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Describe child or adolescent behaviours reported in the media and link these to developmental theories, learning styles and sociocultural influences on learning and development.

Theoretical Frameworks for Understanding Child Behavior

The behavior of children has been captured by a wide range of groups and researchers. The topic has captured the attention of one and all as it relates to the development process and learning process that they experience in their lives. The process of child behavior involves various sub-processes and stages which ultimately influences their future selves (Bundy et al., 2017). Over the years, a number of theoretical frameworks have come into existence for a better understanding of the changes in behavior that take place in children. For instance, Keenan, Evans & Crowley in their book have incorporated behavioral analysis and development theories to capture various development phases that young people go through in their lives (Keenan, Evans & Crowley, 2016).

The manners in which children behaviors have been reported in the media have been presented here. In order to get an integrated idea about their behavioral aspects, a wide range of development theories have been used along with varying learning styles and sociocultural influences that have an impact on their overall learning and development process.

In the recent past, media has shown special attention to the behavior of children . It is natural for children to go through a number of changes in the psychological and biological scene which impacts their overall development process. The role of both parents and children is highly crucial when the individual is young. This is because they can influence the overall growth and development process (Crain, 2015). When children are growing, they experience a number of new things in their life such as confused emotions, peer pressure, low level of motivation, alcohol and drugs. All these elements that exist in the social setting have a major implication on their behavior and the manner in which they develop. 

Just like the parents of children, the role of other adults namely teachers and school counselors is of paramount importance to shape the behavior of children in a constructive manner (Crain, 2015). The integrated approach by parents, children and other adults is necessary so that the young individuals can sail through the growing children years in an effective manner. As per Crain, a child can have a holistic development and learning process which can influence his behavior if his parents, family members, and care providers work together and take part in the development process (Crain, 2015).

A wide range of theoretic frameworks relating to the development of children have come into existence which shed light on the changes that take place in them and lead to social growth, emotional growth, and cognitive development. According to Sigmund Freud’s Psychosexual Development Theory, the behavior of a child is influenced by his or her childhood experiences as well as his unconscious desires. By any chance, any conflicts that came into existence at the early stage of a child, can have a major impact on the personality and overall behavior of the individual (Dweck, 2013).

Influence of Parents and Other Adults on Child Behavior

It can be said that the personality of a child keeps on evolving with passing time and the change takes place through his life. For example, during the phallic stage which ranges between three and five years, a child is able to differentiate between the male and the female (Greene, 2017, p 6). During this stage, boys view their fathers as the rival of the mother’s love and affection. Their psychological change can impact their behavior as well

According to the behavioral child development theories, the environmental factors come into play and shape the behavior of a child . This school of thought believes that the learning and development process that a child experiences is the result of his or her association and reinforcement. The theorists that follow this discipline emphasize on the environmental interactions.

They believe that the macro interactions have a major impact on the behavior and overall development process of a child. For example, the development of a child can be associated with the reward and punishment model. A student in school might complete his homework due to the fear of being punished. Similarly, a child might speak the truth expecting that he will be rewarded by his parents. 

According to Charlesworth, theoretical model, children are born with the basic need to form attachments (Charlesworth, 2013). These attachments are characterized by distinctive behavior and motivational patterns. In other words, it can be said that young children and care providers engage in the behavior which is constructed to ensure proximity. For example, the children who are able to get constant support while growing up develop a safe and secure attachment style.

All these development theories show that various alterations take place when a child is growing up. These changes and developments in the psychological and emotional context have a significant impact on the ultimate growth and development of the person and the behavior that he showcases (Bundy et al., 2017).  

Each and every individual has to go through is said to be one of the most challenging phases. This is because the person is constantly exploring him or herself and trying to adapt to the social environment. According to David Armstrong and Fiona Hallett, getting a detailed insight into the child behavior is quite challenging in the classroom setting. Many children face numerous social, emotional and behavioural challenges while they are growing up (Hallett, 2015). For example, a child with poor mental health might find it difficult to excel academically in the classroom setting like the other kids. In order to help children with their challenges in schools, it is necessary for the teachers to play an active role and promote constructive behavior in the classroom setting (Hallett, 2015).

Environmental Factors and Their Impact on Child Behavior

Crain has highlighted some of the main issues that a number of children face in the current times in the social setting such as peer pressure, rocky emotions, the low degree of motivation, inclination towards drugs and alcohol and pregnancies (Crain, 2015). The children face various changes biologically, emotionally and mentally (Dweck, 2013). One of the most common risks that come into the picture relates to the poor performance in school. In order to help children and young adults deal with the challenges, it is necessary for their parents, teachers, and school counselors to play an active role and smoothen their development process. Some of the common issues that could arise in the lives of child in their school and the social setting are the subject to bullying behavior, poor academic performance, and reduced social skills. These elements can adversely impact the development process in them and ultimately shape their behavior in a negative manner (Dweck, 2013).   

When a child is growing, it is extremely crucial to introduce effective and suitable learning styles and mechanism so that have an integrated learning process. The role of the teacher is of paramount significance to develop a suitable learning environment that the child can use to expand his knowledge and level of understanding of different things around him (Beauchaine & Hinshaw, 2017).

Development theories can be used for the purpose of getting a detailed idea about the learning processes that children experience. The three key domains of learning process include cognitive, affective and psychomotor. The cognitive domain primarily comprises of the thought processes that are used in the learning process (Eisenberg, Spinrad & Knafo?Noam, 2015). The affective domain relates to the emotional development and changes relating to feelings the psychomotor domain are associated with the physical agility and employment of the body during the learning process.

The Piaget theory which was proposed by Jean Piaget focuses on the psychological growth and development of a child. The comprehensive theory focuses on the nature of knowledge and the approach that individuals employ for the purpose of acquiring, constructing and using the same piece of knowledge (McCormick & Scherer, 2018). As per the observation of children, Piaget comprehended that children did not restrict the knowledge that they had acquired from their parents or teachers. As per the theoretical model, knowledge can be constructed and the learning process can take place in children when they create products and/or artifacts. The learning process can be more effective and valuable for the students and learners when the artifacts that are used are personally appropriate and meaningful.

Learning Styles in Children

A number of behavioral and social learning theories have come into existence that highlight the importance of the environment which nurtures the growth and development that takes place in a child . B F Skinner has stated that the learning process of children can be segregated into a number of smaller activities that can stimulate their learning process and the ultimate outcome (Bundy et al., 2018). For example, when a reward is associated with a learning process, children are encouraged to learn so that they can get a reward (Charlesworth, 2013). According to the social learning theoretical model, children have the capability to learn by observing and imitating. With the passage of time, they get quite selective about what they decide to imitate. Thus the learning styles in children could vary which can influence their overall development and growth process (Charlesworth, 2013).  

A wide range of macro and environmental factors come into play that influences the learning and development process in children . According to sociocultural theoretical models, there exists interdependence between the individual and the social processes in the construction of knowledge (Slee & Shute, 2014). The research study by Slee & Shute showcases the association that exists between learning and development by using three key principles namely varying social sources relating to the individual development, the semiotic mediation such as symbols and signs in the human development and the generic analysis (Slee & Shute, 2014). 

The Vygotskian theory highlights the significance of culture and language in the human development process (Slee & Shute, 2014). Various external factors that exist in the social context come into play and mold the learning that takes place in young learners. Vygotsky’s theoretical framework has stressed on the importance of the interaction that takes place between a child and his or her environment. He has stated that the role of sociocultural influences cannot be negated to comprehend the learning and development process that a child undergoes in his life (Green & Piel, 2015).

As per research studies, the interactions that a child has in the environmental setting have a direct implication on his or her learning and development process and overall outcome. In fact, the environmental impact on behavioral development and the learning process is extremely significant. According to the research study by Green & Piel, sociocultural influences play a key role to shape the mathematical development that takes place in children (Green & Piel, 2015).


The various kinds of changes that take place in a child’s behavior and development and learning process have been captured. A wide range of theoretical frameworks relating to the development process has been referred to for comprehending how the behavior in children gets shaped with the passage of time. The child development theories have helped to shed light on how children grow and change over the course of their childhood. The changes that take place in the emotional domain, cognitive and emotional growth in a child have been captured. In addition to this, the various factors that exist in the external environment of the individual and influence his learning outcome and behavioral development have been critically presented here. The detailed insight relating to the development and growth of children and their learning style sheds light on the intricate processes that take place when a child is growing. A wide range of internal and external elements come into play and the manner in which they interact molds the ultimate behavior and the learning outcome of children . 


Bundy, D.A., de Silva, N., Horton, S., Patton, G.C., Schultz, L., Jamison, D.T., …, Appleby, L., 2018. Investment in child and health and development: key messages from Disease Control Priorities. The Lancet, 391(10121), pp.687-699.

Beauchaine, T.P. and Hinshaw, S.P. eds., 2017. Child and adolescent psychopathology. John Wiley & Sons.

Bundy, D.A., Silva, N., Horton, S., Jamison, D.T. and Patton, G.C., 2017. Cash Transfers and Child and Adolescent Development--Child and Adolescent Health and Development. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.

Charlesworth, R., 2013. Understanding child development. Cengage Learning.

Crain, W., 2015. Theories of Development: Concepts and Applications: Concepts and Applications. Psychology Press.

Dweck, C.S., 2013. Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Psychology press.

Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T.L. and Knafo?Noam, A., 2015. Prosocial development. Handbook of child psychology and developmental science, pp.1-47.

Greene, R.R., 2017. Classical psychoanalytic thought, contemporary developments, and clinical social work. In Human behavior theory and social work practice (pp. 73-101). Routledge.

Green, M.G. and Piel, J.A., 2015. Theories of human development: A comparative approach. Psychology Press.

Hallett, G., 2015. Understanding Child and Adolescent Behaviour in the Classroom-Research an. Cambridge University Press.

Keenan, T., Evans, S. and Crowley, K., 2016. An introduction to child development. Sage.

McCormick, C.B. and Scherer, D.G., 2018. Child and adolescent development for educators. Guilford Publications.

Slee, P.T. and Shute, R., 2014. Child Development: Thinking About Theories Texts in Developmental Psychology. Routledge.

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