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Literature Review

Discuss about the Conflict And Negotiation for Literature Review.

This paper focuses on the techiniques of solving conflicts as well as holding constructive negotiations whenever handling groups of people be it at the workplace or in other organiational et ups. As a way of comprehensively explaining the essence of these skills, various models and theories regarding themhave been highlighted and explained comprehensively in any context. It sheds light into the various tools that have been used to effect them. Major undoing and strengths of these skills have been underlined by way of delving deeper into available literature regarding the diagnostics examinations. Subsequently, a pragmatic plan and schedule was carried out on the basis of the results of the various diagnostic elements and the already done literature analysis. This is intended to enhance the skills and know how regarding the significance of solving conflicts and negotiating in controversial contexts. The scheme I came up with is fit to be implemented within a period of six months depending on the scale of operations of the group and its subsequent suitability.

Highly productive and ambitious companies jump at the slightest opportunity to thwart potential conflict be it amongst its staff or with its competitors. This is due to the fear that an escalation of the same will cost them much of their fortunes. According research regular workplace disagreements are often disruptive to the chain of production and if they go untamed, they can lead to unsustainable worker turnovers (Proehl, 2013). Therefore, it has become more than a necessity for company managers and human resources officers to be apt in managing various crises that affect their companies- being proficient at conflict negotiation and management. Central to fighting conflicts at the workplace is comprehending the various ways that lead to such scenarios.

On the face of it, most of the conflicts can be addressed by making the staff to clearly understand the company’s stance and policies as well as their duties and responsibilities. For instance if it happens that a pair of employees cannot agree on who is to perform a given duty, and then the company’s management should move to clarify all job tasks as stipulated by its policies. By holding successful negotiations regarding such a conflict can help the company to iron out any misunderstanding regarding all the job responsibilities as well as helping to pre-empt such future occurrences (Proehl, 2013). In such incidents, it is critical that departmental managers, involved staff, and the human resource officers are in attendance so that the entire exercise becomes an example for solving such future scenarios.

Self Analysis

Conflicts can spring up in the workspace due to what employee could deem as excessive workload that will potentially make them stressed. It such a case, it is the duty of the management to employ a practicable and proactive negotiation approach since it deals with enhanced or elevated workload levels. In this context, the company could be faced with peaking levels of production, like during holidays, an unexpected increase in customer demands resulting from launching of a new product (James, 2006). This call for the company to adequately prepare its staff for such moments. They can do this by offering overtime and also staggering shifts as a way of sufficiently dealing with potential employee stress (Quinn et al, 2015). If this problem is not solved in advance, then the reconciliatory in this conflict will have to solve how to ease the contentious extra work burden. Also employee leaves or hiring part-time personnel could help in solving such conflicts.

At all times, a company’s staff desire to be at the heart of its prosperity failure to which a conflict will ultimately crop up. In such cases alienation resulting from being sidelined by the management like failure to incorporate their views into the overall decision making process, insubordination will be the immediate result as a consequence. Negotiations in this context will be highly sensitive. This is due to the fact that the company will want to avoid a scenario where it is ordering its staff to resume duty without guaranteeing that it will borrow their ideas in the decision making process (Quinn et al, 2015). Apparently, any organization’s staff will worsen the level of the conflict at hand with the top management if it is ordered to continue working without being assured that its grievances will be satisfactorily addressed. Therefore, the management is expected to come up with strategies that will incorporate employee opinions into the decision making exercise like exercising the open door policy or installing employee suggestion boxes in the available break rooms for them to channel their opinions. 

Naturally, individuals communicate in divergent ways. Some could need little information to grasp ideas about a give subject, while others could need relatively more pieces of information about the same subject to make deductions (Griffin, Phillips & Gully, 2016).Understanding this nature is important to finding a common ground to mast conflicts. When workers communicate in different ways in the workplace, they are most likely to encounter conflicts as a result of dissimilarities amongst them. Therefore, letting each side to tell their version of the story will be critical to solving such conflicts. To top management in this case will only act a facilitators who will help in finding compromise. So as to facilitate compromise in such contexts, the managers should spend time with each party secretly in order to be sure that the conflict will not be further escalated.

The Significance of Conflict and Negotiation According to Models and Theories

Apparently, conflicts arise any time and set ups involving groups are likely to be vulnerable whenever they do. Ignoring them will be detrimental to organizational progress. It is estimated that for every unattended conflict, approximately eight hours of a company’s invaluable time is lost.  This is one of the biggest indicators of how important it is to find solutions to major misunderstandings in organizations.

Due to the apparent importance of conflict resolution to organizational success various scholars have come up with various theories that explain how to go around it and the general importance of doing so (Belbin, 2011).  The most stand out theory is the Negotiation theory by William Zartman. He observes that in any negotiation, the chances of reaching an agreement depend on there being a zone of possible agreement or the ‘‘way out of the problem.’’  It should be satisfactory for both side of the disagreement. Apart from this, the involved parties should be in a hurting stalemate if the conflict has a chance of getting solved. The hurting stems from what is at stake for both the organizations and is members. Since both want to prosper they are likely to invite a chance for reconciliation. 

William also maintains that compromise is central to solving any sort of conflict. In most cases, the parties may be unwilling cede ground for such a step to materialize since they fear being deemed as losers in the long run. The most critical element in this context is that all parties should be informed on the importance of accepting to reach a compromise since further conflict will only harm them (Belbin, 2011). This theory is important since it sheds light on the path to conflict resolution.  Apart from this theory another applicable model is the give and take model. This implies that either party agrees to cede ground thereby gaining and losing in equal measure. In the long run each’s welfare will be well take care of despite accepting to part company with some benefits. This model is helpful since it enables both parties to a conflict to understand the significance of accepting to lose in order to gain since it is the surest way of achieving a breakthrough in such stalemates. This is true since both will eventually realize the importance of such a step in future.

This tool has been widely used in finding solutions to conflicts that occurs among groups members. It equips managers with the means of ensuring that models are utilized optimally while locating and controlling conflicts from escalating. It entails accommodating a conflict, avoiding it, striking a compromise, agreeing to collaborate and even competing for the perceived benefits as result of personal interest (Gibson & Fisher, 2012). If all managers thoroughly understand this tool, they will be able to identify and pre-empt potential conflicts within an organization before they become full blown much to the organization’s detriment. It also enhances the managers’ decision making process since it fosters a culture of listening and understanding both parties to a conflict before arriving at a major decision. This is a great facilitator in the process of improving high quality leadership in all organizations (Gibson & Fisher, 2012).

Application of Diagnostic Tools

This tool is used to comprehend better links in an organization set up where people are members or different teams. As a result of the importance of nature of the relationship that exists between members of an organization and the collective nature of the responsibilities involved, it is important that for them to fulfill their responsibilities, they comprehend the applicability of this element(Saxena, 20150. This will ensure that there is a productive link between the organizational members as well as maintaining them long enough. By so doing teams will avoid potentially destructive conflicts from harming them. This too helps to determine the sort of relationship that should be encouraged which will help employees to be always in good terms. It fosters a culture of members understanding their responsibilities thus minimizing possibilities of there being misunderstandings (Riasi & Asadzadeh, 2015). Managers can utilize it to ensure that there is no misunderstanding thus reducing skirmishes within the organization’s operation. Also the organizations’ members can learn from it that understanding their capabilities is important to avoid collision with their peers.

Regarding managing workers who operate in groups, ESCI is instrumental to minimizing conflicts. This is due to the fact that it facilitates in locating leaders whose abilities are average and those with superb capabilities. This can be used in the promotion of organizational leaders and also selecting those who are fit to lead groups and departments. By creating an environment of competitive advantage, ESCI helps in maintaining valuable meritocracy which will help in avoiding conflicts arising from competition. It is also critical in nurturing young workers into professional leaders in various capacities (Goold & Luchs, 2013).

Of all the three models, the Thomas Kilmann Conflict Questionnaire seems to be the best proposition due its practicability.for instance if an organization’s staff feel offended by being overworked and little pay, the organization can come up with alean working structure that demonstrates individual job roles. The company will have to make an attractive pay proposition for salaries before the discontent goes overboard. Failure to do this will prompt them to undulge in unproductive behaviours like witch hunting against those who ar perceived to be favored by the administration. 

Apparently, groups and teams in organizations need a substantial amount of time and attention especially regarding conflict management and negotiation. For any strategy regarding conflict resolution to work accordingly, it will be important to get rid of all the predisposing factors. They could be, harassment, disproportional workload, miscommunication, or even proper job specification. Also, ensuring credibility on the side of the management will be critical since the workers will respect it depending on how transparent they are in terms of how they conduct their business.  With a three months strategy the administration should be able to install the various models of ensuring all these are in place. 

Throughout this period all disagreements should be clarified, accomplish the establishment of a common goal, lay strategies for striking compromise, and establish measure to prevent reach common ground as well as strategizing on how to help the team t avoid future altercations stemming from conflicts (David, 2013). All these steps should be tailored on the above models. The company should prepare training workshops to enable employees to sharpen their knacks regarding conflict resolution at workplace. The company will have to provide reading material that provides insight into how to live productively with workmates. Workers will also be advised on enrolling for short courses that will enable them to identify conflicting situation and solve them.


Proper, efficient and productive organizational management requires a conducive environment. This will only be guaranteed if organizations prevent major conflicts from affecting their operations (Goold & Luchs, 2013). This will be effected through visualizing, strategizing, and implementing strategies and models on how to identify, prevent and resolve conflicts.


Proehl, R.A., 2013. Enhancing the effectiveness of cross?functional teams. Team Performance Management: An International Journal.

Riasi, A. & Asadzadeh, N., 2015. The relationship between principals’ reward power and their conflict management styles based on Thomas–Kilmann conflict mode instrument.Management Science Letters, 5(6), pp.611-618.

Saxena, P., 2015. Johari Window: An Effective Model for Improving Interpersonal Communication and Managerial Effectiveness. SIT Journal of Management, 5(2), pp.134-146.

Gibson, V., & Fisher, D. 2012. Managing small groups: a how-to guide. New York, Macmillan/McGraw-Hill.

Belbin, R. M. 2011. Management Teams: Why They Succeed or Fail, 3rd edn, Human Resource. Management International Digest, vol. 19, no. 3.

Griffin, R W, Phillips, J M & Gully, S M. 2016. Organizational Behaviour: Managing People and Organizations, 12thedn, Cengage Learning.

Saxena, P., 2015. Johari Window: An Effective Model for Improving Interpersonal

Quinn, R.E Faerman, S.R. Thompson, M.P. McGrant and Brigt, D.S. 2015. Becoming Master Manager: A Competency Framework, 6th edn, Wiley and Sons, Toronto. Module 1.Competency 5

Robbins, S.P., Judge, T.A., Millett, B. and Waters-Marsh, T. 2008, OrganizationalBehavior, 5th Edition, Frenchs Forest: Pearson Education. Chapter 15

Yeung, D. Y., Fung, H.F. & Chan, D. 2015,"Managing conflict at work: comparison between younger and older managerial employees", International Journal of Conflict Management, Vol. 26 No. 3 pp. 342 – 364

Jehn, K.A., Rispens, S. & Thatcher, S.M.B 2012 “Managing Conflict in Groups and Teams: Conflict about Conflict” Research on Managing Groups and Teams, v. 15, pp.133 – 159

Medina, F.J., Munduate, L., Dorado, M.A., Martinez, I. and Guerra, J.M. 2005 Types of intra-group conflict and affective reactions. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20 (3/4), pp. 219-230.

Xiaohua, L. and Miller, S.J. 2013 Negotiation approaches: direct and indirect effect of national culture. International Marketing Review, 20 (3), pp. 286

James, W. 2012. Solving Organizational Conflicts for Better Performance. Management Science Letters, 5(6), pp.611-618.

Lyndah, Y & Ken, K. 2014. Organizational management with a view of Solving Daily Conflicts. An International Journal.

Goold, M., & Luchs, K. S. 2013. Diversification and corporate-level strategy: strategic issues for multibusiness companies. London, Routledge.

Coghlan, D. 2013. Managing Organizational Change through Conflict and Negotiation, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 15, no. 2, and pp. 18 – 23.

James, R.A. 2016. Redefining Organizational Conflict Resolution. Business Journal.

David, H.R.2013. The Essence of Solving Organizational Conflicts. International Journal of Conflict Management

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