior of learning then it can be simple for them to acquire the right skill with proper efficiency and dedication (Santoro et al.,2018 ).
  • It is a related with behavior : It can be seen that if the company have positive employees in the workplace then it can be easy to boost the overall behavior of the workplace then it can be simple to enhance the profits in the competitive market. If the employees with positive attitude behave in a good way with the customers then it can be easy to boost the image in the market. It has been stated that employees can only achieve success when the customers are satisfied with the services which are offered to them.

It can be seen that there are various companies who consider the knowledge management programs so that it can be simple to boost the confidence and skills of the employees in the competitive market. Like Nestle focuses on giving training so that it can be simple to boost the skills and knowledge of the employees towards the overall activities of the company. The main aim of the company is to maintain the commitment and also to offer training on the corporate business principles, nutrition and environmental sustainability. The aim of the company is to focus on improving the skills of the employees so that they can be independent towards the overall activities which are assigned to them in the workplace (Inkinen, 2016).  

Compensation

One of the best strategies that can be considered by the company is related with training. Training can help to boost the overall knowledge of the employees in the workplace. Through training the employees get to know their weakness and in which area they need the improvement. So, the companies main emphasize on giving training to the employees in specific field so that it can be simple to boost the overall efficiency in the competitive market. So, training is also related with the culture of the company and it is important that it should be positive so that the outcome can be positive. The culture of the workplace is one of the best way that should be improved as it can help in accomplishing goals and also it focus on the set targets (García-Holgado et al., 2015).

It can also been seen that there are various non- profit companies that are made and led by those who want to fulfill the needs of others. These companies manage its unique model and the no profit organizations are started by the people who want to start up the business.  The knowledge management can be considered as an important factor as it can help to boost the knowledge which is involved with the company (Geisler and Wickramasinghe, 2015).

There are few categories that can be divided and those few categories are related to explicit and tacit. In this there is a generic description of the category which is taken in relation to knowledge management systems which is followed by the subsections. It can be seen that explicit knowledge can be stated as the knowledge which can be institutionalized and also it can be transferred easily. Tacit knowledge also showcases the knowledge which cannot be transferred in context to the knowledge of the person. So, knowledge management in nonprofit companies can take place through proper leadership which is necessary to be considered as it can help in boosting the overall growth of the company in the competitive market. The leaders give guidance to the employees so that they can take the right step which can help in managing the overall activities of the company in the competitive market (North and Kumta, 2018).

Knowledge management systems are related to the IT system that can help to store and also to retrieve the knowledge. It is one of the best ways that can help to boost the overall collaboration in the activities and also it locates the knowledge sources which can help to capture and use the knowledge. Knowledge is considered as one of the essential factor that should be there in the employees as it can help to manage the overall activities in the competitive market (Jiménez-Jiménez,  Martínez-Costa and Sanz-Valle, 2014).

Talent management

It can be examined that knowledge management tool which is considered by the companies is related to the customer relationship systems, learning management systems and knowledge bases. To enhance the knowledge it can be seen that it is important to focus on maintaining the relation with the customers so that it can be easy to boost the overall activities in the competitive market. To deal with the customers it is important for the employees to have proper knowledge so that it can be easy to boost the customer satisfaction and it will positively impact the overall growth of the company (Reich, Gemino and Sauer, 2014).

It can be stated that communities of practice stimulate the process of learning by offering the vehicle of communication, mentoring, coaching and self-reflection. Also it captures and share the existing knowledge to assist the people to bring improvisation in the practice by offering a forum to search the solutions of the issues and also it is a process that gather and evaluate the best practices. There is the importance of communities of practice on sharing the knowledge and information. It can be seen that communities of practice is important as it can help in sharing knowledge and information (Martín-de Castro, 2015).  Community of practice is important as the professional learning strategy as they focus on the potential to  

  • Connect people: It can be seen that through communities of practice it can be easy to connect with the people and also by interaction messages can be transferred in an easy manner (Al Saifi, 2015).
  • Stimulate learning: Communities of practice is the source that can stimulate the learning of the people and also information is shared which maintain the personal experiences.
  • Organize people: Communities of practice is essential as it can assist the employees to manage the overall activities and also the main focus is on organizing the people in the workplace (Valmohammadi and Ahmadi, 2015).
  • Generate new knowledge: Communities of practice is one of the sources that can help in generating the new knowledge in the employees who are managing their activities in the workplace (Ahern, Leavy and Byrne, 2014).
  • Provide a shared context: It has been seen that communities of practice help the people in sharing the views and opinion and also enhance the overall understanding. Through proper communities of practice it can be simple to maintain the overall share of the company in the competitive market (Hislop, Bosua and Helms, 2018).

These are considered as the importance of communities of practice in relation to sharing of knowledge and information.

In this context the company which is selected is Nestle. The strategy which should be considered by the company is related to promotion. It is important to consider the promotional strategy as it can boost the overall activities of the company and also demand can be maximized in the competitive market. Through promotional strategy it can be easy to boost the sales of the company and also it is the best strategy that can grab the attention of the customers. Promotional strategy in context to community of practice is considered when a professional person manages overall activities in the workplace. It can be seen that in Nestle, the promotional strategy should be managed by the sales person of the company as he or she has the capability to influence the people and it is the right opportunity which can be considered by the company to promote the sales in the competitive market (Tan and Wong, 2015).

The product development can take place when the company considers the promotional strategy as it is the strategy which boosts the overall growth and profits in the competitive market. It can be stated that product development is one of the important factor that should be there so that main objective of the company can be fulfilled. In the workplace there can be professional and ethical issues which can take place in relation to the overall activities of the company. To maintain confidentiality is one of the factors that should be there so that privacy of the information can be maintained in the competitive market (Obeidat et al., 2017).

Impact of culture on Knowledge Management

The ethical issues that can take place are related to decision making. It can be seen that the ethical dilemma focuses on the ethical course of action that consist of gathering the facts and also in evaluating the actions. Ethical decision making process should be the center of safeguarding the rights of the employees and customers so that the activities can be finished in an ethical manner (Donate and de Pablo, 2015).

The next professional and ethical issue relates with the diversity problem in which it can be seen that current and potential employees are the group who deserve to be respected and also they select to work in an efficient to work. To maximize the value of the employees is also one of the factors that should be considered so that it can be simple to achieve success in the competitive market.  Also, it can be analyzed that strategic policy focuses on the marketing planning which should be there so that goals can be attained.  The companies can set their policy so that large market share can be attained (Massaro et al., 2016).

For example: the company also create marketing plan with the goals that can reach to the overall segments prevailing in the market. Through this it can be simple to align the resources and also consist of the money and human resources so reach the segments. It is important for the marketing managers to ensure that the overall spending also relates with the marketing goal. In this the issue that can take place is related to governance issues in which the businesses are expected to focus on considering the environmental laws and also safety rules so that overall civil laws can be maintained (Edwards, 2015).

The Nestle Company focuses on giving security to the employees and customers by offering quality products in the market. If proper quality is not considered then it can impact the overall activities of the company in the competitive market.  In this, it is important to focus on marketing planning so that it can be easy to generate the demand of the customers towards the products and services. Also, ethical practices are important to be considered so that in right way the activities can be completed. If company is managing the entire work by emphasizing on the overall ethical decisions then it will impact the organizational activities in a positive manner. Also, through this it can be easy to align with the resources and human resource management of the company as it can help in boosting the overall activities in the competitive market (Soto-Acosta and Cegarra-Navarro, 2016).

The characteristics are

The strategic policy is also related with the partnership that should be done with the community so that companies can work and can build the services that meet the requirement of the public.  It is important for the companies to structure its activities so that needs of the business owners can be fulfilled. The strategic tactic of the company also focuses on the advisory board and it invites the local government and business leaders to staff the board. It is one of the policies that can help the company in boosting the image in the market and with this it can be easy to maintain the overall competitive advantage in the market.

The next strategic policy is related with environmental policy that can help the company in maintaining the brand in the market. It is important for the company to focus on the social factor so that it can be easy to maintain the harmony in the society and also it will boost the overall goals in the competitive market. Nestle focuses on making campaigns that can help in boosting the customer satisfaction in the market. Also, the ethical behavior is one of the factors which are important in the workplace. People and customers can feel safe and good at the time of working with the people and can also consider the factor on the basis of morality. So, it can be analyzed that it is important for the company to focus on strategic policies by considering the professional and ethical issues which are important to be reduced. Also if the activities are managed in a proper manner then it can be simple for the company to focus on development of the products which can help in attaining the large market share in the competitive market. Also, through this market share is one of the best concepts that can be boosted if proper activities are taken into consideration. Communities of the practice help in sharing the knowledge which can boost the overall knowledge of the employees. It also assists in boosting the overall image of the company in the competitive market (Mao et al., 2016).

Conclusion

So, these are the different aspects in relation to the knowledge management that should be considered by the companies. It will help in boosting profits and market share. 

References

Ahern, T., Leavy, B. and Byrne, P.J., 2014. Complex project management as complex problem solving: A distributed knowledge management perspective. International Journal of Project Management, 32(8), pp.1371-1381.

Al Saifi, S.A., 2015. Positioning organisational culture in knowledge management research. Journal of Knowledge Management, 19(2), pp.164-189.

Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S., 2014. Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.

Becerra-Fernandez, I. and Sabherwal, R., 2014. Knowledge management: Systems and processes. Routledge.

Bell, B.S., Tannenbaum, S.I., Ford, J.K., Noe, R.A. and Kraiger, K., 2017. 100 years of training and development research: What we know and where we should go. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), p.305.

Bharati, P., Zhang, W. and Chaudhury, A., 2015. Better knowledge with social media? Exploring the roles of social capital and organizational knowledge management. Journal of Knowledge Management, 19(3), pp.456-475.

Chen, L. and Fong, P.S., 2015. Evaluation of knowledge management performance: An organic approach. Information & Management, 52(4), pp.431-453.

Collings, D.G., Wood, G.T. and Szamosi, L.T., 2018. Human resource management: A critical approach. In Human Resource Management (pp. 1-23). Routledge.

Donate, M.J. and de Pablo, J.D.S., 2015. The role of knowledge-oriented leadership in knowledge management practices and innovation. Journal of Business Research, 68(2), pp.360-370.

Edwards, J.S., 2015. Business processes and knowledge management. In Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Third Edition (pp. 4491-4498). IGI Global.

García-Holgado, A., García-Peñalvo, F.J., Hernández-García, Á. and Llorens-Largo, F., 2015, July. Analysis and improvement of knowledge management processes in organizations using the business process model notation. In Annual Conference of the Global Innovation and Knowledge Academy (pp. 93-101). Springer, Cham.

Geisler, E. and Wickramasinghe, N., 2015. Principles of Knowledge Management: Theory, Practice, and Cases: Theory, Practice, and Cases. Routledge.

Hislop, D., Bosua, R. and Helms, R., 2018. Knowledge management in organizations: A critical introduction. Oxford University Press.

Inkinen, H., 2016. Review of empirical research on knowledge management practices and firm performance. Journal of knowledge management, 20(2), pp.230-257.

Jiménez-Jiménez, D., Martínez-Costa, M. and Sanz-Valle, R., 2014. Knowledge management practices for innovation: a multinational corporation’s perspective. Journal of Knowledge Management, 18(5), pp.905-918.

Lee, J.C., Shiue, Y.C. and Chen, C.Y., 2016. Examining the impacts of organizational culture and top management support of knowledge sharing on the success of software process improvement. Computers in Human Behavior, 5(9), pp.462-474.

Mao, H., Liu, S., Zhang, J. and Deng, Z., 2016. Information technology resource, knowledge management capability, and competitive advantage: The moderating role of resource commitment. International Journal of Information Management, 36(6), pp.1062-1074.

Martín-de Castro, G., 2015. Knowledge management and innovation in knowledge-based and high-tech industrial markets: The role of openness and absorptive capacity. Industrial Marketing Management, 47(6), pp.143-146.

Martinez-Conesa, I., Soto-Acosta, P. and Carayannis, E.G., 2017. On the path towards open innovation: Assessing the role of knowledge management capability and environmental dynamism in SMEs. Journal of Knowledge Management, 21(3), pp.553-570.

Massaro, M., Handley, K., Bagnoli, C. and Dumay, J., 2016. Knowledge management in small and medium enterprises: a structured literature review. Journal of Knowledge Management, 20(2), pp.258-291.

North, K. and Kumta, G., 2018. Knowledge management: Value creation through organizational learning. Springer.

Obeidat, B.Y., Tarhini, A., Masa'deh, R.E. and Aqqad, N.O., 2017. The impact of intellectual capital on innovation via the mediating role of knowledge management: a structural equation modelling approach. International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies, 8(3-4), pp.273-298.

Reich, B.H., Gemino, A. and Sauer, C., 2014. How knowledge management impacts performance in projects: An empirical study. International Journal of Project Management, 32(4), pp.590-602.

Santoro, G., Vrontis, D., Thrassou, A. and Dezi, L., 2018. The internet of things: building a knowledge management system for open innovation and knowledge management capacity. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 136(9), pp.347-354.

Soto-Acosta, P. and Cegarra-Navarro, J.G., 2016. New ICTs for knowledge management in organizations. Journal of Knowledge Management, 20(3), pp.417-422.

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Taylor, S., 2014. Recruitment and selection. Strategic Human Resource Management: An International Perspective, 10(6), pp.139-14.

Valmohammadi, C. and Ahmadi, M., 2015. The impact of knowledge management practices on organizational performance: A balanced scorecard approach. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 28(1), pp.131-159.

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