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Upon successful completion of this module, you will have demonstrated:  

1. A detailed account of the challenges encountered by children.

2 A critical understanding of the challenges encountered by children. Skills

3. To evaluate the forms of intervention employed to support children.

4. To critically analyse one area of exceptionality.

5. To devise a learning programme with rationale to support practitioners in managing the behaviour of a child with a chosen need.

1. A written assignment of demonstrating in depth knowledge and understanding of an area of exceptionality and the impact of this on the child in terms of potential barriers to learning. You will need to critically analyse the challenges and the possible impact on their holistic development and wellbeing.  It will include an evaluation of forms of intervention to support children with your chosen area of need.  LO 1, 2, 3 and 4.

2. A learning programme, with rationale, for an individual/s with your chosen specific learning difficulty discussed in assessment 1.

About Dyslexia

Dyslexia is a type of disorder in which the suffering child should have some type of problem regarding the reading. It is also identified as a reading disorder. In such type of cases, the student or the child might have the proper intelligence to learning something new, but they will be unable to read in most of the cases (Ellis, 2016). There are more symptoms of this disease which are, problems in spelling a word correctly, writing a word correctly and speaking fluently. This type of disease often noticed first time at the school when the student might face some difficulties to learn some basic things. It is believed that the dyslexia is caused by some genetic issues. Dyslexia is one of the common learning issues, and it can appear in both male and females. Though dyslexia is a type of learning disorder, it has no connection with the intelligence of the children. Dyslexia is non-curable disease and can affect all the people belongs from the cultural background (Knowles, 2017). Dyslexia is non-curable means not that the students or the child cannot succeed in their life. For example, there are many famous personalities with the dyslexia disease. In this assessment, a brief about dyslexia disease will be discussed, and the main aspects of dyslexia will be highlighted. Further, in this assessment dyslexia symptoms, causes of dyslexia, potential barriers to learning will be discussed. Also, the paper will critically analyse the challenges faced by the dyslexic child and will help the children by evaluating the support need by the student. In the end, this paper will discuss some steps to overcome the barriers to learning for dyslexic students.

Dyslexia is a particular type of a learning disability which can be seen in the early stage of development of the kids. Dyslexia affected child or student face trouble in reading learning some new things. They also face problems while writing and spelling something. The main difficulty faced by dyslexia affected student is the reading, which is becoming the main barrier in the learning process (Alsobhi, Khan & Rahanu, 2014). It is the most common learning issue which is faced by the students.  From recent researches, it has been found that about 10 percent of the child in the United Kingdom is affected by the dyslexia disease (Warmington, Stothard & Snowling, 2013). Dyslexia affected people have problems with answering something that they have already read, but it is possible for them to remember the lesson in a different way of learning. Though there are many barriers to learning of dyslexia affected student, there are many ways that can help the student to succeed in their early education life.

Some people believe that the dyslexia is a visual related issue and the students affected by it reverse the letters and can also write backwards, but this concept is wrong. Dyslexia affected student or child does not have any problem with their vision or problems like visualising the letters in a wrong direction. It needs to be understood that dyslexia affected people have problems reading comprehensive texts but they have no problems with their intelligence (Frith, 2017). Dyslexia affected child cannot be cured of it, but teaching in an appropriate style can help the child to overcome the challenges.

Dyslexia Symptoms

Dyslexia affected peoples have various degrees of impacts. It can vary for different peoples. The basic problems of every dyslexia student are in the reading and in spelling the words. In some critical cases, this disease can impact the writing skills, math solving skills and fluency in speaking a language (Evans et al., 2014). Another problem related to dyslexia is the decoding the words. This type of problem arises because they struggle with their general speaking skills. These problems can be seen at the preschool level of the student. This is the first stage where dyslexia can be determined. Dyslexia can be determined later on when students have problems with some complex skills like solving math, using proper grammars and reading comprehension. Also, the dyslexic student omits the sound or letters when they reading or writing. They face the big confusion of right and left for a sentence (Stein, 2017). A severe headache is also reported with the students having the dyslexia disease. The dyslexic students find difficulty to follow sequenced instructions. Many times this issue considered as a visual problem but the dyslexic students face such type of problem which is the pages of the book or screen appears too blurry to them (Bellocchi, 2013). One of the common symptoms is that they are not able to differentiate between various types of speech sounds. They fail to pronounce a word in a correct way. The dyslexic students also face some problems while using any kind of writing tools like pen and pencils. They might frustrate while reading even after they are able to read texts with fluency. In the following section, some example of dyslexia is discussed in different levels.

  • A problem in rhyme recognition.
  • Struggling to speak the first word of a sentence.
  • A problem in learning new words.
  • Problems in reading a text loudly.
  • Problems in recognizing common sight words.
  • Quickly forgetting the issue after reading something.
  • Facing word problems in mathematics.
  • Problems while repeating a particular sentence or a phrase.
  • Too much spelling errors.
  • Reading at poor academic level.
  • Usually skips words when reading a comprehension text.
  • Reading skill is not good compared to the academic level.

The advanced medical science and researchers are still not able to find the exact reason for dyslexia, but it is clear that the brain and genes play a major role in dyslexia disease. Some possible reasons for the dyslexia are as follows.

It has been seen that dyslexia has a tendency to follow the family generations (Huc-Chabrolle, 2013). From recent research, it has been found that about 40 percent of siblings of a particular kid has the same issue of dyslexia and 49 percent of parents and their kids have the dyslexia issue (Bonifacci et al., 2014). Scientists have also found that genes are the main cause of this type of cases. As the dyslexia is involving the gene factor, then dyslexia must be a heredity , and it would be passed down through genes. It is defining that the parents who are having dyslexia, it is common that their child will also have dyslexia. It might skip a generation, but it will occur in the next generations of the family.

From the brain imaging report it has been found that the brain anatomy of a normal person and dyslexia affected person are different (Finnet al., 2014). The difference occurred in the parts of the brain which is used at the time of reading and writing. It is indicating that those parts of dyslexia affected people might be not developed properly to do things properly or there might be some other issues which need to be further researched to determine the actual reason behind dyslexia.

Reasons for Dyslexia

The only way to determine that a student has dyslexia or not is the full evaluation of the student in the school or privately. First, the student or child will be checked that there is no such type of other issues which is giving exact results like dyslexia by a professional doctor (Berninger, Richards & Abbott, 2015). The word recognising technique is also check in this evaluation. This can include some type of vision or hearing problem. Then the child will be evaluated by a psychologist. The psychologist will check that there is no such issue that is occurring between the learning processes of the child. Thereafter the family background of the child will be check to ensure that if anyone from the family of the child does not have the same dyslexia issue (Berninger, Richards & Abbott, 2015). Then the specialist will research all the data collected and then will give a proper diagnosis report of the child.

It is very much important to take care of the holistic needs of the student while identifying the barriers to learning (Reid, 2016). To critically analyse the challenges faced by the child it is needed to identify the difficult factors or the barriers to learning first. The following discussed factors will discuss the task, the learner and the experienced gained by the learner. Here some of the potential difficulties will be discussed.

It is normal that a person affected by dyslexia will not understand a normal task. This is the main reason behind that often the dyslexic person cannot give seamlessly answer to one question, or they give irrelevant answers to the question (Kazakou & Soulis, 2015). It is because the dyslexic person is not able to understand the question. The dyslexic person is not able to understand the question not because of they do not have the cognitive skills to understand the question, but because of that, the question is presented in a way that is very challenging for the person to understand (Frith, 2017).

The dyslexic persons face problem to understand a task because they failed to understand the key points of the task (Bornman & Donohue 2013). Whenever they evaluate some task, often they pick up some other points which lead them to the wrong way from the task and ultimately they failed to give to the correct response to the task. It is very necessary to highlight those key points to the dyslexic person so that the person can be on the right track rather than expecting that the dyslexic person will choose the correct key point.

 To deal with the barriers to learning one of the main key points is handling or processing the given information carefully. It has been found that peoples affected with dyslexia often has a good reasoning ability (Bacon & Handley, 2014). A good reasoning ability skill means they are able to think properly for a given topic if the other barriers are removed. Thinking on a topic gives the output of the topic depending on the person who is thinking. Giving these type of output in a writing session can be difficult for a dyslexic person. The handling of the task involves,

  • Comprehending the task: Comprehending a task means the dyslexic student has to successfully understand the vocabulary and the requirement of the task. To understand the task properly a pre-task discussion is required between the teacher and learner where the teacher will discuss the vocabulary, purpose of the task and the concepts to do them in a proper manner (Goswami et al., 2013). The main aim of this discussion is to give the learner the overview of how the task will be performed rather than giving the overview of what is the task. This is indicating that dyslexic persons need help in the process of the learning. With proper learning and experience, the dyslexic person can be more aware of this type of situations. They can easily deal with these type of works if they receive support.
  • Implementing the task: Implementing the tasks means the learner should able to identify the task requirement and implement the required points in the answer. The dyslexic persons are generally unable to track this type of required points. They deflect from the required points and give some unwanted solutions of the tasks. The dyslexic persons need proper guidance to address the required points in their solutions. A proper guidance and sufficient time can help the dyslexic persons to overcome these type of situations (Stienen-Durand & George, 2014).
  • Autonomous Learning: The dyslexic students is very much dependant on the teacher as they always need help to execute a task. This can be understanding the question or identifying the key points of the question, and they need the help of the teacher otherwise they will give some irrelevant response. This is indicating that the dyslexic students are depending towards their teachers for solving any problems. This is not a good indication for the dyslexic students as their success is depending on their students. This need to ensure that the dyslexic students can overcome this situation and independent on solving their own tasks. This can be achieved by giving proper training to the students.
  • Reporting about Task: The report on the task is the main part of successful completion of a given task. Providing proper guidance can help a dyslexic person to successfully complete the given task, but they might be in problem again when they need to deliver the task orally. This is the responsibility of the organization to help the dyslexic person to present the completed task in the proper manner. Gathering experience in reporting the task will help the dyslexic person to report task independently in near future.

Diagnosis techniques of Dyslexia

Dyslexia is interpreted as a learning disability only. Critical analysis and study reveal that it is actually a learning-based cognitive disorder in children with a cluster of different signs and symptoms. Dyslexic children can learn words normally in their early school days with the help of efficient guidance. With time, learning becomes difficult, and gradually the difficulty level rises. It mainly affects the understanding of a letter, writing fluency and in some cases, speech impairment sets in. Often parents and teacher misinterpret these symptoms, and this leads to delayed detection of the same. They think that the poor performance by their children in school in terms of learning is due to lack of interest in studies and negligence. This is actually not the scenario. The child with dyslexia faces difficulty in identifying and understanding separate sounds within a single word and how different letters sound differently. Neuro-anatomical imaging and tomographic analysis revealed that the cerebellum and cerebral cortex regions of the brain are poorly developed in dyslexic individuals (Karmiloff-Smith, 2018). These two portions of the brain have a major contribution in fluent movements of the mouth and tongue muscles which helps an individual in pronunciation. The cerebellum is also involved in providing a proper reading ability. Any developmental issues regarding cerebellum potentiate a risk in bringing about dyslexia. These developmental errors are presumed to occur during foetal development. Least information is available about the genetic influences on dyslexia though it has been confirmed by research that dyslexia is not a result of single gene mutation. Dyslexia may be the result of an aberration in chromosome 2, 3, 4 and 15 (Carrion?Castillo, Franke & Fisher, 2013). Studies are going on to confirm the heritability of the disease. All of this area requires intense research attention. Along with these developmental disputes, a dyslexic child experiences a lot of pressure in every sphere of his life. Impact of this disease is said to affect the holistic development of a child. The term holistic development refers to the complete development of a child which includes educational, developmental, social and emotional aspects. Very little is known about the disease to many people. As a result of that, society and those people often misjudge the disease conditions as reluctance and poor intelligence of a child. This affects the emotional and psychological state of a child to a significant level. When dyslexic children enter school, they are unable to acquire the mental strength to compete with other students with respect to learning. Activities easily performed by their peers, seem to be difficult and in some instances impossible for them. This leads to the development of two extremely diverse reactions. Either the child feels tremendously low when asked for writing or answering a question or he may over-react to his stress. In the case of the former condition, the child may show symptoms such as sweating, trembling, and fumbling when asked a question or to come to the blackboard to write something. The latter case of overreaction on becoming unsuccessful in the easy task, being mocked by peers can result in aggressive behaviour and adversely leads to delinquency. These two reactions can further affect the child in the following ways:

Low self-esteem: The dyslexic child cannot keep up with the school procedure. As a result, there is a drop in the self-esteem of the child. Questions are raised from both the parents and teachers regarding his academic ability. This may develop an inferiority feeling. The reason behind this low esteem may also be poor recognition and attention from friends and teachers (Novita, 2016). The primary concern regarding low self-esteem is frustration followed by antisocial activities.

Challenges in emotional coping: Dyslexia imparts a massive effect on the emotion of a child. At the age when he needs complete care and attention, a dyslexic child experiences critical miseries of life. He is lagging behind in school. A child tries hard to seek for help in academic matters from his friends. Hardly he gets any help, and the classmates usually refuse to help such child and teachers also do not want to co-operate with them instead they tend to punish him for the disability. Out of all these, the child feels frustrated and emotionally devastated. He refuses to attend school anymore. This hampers normal socialisation of the child.

Depression: As suggested by research, depression always accompanies the previously discussed impacts of dyslexia on a child (Alesi, Rappo & Pepi, 2014). Disappointment, sadness, frustration, shame on own self, embarrassment are summed up as a depressed condition. The clinical definition of depression does not support to mark a dyslexic child with the above mentioned symptoms as depressed, but those symptoms definitely are correlated with depression. Many dyslexic, especially females, suppress intense emotional pain. This happens due to the fact their classmates are surpassing them in terms of learning and studying, but they are left behind. The behaviour of the parents contributes significantly to the development of depression in children. When the child needs support from the parents, they accuse the child regarding poor marks in examination, learning difficulties. The child can often think about suicide or hurting himself when the condition seems to be unbearable to him.

Dyslexics have almost equal level of intelligence as a normal individual. They may have expertise in some activities such as singing, painting or other extracurricular activities. Such excellence needs to be explored and should be emphasized while introducing a child with dyslexia rather than focusing on their disabilities. This can only take them out of this difficult situation.

Dyslexic students are not less intelligent than their normal counterparts. Due to the effect of slight abnormality in neuronal development or genetic defect, some learning and shaping a concept disability occurs. They can learn but with a slower speed than others. That is why interventions are available to address this disorder. Few such strategies have been suggested in the recommendation section of the paper. The justification for implementing those methods are analysed in this section.

Multisensory approach: Dyslexic students are considered as educable as their anatomical structure is not significantly different from a normal individual. They are mildly disabled from an intellectual point of view. Initially reading and learning programs were introduced to provide support to the dyslexic students. Later, it has been found out that the multisensory approach will be more effective in obtaining better outcomes from dyslexic students (Moustafa & Ghani, 2016). The brain has a multisensory circuit system which allows an individual to hear, speak, and write concurrently. This property of the brain is exploited in designing multisensory learning programs. This program allows the child to see, pronounce and write a word at a time. This enables the student to create an image of the letter in his mind, and he can identify the differences in pronunciation with other letters and he can make sense of how to write the letter. Different methods are involved in this program. Such as visual and auditory method. In auditory learning, the student can hear the sound of the letter, and in the visual method, the letter is visible to the student. This program demands participation from the teachers such as an appraisal. Upon successful completion of learning the student must be encouraged and praised by the teachers. Studies have shown that the addition of an appraisal method along with the visual and auditory methods turned out to be successful (Reid, 2016).

Educational games: Dyslexic students lose their interest in learning by repeated failure in academic activities. Educational games, fun activities in school can draw the attention of such students. Some easy steps are incorporated in the game so that the student feels confident when she wins a round. Structured modules of the game such as identification of an object by the image or video, should be incorporated to assure the student that he is capable of answering difficult questions. All of these methods are proven by research to boost up the self-esteem of the student (Gooch et al., 2016). Such approaches should be employed in groups where dyslexic children will be participating with mainstream students. This will be beneficial in two ways- socialisation will be facilitated, and learning purpose will be served.

Typographical support: Dyslexic students face a primary challenge in identifying and differentiating between letters. This problem can be circumvented by providing typographical support. Studies have shown several aspects of the support (Jackson, 2014). The difference between two font styles- Times New Roman and Arial lies in the presence of serifs. In Arial font, more serifs are present which makes it easier to detect and distinguish between two letters. Results have shown that 5% inclusion of serif has increased the readability whereas more than 5% can, in turn, reduce the readability (Jackson, 2014). Another important aspect is font size, and dyslexic students need to be given large font size words while reading to aid their vision. Modification of letters such as the addition of a mark to lowercase letters such as b, d, p, and q makes it better for the dyslexic students. Another modification can help the students with dyslexia. Increasing intra-spacing in between letters of a single word can make it helpful for a dyslexic child to understand and read. These methods are in combination, referred to as a typographical aid to help the dyslexic students.

Technological implementation: Taking the help of technology can enhance the rate of success to a significantly high level. In addressing the challenges faced by the dyslexic students, use of technological tools should be rapidly implemented. Experts can provide the children with pocket spelling checker which are portable and easy to operate (Snowling, 2013). This can help the student in detecting his mistakes in spelling and also in correcting it. This would allow the student to rectify his mistakes on his own thereby building the sense of self-independence.

All of these strategies will help the child with dyslexia in overcoming learning disabilities. The emotional state of the child needs to be boosted as well. This is the point where the role of teachers and parents. Proactive support from teachers in terms of arranging cooperating environment in school has been authenticated to impart good results in treating dyslexia (Alexander-Passe, 2016). Suicidal tendency, criminal psychology and deviant behaviour can be managed by the active support from the parents. Studies show that care from parents and emotional proximity with parents make it easier to treat this disorder.

2. Dyslexic students are different from the normal students. Dyslexia adults and students struggle to write and read fluently, but dyslexia has no issues with the intelligence of the student (Sumner, Connelly & Barnett, 2013). Dyslexic students are the slow readers and need more time to connect the sound and letters but they are very fast in creative thinking, and they also have solid reasoning abilities. Dyslexia is a type of disease which cannot be cured, but with good support dyslexia, affected students can highly succeed in the professional life. In this section, a learning program and strategies will be discussed to remove barriers to learning of dyslexia affected students.

The learning process can be derived from its name. Multisensory learning involves multiple human sensors to learn more precisely. This multisensory learning process involves the movement and touches senses alongside hearing and sight (Hahn, Foxe & Molholm, 2014). This type of learning process helps to activate different portions of the human brain. Multisensory learning allows the dyslexia student to learn and understand new objects more effectively. Thus they can remember it and can recall it whenever they needed. The dyslexic students have a major difficulty to learn new things especially in the case of complex learning when the whole learning process is divided into some sequence. Multisensory learning help to remove this learning barrier by making this sequence more related to sound and sights.

Now the dyslexic students can learn things more quickly in an easier way with the help of growing technologies. The newly invented gadgets are helping the dyslexic students in remembering information properly and effectively (Barden, 2014). One of the most helpful gadgets is the pocket spell checker. The pocket spell checker checks the word typed by the dyslexic learner which might be wrong in many cases. In such a situation, the pocket spell checker gives the correct spell back to the learner which is a great way to correct the mistakes and remembering the actual spelling (Song et al., 2013). The line reader is very good at helping the students to read a particular text. It can magnify the text portion over which it will be placed. This helps dyslexic students by helping them to keep track of the text which they were reading. Also, a colourful keyboard with large letter interface helps the dyslexic student as it is more accessible than a normal keyboard (Sarpudin & Zambri, 2014). The text-to-speech software is also beneficial when the dyslexic student is reading or writing something.

A perfect arrangement and environment of learning can help the dyslexic student to learn things more quickly. Before conducting a lesson, giving a brief overview of the lesson can help the dyslexic student to understand the information in an easier way. This need to be sure that there is no pressure on the dyslexic student about the study. In such cases, the teacher needs to give the dyslexic students extra time to complete their respective task. Also, the teacher can inform the parents of the dyslexic students to help their child to finish the given task (Keates, 2013). The teacher of the dyslexic student needs to ensure that they are not strict at all towards the students. Strictness can affect their learning progress. Any correct things done by the student should be praised by the teacher because it influences the student. Whenever a student makes a mistake, it can be highlighted with a green maker rather than using the traditional cross sign with a red pen. This small changes can make the student motivated towards the learning process.

Educational games are the great thing as a learning process among the dyslexic students. It is a perfect way to mix the learning process with fun things which will surely attract the students towards learning (Franceschini et al., 2013). The dyslexic students will be more excited as they do not have to face the boring lectures. The students should always be motivated towards this type of learnings as playing games are always exciting for them. There are several types of learning games available on the market. There are many types of games which integrates sound and words together to help the students. Their colourful style always attracts learners. Also, some workbooks are available online containing 3D drawings, puzzles and reading lessons to strengthen visual thinking of the dyslexic students.

The teacher and the parents of the dyslexic students can work together to improve the learning process. They can meet on a daily basis to discuss the learning progress of the student. The parents of the child also can give an update to the teacher about the strategies applied in the home and the success rate of it (Henderson, 2013). This is required because though two students suffering from same dyslexia disease but at last two students are not the same. They may belong to the different culture. It is suggesting that sharing the information about the learners between their parents and teachers can help to find the best method to break the barrier of the learning process.

Dyslexic students have problems in distinguishing between same types of fonts. This problem can be fixed by larger font sizes (Rello & Baeza-Yates2013). In a recent study, it has been found that larger font size can help the dyslexic student to identify it more clearly. For an example, the Ariel font is the understandable font in which all the letters are placed separately. Other facts like larger interspacing between two letters and larger line spacing can also help the dyslexic students to identify sentences quickly (Taha & Azaizah-Seh, 2017).

Conclusion:

Dyslexia is a disease which can affect a human being in their early developing stages which is not good at all. Dyslexia affected humans struggle to speak, write and read correctly. It is also a prevalent disease, affecting 20 percent of the total population. Dyslexia is a type of disease or disorder which is present at the birth, and the worst part of this disorder is that it is not possible to prevent the sickness and it is not curable. Though dyslexia is not curable from the above discussion, it can be concluded that having a dyslexia disease not means that the child will be unable to learn things like an average human. Taking proper steps against dyslexia can help the learners to develop themselves in their early development stage. Though they might take a longer time to learn different things, still they are capable of doing it. Their parents and their teacher needs to help them in this learning process. Helping hands from the others and learning in a different attractive way the dyslexic students can surely overcome their learning problem.

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