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The Epigenetic Concept and Psychosocial Development Theory

Developed by Erik Erickson, the idea of psychosocial development holds that human beings are driven by a desire to just be competent in variety of aspects of our lives, which includes work and family life. According to the notion, human beings go through eight phases of development throughout their lives, beginning with birth and ending with childhood. Every stage delves into the crises as well as touch points in human experience, as well as what has to be done in order to overcome the issues that have arisen (Maree, 2021). Individuals get a feeling of accomplishment and personality as a result of doing each duty successfully. Characteristics such as behaviour, manner of thinking, and goals are heavily impacted by a character's character. As a result, it is critical to increase awareness in order to better understand the aspects that influence people's personalities. This study examines the biography of Malala Yousafzai, who is well-known for advocating for women's educational rights. Erikson's theory is applied to the case of Malala Yousafzai.

The epigenetic concept is critical to the growth of psychosocial development theory. The epigenetic concept, at its heart, posits that development occurs in conjunction with unfolding of personality according to a predetermined plan (Walter &Humpel, 2017). The theory also includes the belief that human beings evolve via the unfolding of personality in present phases and which both the environment and culture have an impact on their progression through the stages of development. The achievement of each milestone, but rather, the progression through every stage, is influenced in part by the success or failure experienced in the preceding stages. Developmental demands of psychosocial nature define every one of these phases as they go through the stages. For instance, in Malala's case, from time of her birth to the time of her enrolment in school, she received support from her father in the pursuit of a higher education (Rubin, 2016). A psychological stage called Industry vs. Inferiority occurs throughout the school years, according to Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. Children have been expected to meet the expectations of their environments, both socially and intellectually. Parents and instructors who encourage and support the children throughout this time help them to feel competent and build a sense of confidence in their abilities.

Notably, the idea that encompasses one's full life span is also marked by periods of crisis. As per Erikson, the idea of crisis refers to a sequence of internal struggles that a child goes through that are connected to the many phases of childhood development (Syed & McLean, 2017). A person's identity as a kid and as an adolescent will be determined by how they deal with crises throughout their childhood. During the third stage of development, when the kid starts to renounce her attachment to opposite sex parent, problems arise. A parent's responsibility is to encourage their kid to take the appropriate efforts while being non-ruthless. As the kid progresses through middle adolescence, he or she has a crisis of identity as opposed to perplexity. In this crisis, students must find a way to strike the right balance between creating a distinct personality and being embraced by their classmates at the same time; Identifying one's own identity and deciding how one wants to be regarded by others are important tasks for adolescents. The ability to radiate confidence and interact with people in a healthy manner without sacrificing their individuality is a result of this. As per Erickson's view, when teenagers successfully traverse this stage, they go to the next stage, which is emotional maturity.

Industry vs. Inferiority: Challenges in Childhood Development

When asked the question "Who am I?" a high majority of people are anxious about their identity. The notion is fundamentally personal, and it varies as an adolescent goes through phases of upheaval and reconsideration, as described above. The identity of a person is greatly impacted by their life circumstances, family, and the larger culture in which they inhabit. According to research, the formation of one's identity is a lifetime process marked by experiences of competency as well as vulnerability throughout one's life (Crocetti, 2017). The development of identity begins in infancy, but it takes on a new dimension throughout adolescence, owing to the convergence of cognitive, physical, as well as relational changes. According to recent research, this time of adolescence is crucial for the development of one's psychosocial skills (Brown, Patel & Darmawan, 2017). In order for a teenager to be successful in developing an identity, they must take all they have learnt during their growth and shape it into a coherent picture that the rest of society can accept. Malala had constructed her identity as an educationalist, in the same way that her father had done, since she was a youngster. By time she reached puberty, Malala had already made up her mind that she wanted to work as the advocate for women's educational rights in Pakistan. Influential male individuals from the Taliban, who believed that females probably didn't deserve being educated, expressed some sort of disapproval of the initiative (Albarello, Crocetti & Rubini, 2018).

Malala's capacity to establish a strong sense of self was bolstered by the important position his father played society. As the educationalist, he was responsible for the establishment of schools. In addition, he had earned a higher level of schooling (Ashish & Narain, 2015). The presentation of such achievements assisted Malala in distinguishing between an adult and a kid. The teenager is more prone to slip into role of perplexity if he or she does not have firm foundations.

In the event of indifference and teenagers who do not actively seek their own identities, they may be compelled to comply to their parents' expectations for their future. As a result, they are confused about their respective roles. At its foundation, role uncertainty is defined as the condition of being unsure about one's position in society as well as world (Kitchen's & Abell, 2020). Malala was in the precarious position as Muslim girl within Pakistan while also advocating for rights educational of other women. She was in a situation of turmoil. The reasoning for this is based on the expectation that women would conduct household duties such as meal preparation and recreational activities. Throughout her book, she describes her upbringing as follows: "I grew up in a country where guns are fired in celebration of a son, while females are locked away behind a curtain, their only function in life being to prepare food and giving birth to the children (2013); (Yousafzai, 2013). She goes through the dilemma of trying to find a balance between growing her identity as the educationalist as well as fitting in with Islam society, which she does by adhering to traditional female responsibilities such as housewifery and motherhood. Of the several problems she had to face, her primary concern was protection from the Taliban insurgents. As a result, she had the responsibility of ensuring that the homestead gate and doors were shut when everyone retired for the night. Malala's capacity to overcome obstacles and crises aided her in developing a strong sense of personal identity and self-worth.

Identity Formation and Adolescence

Ego identification is the moment at which a person understands who they are as well as how they fit into the larger social system. One of the most effective strategies to develop a strong ego image is to implement an identity moratorium. According to Erikson, an identification moratorium is a position that identifies persons who are actively considering whether or not to get into a committed relationship (Cheng, et al., 2019). Ordinarily, a person cannot identify with a certain identity unless they have achieved some level of identification with that identity. Malala establishes her identity even after she has completed her adolescence by establishing a foundation dedicated to pushing for women's right of education. Just like in case of Malala, the most significant improvements in the formation and accomplishment of ego identification occur throughout adolescence, when one is exposed to a wide range of options and options are presented to one.

Malala's primary support system consisted mostly of her father, who pushed her to seek higher education. His primary impact was that of a mentor and role model, emphasising the significance of education. As previously stated, the difficulty of defining Islam as well as its relationship to gender that proved to be a barrier to women pursuing higher education. Moreover, women are expected to remain at home and care for their children as a matter of mutual commitment (Greenaway, 2016). It is Malala's tale that exemplifies how her father as well as family are committed to education of girls, irrespective of whether or not it is in accordance with teachings of Qur'an. A strong feeling of identity as well as control over one's own life, as per Erickson's psychosocial theory, emerges in teenagers who are adequately supported by their support systems (Orestein & Lewis, 2020). In addition to parents and immediate family members, societal trends contribute to an individual's overall well-being as they seek their own unique identities.

Conclusion

To sum up that has been stated above It is essential for the advancement of psychosocial development theory that the concept of epigenetics be understood. It asserts that growth happens in tandem with the unveiling of one's personality in accordance with a predefined course of action. The idea also incorporates the concept that human beings go through a series of predetermined stages. Malala Yousafzai's ability to develop a positive sense of identity was aided by her father's work as an educationalist, which helped her to achieve success. If an adolescent does not have solid roots in his or her identity, he or she is more likely to fall into the position of confusion. In addition to her ability to overcome hurdles and crises, Malala Yousafzai's strong sense of the personal identity as well as self-worth was a contributing factor to her success. In psychology, ego identification is indeed the point at which a person realises those who are and where they fit into the larger social system. The Teenagers who receive adequate support from their support systems develop a strong sense of identity and also a strong sense of control over their own lives. In addition to the influence of one's parents as well as immediate family, society trends have an impact on one's general well-being and happiness.

References

Albarello, F., Crocetti, E., & Rubini, M. (2018). I and us: A longitudinal study on the interplay of personal and social identity in adolescence. Journal of youth and adolescence, 47(4), 689-702.

Ashish Thomas, E., & Narain Shukul, R. (2015). Framing of Malala Yousafzai: a comparative analysis of news coverage in Western and Pakistani mainstream English print and alternative media. Media Asia, 42(3-4), 225-241.

Brown, K. A., Patel, D. R., & Darmawan, D. (2017). Participation in sports in relation to adolescent growth and development. Translational pediatrics, 6(3), 150.

Cheng, H. Y., Yu, C. C., Lin, C. L., Shih, H. C., & Kuo, C. W. (2019). Ego-lane position identification with event warning applications. IEEE Access, 7, 14378-14386.

Crocetti, E. (2017). Identity formation in adolescence: The dynamic of forming and consolidating identity commitments. Child Development Perspectives, 11(2), 145-150.

Greenaway, K. H., Cruwys, T., Haslam, S. A., & Jetten, J. (2016). Social identities promote well?being because they satisfy global psychological needs. European Journal of Social Psychology, 46(3), 294-307.

Kitchens, R., & Abell, S. (2020). Ego Identity Versus Role Confusion. Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences, 1254-1257.

Maree, J. G. (2021). The psychosocial development theory of Erik Erikson: critical overview. Early Child Development and Care, 191(7-8), 1107-1121.

Rubin, L. P. (2016). Maternal and pediatric health and disease: integrating biopsychosocial models and epigenetics. Pediatric research, 79(1), 127-135.

Syed, M., & McLean, K. C. (2017). Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development.

Walter, J., & Hümpel, A. (2017). Introduction to epigenetics. In Epigenetics (pp. 11-29). Springer VS, Wiesbaden.

Yousafzai, M. (2013). I am Malala: The girl who stood up for education and was shot by the Taliban. Little, Brown. https://dspace.kottakkalfarookcollege.edu.in:8001/jspui/bitstream/123456789/1713/1/I %20AM%20MALALA

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