Get Instant Help From 5000+ Experts For
question

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing:Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

And Improve Your Grades
myassignmenthelp.com
loader
Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Attach file

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Guaranteed Higher Grade!
Free Quote
wave
Statement of the Problem

Discuss About The Dropouts At Drametse Central School Bhutan.

The importance of education depicts the value of education in the life of an individual. Education facilitates the knowledge, learning, and skill and helps in changing the mind and the personality of an individual for attaining a positive attitude. Importance of education is manifold and it should not be neglected since it is one of the essential source of real happiness and attainment of development and peace in life (Dorji & Kinga, 2005). One of the major backlashes to the growth and development of education in the globe is the increased level of dropouts. In the field of education, the increased rate of dropouts from the school can be an alarming issue to the stakeholders like the governments, community who invests in the success, welfare and the development of the educational institution.

A remote community of the Eastern Bhutan is the Drametse. The major population of the community consists of hardworking entrepreneurs, successful shopkeepers, and sedentary farmers. The people of this community still has the mindset consisting of primitive thoughts. The light of education and the possible development that can be achieved from the notion of education has still not yet reached to the community people. Their mindset is still not in correlation with the pace of the development. It has been found that most of the community people still carry a primitive age-old thought that does not accept education as the tool for the betterment of their future. For this reason, most of the learners of the community tend to drop out their education and school at a tender age. This is because most of the parents of the children do not know about the importance of education as the enlightenment for the future of their family, community, and the country.

One of the essential tools for a bright future is the education. It plays an essential role in the progress and development of the nation. Higher rates of school dropouts are only leading to increased number of uneducated people who are the hindrance in the pathway of the development. The remote community people still carries the old mindset which does not recognize education as the one and only key tool for development (Tucker, 2018). This attitude is creating a major issue in the development of the future of the children in the community. Often it has been found that parents tend to disallow their children to attend school further as education to them is just an extra investment with no further benefits.The problem lies in this age-old attitudes and the primitive tough process which needs to be revised for the betterment and welfare of the future of the community children. The aim of the study is to find out the possible reasons and the consequences for the increasing rate of school dropouts and the possible recommendations to reduce the dropout rate by the stakeholders and the educational institutions.

Rationale of the Research

The aim of this pice of research is to understand the importance of the education in the welfare and development of the children of the community of Eastern Bhutan.

The research objectives are:

  • To identify the possible reasons of the increasing rate of drop outs at the Drametse Central School of Bhutan.
  • To suggest the probable measures by which the stakeholders and the schools can initiate reduction in the drop out rate in the educational institution.
  • To understand the importance of education for the remote community of the Eastern Bhutan for their success.

Bhutan remained in isolation for many centuries with no or little developmental activities. During early 1960’s with start of five-year developmental plan, modern education became an inevitable tool for economic and social growth. The modern education started only in 1960’s with inauguration of two schools.  With the introduction of modern education system, government realized its importance in economic growth and people too became increasingly aware of its contribution in social development. As a result, number of student’s enrollment increased from less than 400 in late 1960’s to 155,234 in 2004 (Dorji& Kinga,2005). As per Annual Education Statistics (2016), at present there are 522 schools with total students of 169560 from pre-primary to year XII.

A research on the Enrolment & Retention Strategies in Bhutan by Ministry of Education reveals that though school dropout rate from pre-primary to year 10 has decreased over a decade. The report also points out that net enrollment ratio (NER) decreases in lower and middle schools . This indicates that the drop out number increases in lower and middle secondary schools. Such trend may prove to be disastrous in long run.The ministry of education during 11thfive-year plan targeted to achieve 100% enrollment in schools however, such initiatives did not see much progress mainly due to drop outs (Cabus & De Witte, 2016).

As stated by Gyamtsho,Swabey and Pullen (2015) drop outs is a‘multifaceted problem’. The studies all over the world found common reasons for drop outs, the family related issues, poverty and personal problems. Witte, Cabus, Thyssen, Groot and Brink (2013) argues that dropouts should not only be attributed to external factors such as family or personal issues but also to flaws in system. In line with this an article by Tucker (2018) suggests that another reason is the ‘boredom’ where the system and the content fails to ignite excitement in students.Studies by Gyamtsho, Swabey and Pullen (2016) wraps up the causes of drop out in Bhutan into two broad categories; individual factors and school factors and also explains the inter relatedness of these two factors. For instance,unstable financial condition at home and unsupportive school conditions can demotivate students to retain their schooling. The study revealed that despite various reasons the most common reason was the affordability which interestingly contradicts the system of free education in Bhutan.

Research Aims and Objectives

Though no major studies are carried out to know the reason for students leaving school in Drametse Central School. An inquiry set by school authority suggests that school being located in rural area, majority of the parents are illiterate, unaware of importance of education resulting in lack of parental support towards schooling. Moreover, the students come from low financial background whose livelihood depends upon agricultural work. The students quit school in search of job to support their family financially or to help their parents with farm work. This type of situation link dropout with child labor. However, study by Kishore and Shaji (2012) in Kerala showed different relationship between them. The study revealed that its not only the financial situation at home that compels dropping out and seek for job but the cultural trend of people preferring skill job to professional work obstructs children from having further higher qualifications.

Dropping out of schools is disastrous to individual drop out, community and to the country as a whole. Country’s economic growth relies on education. It is estimated that a class of drop out cost government about $200 million in the form of tax (Latif,Choudhary and Hammayun, 2015). In Bhutan, drop outs neither have brighter employment perspectives nor they are able to cope with farm work back at home. Dropouts are seen to be migrating towards urban cities in search of jobs. However, lack of proper qualification lands them nowhere. In the process, they become vulnerable to substance abuse, and other crimes.

Considering the causes of drop outs, all the concerned stakeholders, Principal, teacher, parents or community and policy makers have an important role to play in minimizing the issues or the problem (Freeman & Simonsen, 2015). Studies points out that a positive relationship between the teacher-student and Principal -student indirectly help improve student’s motivation through positive engagement. Moreover, supportive and caring adult outside school is also crucial. Brown (2015) describes the importance of leaders in building environment for student’s retention. She also argues that the inclusion of parents in school activities plays an essential role in enhancing positive communication between the school and parents regarding the student achievement. Such inclusion also helps both teachers and parents understand their respective role in shaping a child.The interventions from policy makers is vital for having fruitful positive relationships. Study by Bessell (2019) in Fiji reveals that “Without professional support, development and clear guidelines for experienced teachers, it is unlikely that significant change will occur”. Further, reforms in teacher training curricula is required for capacity building of teachers for effective student teacher relationship. Therefore, the serious issue of student retention in school is not a responsibility of a school or student themselves but it is collaborative responsibility where all the stakeholders work in partnership with the students.

Literature Review

Bhutan has seen a very minute light of development through the last decades. The development of the five-year plan and implementation of education became an essential tool for the social and economic growth in Bhutan a decade later after the retention of strategies by the ministry of education (Dupéré et al., 2018). The importance of education came to the light much after the realization of the government regarding its benefits for social and economic growth among the community people. The research focuses on the rate of school dropouts and the decrease in the enrollment ratios in the educational institutions (Kishore & Shaji, 2012). Furthermore, it has been mostly found that the rate of drop out is higher in the lower and the middle secondary level schools. This is because the majority of the people in the community are illiterate and unaware about the importance and essentiality of the education and this negative attitude of the rents result in the lack of support towards the attainment of school by their children. This study highlights the concern regarding the unacceptance of education as the key tool for the development by the Drametse community and the issues faced by the stakeholders for the rising drop out rates from the educational institution by the children of the community.

The research questions of this proposal are stated below:

  • How can the stakeholders be informed for making them aware about the increasing number of drop out rates in Drametse Central School of Bhutan?
  • Wht are the various measures by which the stake holders and the educational institutions can decrease the rate of school drop outs?
  • What is the role of the ducation in propagating development and welfare of the community of Drametse at Bhutan?
  • What are the possible causes and consequences for the rising rate of school drop outs in Bhutan?

The research method will include the procedure to deal with various types of techniques that are used while conducting the research procedure. The research methodology, the term refers to the procedures that initiate help for conducting the targeted research in an organized and systematic way or manner (Brown, 2015). The methodology of the research allows the understanding of various categories of techniques that are generally utilized while conducting research. Hence the research method can be stated as the procedure for the proposed research which is well structured and organized.

This research will include Constructivists and Interpretivist approach while conducting the research methodology. Constructivism is the identification of the reality which is the product of the human intelligence that interacts with the real world experiences. The constructivist's approach is dependable in cognitive psychology. The type of research in the context of constructivists approach is qualitative in nature. Furthermore, the methods used in this approach include open-ended questions, rising approaches, images, and texts. Some of the basic practises of research in this approach includes positioning of the researcher within the given context, collection of participant-generated meanings, studying the context and validating the accuracy level of the findings, interpretation of the relevant information or data collected and involving the researcher in collaboration with the targeted groups or participants for the collection of further accurate data set (Panneerselvam, 2014). Interpretivism approach involves the researchers to analyze the elements of the study that results in integrating human interest into the study (Gyamtsho, Swabey & Pullen, 2015). The interpretivist approach is associated with the philosophical platform of idealism and is generally utilized to analyze diverse approaches that include hermeneutics, constructivism, and phenomenology. According to the interpretive approaches, it is extremely essential for the researcher to appreciate the variation among people targeted for the research study. The approach moreover focuses on the understanding and may also include multiple methodologies for reflecting different aspects of the problem (Marchbanks III et al., 2015). The nature of reality of the interpretive approach is socially constructed and multiple in nature. The goal of the research approach is understanding and identifying the weak predictions. Furthermore, one of the positive or advantages of this approach includes the study of the areas of qualitative research like the cross-cultural variations in the organizations, issues related to ethics, and analysis of the factors affecting the research area.

The research philosophy is a platform to judge and analyze a detailed piece of study. The main categories of research philosophies that are mainly used while conducting research are interpretivism and positivism. With the reference to the researchers by Vaioleti (2016), the research philosophy of positivism initiates in the development of detailed analysis of a significant field of study. The above study will deal with the interpretivism philosophy for conducting the research. The concept of interpretivism deals with the functions and activities related to management. On the other hand, Realism is the mixed approach of the philosophy of research.

In this particular study, the research philosophy connected to the positivism will be beneficial to use since it will initiate help for investigating the problem with critical and logical approach (Latif, Choudhary & Hammayun, 2015). It should also be noted that the research philosophy of positivism is extracted from sensory experiences.Hence, the resulted findings of the research will be dependable on the facts.

Analytical or descriptive, explanatory and exploratory are the three major types of the designs of the research. Among all of these, the analytical research design is helpful for understanding and evaluating the research in a descriptive manner (Simonsohn, Nelson & Simmons, 2017). The exploratory design is basically used for the understanding of the concept at preliminary stage during the research process and that of exploratory design is utilized for developing and forming a connection among the two variables that are taken under the consideration. In case of the current study, analytical research design will be utilized for the research for gaining detailed ideas regarding the concepts and theories of the research study.

This particular research will rely on the accumulation and collection of secondary and primary data sources. While conducting the research,primary data will be collected on the basis of various resources namely by survey method, interviews and secondary reliable sources that will include all relevant categories of data, available both in printed form and in the online platforms. While carrying out this particular research study, both of the data will be used efficiently.

Figure 1- The Data collection Process

(Source: The Author)

For conducting an appropriate study, it is required to collect accurate dataset or pieces of information. The research procedure is conducted with the data collected by the secondary of primary data collection method. Primary data are those that are collected by the taking interviews, questionnaires and survey methodologies (Bessell, 2019). On the other hand, secondary data are those which are collected from journals, articles or books which contains an analysis of primary data and information by other researchers. In case of primary data, the researcher will have to conduct a proper survey on which he needs to analyze the collected data, in case of secondary data, the researcher will have to be dependent on the peer-reviewed journals and online resources that are already available online.

For this particular research method, it is essential for the researcher to choose to collect both the primary and the secondary data. This research will involve mixed method. A set of survey questionnaire would be distributed among the population sample for the collection of data regarding the drop out rates and the possible reasons behind children leaving school at an early age.

Furthermore, the interview will also be arranged with the stakeholders for acquiring different perspectives on the drop out rates of the school. The questionnaire that will be prepared for this research will be mostly an open-ended and the views and perspectives of each and every sample will be taken into consideration. Relying on their information, further data analysis will be conducted to provide appropriate results and recommendations (Goux,  Gurgand & Maurin, 2017). Furthermore, the research will also be dependable on secondary sources for this particular study.

It is defined as the method or the procedure of selecting units which include individuals or organizations from the population who are aleady associated with the research. Sampling is mainly of two types. These are probability and non probability sampling.

Figure 2 – The Sampling Method

(Source: The Author)

The concept of probability sampling method permits the selection or identification of the sample population and the respondents at the random basis. This particular technique is beneficial for knowing the total response of a targeted sample population over a selected topic or issue. In case of nonprobability sampling, the sampling method does not allow the identification or selection of the respondents or the sample size on a random basis. The researcher for this particular research should identify their targeted respondents who are actually apt for the research purpose.

Justification of the sampling method

In case of this particular research,a total number of 100 to 150 students from the year 7 to 10 years will be randomly chose. Furthermore the chosen sample will include principal, teacher from each of the various disciplines and the community people or the parents of the students. For conducting this research, hence simple random probability sampling method will be taken into consideration for gaining a better understanding regarding the topic.

For undergoing the analysis of the information that are collected with the help of the survey methods, the data or the information will be effectively converted in percentages and numerics for gaining a comprehensive analysis regarding the comparison of the data.These collected data or information can further be simplified into graphs and charts for forming a graphical or a pictorial representation of the collected information.The data collected from the method of interview will be summarized considering various other themes which are directly connected to the topic of research (Jia, Konold & Cornell, 2016).

According to the Data Protection Act of 1998, while conducting a particular research process, it is important for the researcher to maintain the privacy of the data that are collected and not exposed (Patrick, Schulenberg & O’Malley, 2016). During the entire procedure of the research, strict ethical guidelines will be followed. In case of the collection of the primary data, no students or the stakeholders namely the parents of the students, the teachers or the community people will be compelled to take part in my the survey, furthermore a consent form shall also be provided to all the participant of the research survey and gathering of their signature on the particular consent form is a must. The survey paper will not contain any resemblance or logo of any other thing except the organization since the survey paper should portray that it is completely based on academic purposes only. If there is any requirement of permission from any authority while conducting the survey, an authorization letter from the university will be presented on the required areas.

In case of the collection of secondary resources, referencing is an essential factor for avoiding any kind of plagiarism issues. Thus it can be concluded that there should not be any kind of approach while conducting the research that can violate the regulations and norms of the guidelines of research ethics.

Each and every researcher faces hurdle or certain limitations while conducting a research. According to Simonsohn et al., (2017), a certain number of limitations are bound to be present during the study of the research, no matter how organized and well planned the research has been done. In this particular research study, the major limitations are the research budget and the research time. The limited period of time and limited area of the budget will be the possible limitations of the research. Furthermore, it may happen that some of the resources are inaccessible and unavailable. The response obtained from the respondents or the sample population might not be sufficient enough for obtaining a good and relevant outcome. Hence the research needs to be organized and planned in a most appropriate method that would facilitate the researcher to conduct and complete the research in the right manner.

Time Horizon (The Gantt Chart)

Activity

Months

M Jan

M Feb

M Mar

April

MMay

MJune

MJuly

Finalizing the topic

ü 

Collecting data from  secondary sources

ü 

ü 

Forming a layout of the research work

ü 

Conducting  Literature review

ü 

ü 

ü 

Forming the research plan

ü 

ü 

Selecting  appropriate research methodologies

ü 

ü 

Collecting data from  primary  sources

ü 

ü 

Analysis of collected data sets

ü 

ü 

Interpretation of  collected data sets

ü 

Concluding the Study

ü 

Designing a  rough draft

ü 

ü 

Submitting the Final Work

ü 

ü 

Table 1: Time Line of the Research

(Source: Created by the author)

The Research method

Detailed Time line

Selecting the sample population

1 Week

The Literature review

3 Weeks

Distribution and collection of  the Survey questionnaire

1 Week

The Interview of the Stakeholders

2 Weeks

Analysis of the data

2 Weeks

Drafting of the final report

3 Weeks

Table 2: Detailed Time Line of the Research

(Source: Created by the author)

The primary step in the procedure of the submission of a proposal is to recognize a solicitation (Robinson, 2014). A budget is mainly the key elements of most of the grant proposals and generally serves as the blueprint for funds of the project.

Topic

Expected Cost

Collecting data from  secondary sources

· Books and journals

· Access to library

· Statistical softwares for data analysis

· Access to online data bases for peer reviwed journals and articles

 $ 250

$50

$21

$100

$90

Collecting data from  primary  sources

· Forming questionnaire

· Organizing survey

· Obtaining permission from the university and other authorities

· Distribution of gifts to the children

· Appointment with the teachers and the principle of the school

· Access to governmental survey projects

$ 1009

$200

$150

$289

$600

$120

$300

Analysis of collected data sets

$ 50

Interpretation of  collected data sets

$ 23

Designing a  layout of the rough draft

$ 12

 

Conclusion 

Education enables facilitation the knowledge, learning, and skill and helps in altering the mind and the trait of an individual for gaining a positive attitude. Importance of education is huge and thus it should not be neglected since it is one of the essential source of real happiness and attainment of development and peace in life. Education plays an important role in the evaluation and the development of the nation. Higher rates of school dropouts are only leading to increased number of illetarate people who are the obstacles in the pathway of the success. This particular study will rely on the collection of both secondary and primary data sources. While conducting the research, primary data will be collected on the basis of various resources namely by survey method, interviews and secondary reliable sources that will include all relevant categories of data, available both in printed form and in the online platforms. In this particular research study, the major limitations are the research budget and the research time and the proposal addresses the possible research on the causes and the consequences of the increased number of drop out rates at school and the possible measures and steps the school authorities and the stakeholders can opt for eradicating and diminishing the drop out rates of the community students from the school. From the literature review, it has furthermore been found that the relevant causes of dropouts are mainly poverty, illiteracy and simply unawareness of the benefits and importance of education in lighting the pathway of the success of the children of the community. Furthermore, it has also been found that the rate of drop outs are slightly higher in the higher secondary grades which focuses on the concern to the stakeholders regarding the unawareness of higher education among the community people.

References  

Bessell (2019). Strengthening Fiji’s education system: a view from key stakeholder. Pacific Economic Bulletin. 24(3). 58-70.

Brown.K,E. (2015). The Link Between Leadership and Reduced Dropout Rates. Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu

Cabus, S. J., & De Witte, K. (2016). Why do students leave education early? Theory and evidence on high school dropout rates. Journal of Forecasting, 35(8), 690-702.

Dorji.L & Kinga. S.(2005). Youth in Bhutan Education, Employment, Development. Thimphu:Bhutan. The Center for Bhutan Studies.

Dupéré, V., Dion, E., Leventhal, T., Archambault, I., Crosnoe, R., & Janosz, M. (2018). High school dropout in proximal context: The triggering role of stressful life events. Child development, 89(2), e107-e122.

Freeman, J., & Simonsen, B. (2015). Examining the impact of policy and practice interventions on high school dropout and school completion rates: A systematic review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 85(2), 205-248.

Freeman, J., Simonsen, B., McCoach, D. B., Sugai, G., Lombardi, A., & Horner, R. (2015). An analysis of the relationship between implementation of school-wide positive behavior interventions and supports and high school dropout rates. The High School Journal, 98(4), 290-315.

Goux, D., Gurgand, M., & Maurin, E. (2017). Adjusting your dreams? High school plans and dropout behaviour. The Economic Journal, 127(602), 1025-1046.

Gyamtsho.S, Swabey.K & Pullen.D. (2015). Capturing the Voices of School Drop-Outs In Bhutan. The Australia Association for Research in Education. Retrieved from www.researchgate.net/publication/296294812.

Jia, Y., Konold, T. R., & Cornell, D. (2016). Authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates. School Psychology Quarterly, 31(2), 289.

Kishore.A,N,R & Shaji. K,S (2012). School Dropouts: Examining the Space of Reasons.Indian Journal for Psychological Medicine. 34(4): 318–323.

Latif. A, Choudhary. A & HammayunA, A.(2015). Economic Effects of Student Dropouts:A Comparative Study. Retrieved from www.omicsonline.org.

Marchbanks III, M. P., Blake, J. J., Booth, E. A., Carmichael, D., Seibert, A. L., & Fabelo, T. (2015). The economic effects of exclusionary discipline on grade retention and high school dropout. Closing the school discipline gap: Equitable remedies for excessive exclusion, 59-74.

Palinkas, L. A., Horwitz, S. M., Green, C. A., Wisdom, J. P., Duan, N., & Hoagwood, K. (2015). Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(5), 533-544.

Panneerselvam, R., 2014. Research methodology. PHI Learning Pvt.Ltd..

Patrick, M. E., Schulenberg, J. E., & O’Malley, P. M. (2016). High school substance use as a predictor of college attendance, completion, and dropout: A national multicohort longitudinal study. Youth & society, 48(3), 425-447.

Robinson, O. C. (2014). Sampling in interview-based qualitative research: A theoretical and practical guide. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 11(1), 25-41.

Simonsohn, U., Nelson, L. & Simmons, J., 2017. Research Methodology, Design, and Analysis. Annual Review of Psychology, 69(1).

Tucker. C.(2018). What Are Problems That Cause Students to Drop Out of School? Retrieved from https://education.seattlepi.com/problems-cause-students-drop-out-school-1412.html.

Witte.K,W, Cabus.S,  Thyssen.G, Groot.W & Brink.H.M (2013). A Critical Review of the Literature on School Dropout. Retrieved from www.reseachgate.net/publishers.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2019). Drametse Central School Bhutan - Dropout Essay: Causes, Effects, Recommendations.. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/dropouts-at-drametse-central-school-bhutan.

"Drametse Central School Bhutan - Dropout Essay: Causes, Effects, Recommendations.." My Assignment Help, 2019, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/dropouts-at-drametse-central-school-bhutan.

My Assignment Help (2019) Drametse Central School Bhutan - Dropout Essay: Causes, Effects, Recommendations. [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/dropouts-at-drametse-central-school-bhutan
[Accessed 25 May 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Drametse Central School Bhutan - Dropout Essay: Causes, Effects, Recommendations.' (My Assignment Help, 2019) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/dropouts-at-drametse-central-school-bhutan> accessed 25 May 2024.

My Assignment Help. Drametse Central School Bhutan - Dropout Essay: Causes, Effects, Recommendations. [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2019 [cited 25 May 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/dropouts-at-drametse-central-school-bhutan.

Get instant help from 5000+ experts for
question

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing: Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

loader
250 words
Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Attach file

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Plagiarism checker
Verify originality of an essay
essay
Generate unique essays in a jiffy
Plagiarism checker
Cite sources with ease
support
Whatsapp
callback
sales
sales chat
Whatsapp
callback
sales chat
close