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Job Satisfaction in the Hospitality Industry

Question:

Discuss about the Evaluating The Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction Among Workers In The Hospitality Industry.

In the hospitality sector, employees are key resources and they demonstrate significant investment. Hence, if they are satisfied and loyal towards their jobs then it will be beneficial to improve the organizational performance. As per the organizational policy, management builds their appraisal, bonus packages, training program, and work system. These strategies could be beneficial to increase the employee’s loyalty towards their organization and leads to high extent of satisfaction level towards their jobs. The longer an employee works within an organization is more valuable as they could be loyal to their organization. Job satisfaction is a key factor which improves and keeps the profit of an organization. It is analyzed that there is a link between job satisfaction and organizational performance hence company should identify the factors affecting job satisfaction among employees in the hospitality industry (Mathieu, et. al., 2014).

  • To explore the meaning and concept of job satisfaction
  • To address the factors that lead to job satisfaction among employees in the hospitality industry
  • To recommend the strategy to improve the job satisfaction among employees in the hospitality industry

This project is beneficial for readers to understand the factors affecting job satisfaction among employees in the hospitality industry. It could be also beneficial for hospitality companies to gain the understanding regarding the job satisfaction factors as it will be beneficial for them to increase job satisfaction among their employees. This project also develops their understanding regarding different strategy to improve the job satisfaction among employees in the hospitality industry. It could be also beneficial for entrepreneurs to understand the meaning and concept of job satisfaction as it is effective to improve the organizational performance (Wang, et. al., 2014).

As per the view of Yeh (2013), job satisfaction is defined as cognitive of employees and effective evaluation of the job. It also demonstrates the level of favorable feelings and attitudes among employees towards their occupation. It is analyzed that when an employee likes their job then they will feel high job satisfaction. In contrast to this, if employees dislike their job then they feel stress at work. Thus, it can be stated that job satisfaction is an emotional reaction that a person holds regarding their jobs. There are different factors which may influence the job satisfaction. These factors are work tasks, supervisors, co-workers, training and promotion, benefits, appreciation and compensation for their good actions.

In support of this, Zopiatis et al. (2014) evaluated that a person who deals in hospitality sector spends their more time within an organization. Therefore, motivation is necessary for a person to influence their job performance due to spending more time. In the current business practices, a self-motivated person gives their more efforts for accomplishing the goal of the company due to tough rivalry in the hospitality industry. There is a favorable relationship between employee’s management and job satisfaction in the hospitality industry. It is also determined that an employee who deals in good management has high confidence which obtains favorable job satisfaction among them. Moreover, different factors are considered by management to provide job satisfaction like appreciation, perks, praise, and motivation. It is effective to increase the employee morale within working in hospitality industry. 

Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation

According to Shani et al., (2014), Herzberg has classified the job factors into different manners like motivational and hygiene factor. Hygiene factors are determined as job factor which is required to lead the workforces within the organization. But, these factors do not motivate the employees for getting positive job satisfaction in long-term. It is also evaluated that if these factors are non-available at the workplace then it will create job dissatisfaction between workforces within the organization in the hospitality industry.

In favored to this, Karatepe and Karadas (2015) evaluated that hygiene factor facilitates satisfactory job motive to employees as it would be beneficial to provide job satisfaction. Hygiene factor is considered as an extrinsic factor within an organization. These factors are also known as dissatisfier and a protective factor which is necessary for eliminating dissatisfaction among employees. These factors discuss the job atmosphere at the workplace. This factor also entails the physical needs that an individual wants and desire to accomplish.

In opposition to this, McPhail et al. (2015) demonstrated that hygiene factor could not be entailed as a motivator as these factors are used to obtain positive job satisfaction. Motivator is also considered as an intrinsic factor within an organization which leads the workforces to improve performance. In the hospitality industry, employees are compensated intrinsically. The motivator shows the psychological needs. It is depicted as an added advantage.

Lu and Gursoy (2016) stated that Maslow’s hierarchy of need is used as a motivational theory which consists of five phase of human needs. It can be demonstrated as hierarchy level within a pyramid. It can be evaluated that people are motivated to accomplish their requirements and that needs to take priority over other needs.  The basic need is to meet the physical existence and it is initial things which motivate the individual at the workplace and also provide job satisfaction. Initially, people complete the shortage of lower level before going on higher level development requirement. This theory could be implemented by an individual within an organization to satisfy their requirements. Therefore, it can be illustrated that manager should encourage their employees by gratifying their requirements which would be significant to provide the high extent of job satisfaction among employees.

As per the view of AlBattat and Som (2013), there are different factors that may affect the job satisfaction among employees within the hospitality industry. These factors are a work environment, Recognition and Rewards, Work Schedules and responsibility. The hospitality industry facing highest turnover rates as compared to other industry.  Hotels lose money from turnover because they highly invest too provide training to new staff members. Hence, the company should encourage the employees t provides job satisfaction as it will not only decline the turnover but also enable the employees to deliver better services to guests. 

Herzberg Two-Factor Theory of Motivation

In support of this, Lee et al., (2015) stated that work environment is an essential factor which may affect the job satisfaction among employees. It is analyzed that a good working atmosphere and favorable association with staff members are essential factors of job satisfaction. Hotels recruit the employees from a different set of culture hence it is significant that management builds an environment in which employees act as a team and gives value to each other. A pleasant-sounding liaison between employees and management can enhance the job satisfaction among them. An effective way to implement this strategy for the manager is to show energy and passion in their jobs. In the hospitality industry, managers can lead by giving them example regarding wear dress perfectly, greet people energetically and treat their employees with the respect.

According to Crawford et al. (2014), recognition and reward is another factor which may affect the job satisfaction. It is analyzed that feeling appreciation at the workplace may increase the job satisfaction. Management can appreciate their group by conducting curriculum activities like holiday parties and pizza parties. Moreover, individual recognition is a significant tool which includes monetary bonuses, public recognition, and awards. For example, a hotel shares wow stories with their staff members. In this way, when staff member facilitates outstanding customer services like deliver special food for a guest with positive emotion then employees are publicly appreciated for their efforts. Along with this, if a hotel considers areas of energy, environment, and safety then it can run even in the tough competition. The department with the lowest performance gets non-awards like a rubber chicken and burned-out light bulb. The non-awards can be eliminated in case department improves their performance in the Hospitality industry (Dhar, 2015). Thus, it can be stated that employee recognition gives a contribution towards positive work environment and gains employee morale.

In contrast to this, Sharma and Dhar (2016) evaluated that responsibility is another factor in which employees who are micromanaged do not believe that they can make a general judgment without consulting with their superior. As a result, it creates dissatisfaction among employees. While employees get the proper training then they should be capable to deal with the situation. It is also analyzed that assigning responsibilities to employees shows the pride among them and also demonstrates their high extent of job satisfaction. Hence, the company should teach their employees about how to use values in their position to interact with them. Along with this, superior should facilitate an employee to discuss regarding what is ongoing and needs to improve in the department.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Fu and Deshpande (2014) exemplified that work schedule is another factor which influences the job satisfaction. There are large numbers of employees who pursue the work in outside of interest. Therefore, it can be stated that providing work schedule allows the employees to make a balance between their personal and work life.  Hotels which provide 24*7 hours facilities including holidays should give preference to their employees to choose their shifts and days off when possible. As a result, it would be beneficial to increase the job satisfaction among employees. Further, the hotel can improve employee’s satisfaction by offering home-based work such as reservation and customer care services through the phone. As a result, working at home is effective to avoid the commute time and facilitates high independence as well as scheduling flexibility for workforces.

Namasivayam et al. (2014) suggested that company should ask employees about their personal motivations. In this way, they should also ask the team about their personal interest. It could be simple as team meeting in which everyone can openly describe the issues they face to perform their responsibilities and can get new creative ways of easing them. Further, hotels can use employee survey system to get their concern and then provides the additional mentoring. Along with this, the company should reduce micro-management. Hence, it would be beneficial to build trust among employees. They will feel this trust as a reward. Further, the company should assign the clear roles and responsibilities to their employees as it would be beneficial to provide job satisfaction among employees.

In support of this, Ozturk et al. (2014) recommended that company should improve the work environment as it will impact on the job satisfaction of employees. Improving work environment does not relate to using the new coffee machine, spending on new equipment, and ergonomic seating for employees. Since, it should be related to improving the work areas of employees. The working environment could be improved by conducting a survey of employees. The hotel should also improve the communication across all level. Hence, it can be stated that improving communication within an organization from superior to subordinate and significantly subordinate to superior is contributed to gain job satisfaction at the workplace. Employees should be permitted to make critics and raise their issue in a non-threatening atmosphere. When employees are scared to share their issue then they put their less effort into the job and want to leave the job.

Conclusion

According to the Mostafa and Gould-Williams (2014), the company should generate employee recognition program to provide high job satisfaction. Employee recognition program does not relate to sticking the name on the table in the reception area. Since, it is related to giving thanks to an individual by the manager. In the hospitality industry, the company should try to decline the time stress as it would be beneficial to high job satisfaction. It is analyzed that tight deadline is a major source of stress among employees. Hence, the organization should identify different ways to ease the stress such as scheduling project and work breakdown structure and conducting the meeting.

Conclusion

From the above interpretation, it can be concluded that there is job satisfaction is effective to improve the organizational performance within the hospitality sector. Further, Maslow’s motivational need theory and Herzberg theory is used to measuring the job satisfaction level among employees. There are different factors which may influence the job satisfaction among employees within the hospitality industry. These factors are working environment, flexibility, and recognition. It can be also summarized that there are different strategy is used to improve the job satisfaction among employees. These are employee recognition program, improving the work environment, and employee survey system.

References

AlBattat, A. R. S., and Som, A. P. M. (2013) ‘Employee dissatisfaction and turnover crises in the Malaysian hospitality industry’, International Journal of Business and Management, 8(5), pp. 62.

Crawford, E. R., Rich, B. L., Buckman, B., and Bergeron, J. (2014) ‘The antecedents and drivers of employee engagement’, Employee engagement in theory and practice, pp. 57-81.

Dhar, R. L. (2015) ‘Service quality and the training of employees: The mediating role of organizational commitment’, Tourism Management, 46, pp. 419-430.

Fu, W., and Deshpande, S. P. (2014) ‘The impact of caring climate, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment on the job performance of employees in a China’s insurance company’, Journal of Business Ethics, 124(2), pp. 339-349.

Karatepe, O. M., and Karadas, G. (2015) ‘Do psychological capital and work engagement foster frontline employees’ satisfaction? A study in the hotel industry’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(6), pp. 1254-1278.

Lee, J. S., Back, K. J., and Chan, E. S. (2015) ‘Quality of work life and job satisfaction among frontline hotel employees: A self-determination and need satisfaction theory approach’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(5), pp. 768-789.

Lu, A. C. C., and Gursoy, D. (2016) ‘Impact of job burnout on satisfaction and turnover intention: do generational differences matter?’, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 40(2), pp. 210-235.

Mathieu, C., Neumann, C. S., Hare, R. D., and Babiak, P. (2014) ‘A dark side of leadership: Corporate psychopathy and its influence on employee well-being and job satisfaction’,. Personality and Individual Differences, 59, pp. 83-88.

McPhail, R., Patiar, A., Herington, C., Creed, P., and Davidson, M. (2015) ‘Development and initial validation of a hospitality employees’ job satisfaction index: Evidence from Australia’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(8), pp. 1814-1838.

Mostafa, A. M. S., and Gould-Williams, J. S. (2014) ‘Testing the mediation effect of person-organization fit on the relationship between high-performance HR practices and employee outcomes in the Egyptian public sector’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(2), pp. 276-292.

Namasivayam, K., Guchait, P., and Lei, P. (2014) ‘The influence of leader empowering behaviors and employee psychological empowerment on customer satisfaction’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26(1), pp. 69-84.

Ozturk, A. B., Hancer, M., and Im, J. Y. (2014) ‘Job characteristics, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment for hotel workers in Turkey’, Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 23(3), pp. 294-313.

Pan, F. C. (2015) ‘Practical application of importance-performance analysis in determining critical job satisfaction factors of a tourist hotel’, Tourism Management, 46, pp. 84-91.

Shani, A., Uriely, N., Reichel, A., and Ginsburg, L. (2014) ‘Emotional labor in the hospitality industry: The influence of contextual factors’, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 37, pp. 150-158.

Sharma, J., and Dhar, R. L. (2016) ‘Factors influencing job performance of nursing staff: the mediating role of affective commitment’, Personnel Review, 45(1), pp.161-182.

Wang, C. J., Tsai, H. T., and Tsai, M. T. (2014) ‘Linking transformational leadership and employee creativity in the hospitality industry: The influences of creative role identity, creative self-efficacy, and job complexity’, Tourism Management, 40, pp. 79-89.

Yeh, C. M. (2013) ‘Tourism involvement, work engagement and job satisfaction among frontline hotel employees’, Annals of Tourism Research, 42, pp. 214-239.

Zopiatis, A., Constanti, P., and Theocharous, A. L. (2014) ‘Job involvement, commitment, satisfaction and turnover: Evidence from hotel employees in Cyprus’, Tourism Management, 41, pp. 129-140.

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