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While Theoretical framing use equity theory of motivation or henzeberg two factor theory of motivation?

Key Management Problem

The palm View hotel, a three star hotel which is a unit of the paradise tour operations holds a good reputation and popularity among the hotels in the islands of Cyprus. The competition in the hospitality industry is booming due to the increase demand of the customers and the number of competitive hotels and resorts (Hur, 2017). Through this case the relevance of the employee commitment, motivation, satisfaction etc for the competitiveness of the organization is evaluated. The theoretical context Herzberg two factor theory has been utilized for the situational analysis of palm view hotels.

The management of the hospitality organizations plays a vital role in the organizational performance. The role of the management in the staffing, coordinating, establishing effective communication, motivating, leading etc is vital for making the employees work towards the goal accomplishment. Some of the key management problems which is be identified through reviewing the case has been discussed below.

  • In effective Communication: Even though the organization holds an effective organization structure, the flow of communication within the organization is ineffective. The chef who is responsible for highlighting the issues like availability of the kitchen equipments, work space issues, overload to the junior chefs etc to the GM and AM, didn’t took any action. This ineffective communication has made the situation more complex which persuaded two B chefs to quit.
  • In effective decision making: The proposal of serving food near the swimming pool was the idea of GM to entertain the customers. Chef Mr. Andrew agreed with the decision of the GM even though he knows about the practical difficulties which the chefs can face due to small space near the swimming pool and lack staff members. This autocratic decision making without intimating or consulting with the peers can be highlighted as a key management issue (Alshmemri, Shahwan, and Maude, 2017).
  • Lack of Staffing: Having insufficient staff members can be considered as the key management issue which the organization Palm view hotel is currently facing. The organization has no A chefs who can make better decisions and make the operations more effective. The B chefs of the hotel is currently performing the duties of chef A and they are overloaded which makes them fatigue and impacts their performance badly. The management is responsible to accommodate the work place with sufficient employees so they can perform better and reach the organization goals effectively (Johnson, Irizarry, Nguyen, & Maloney, 2018).
  • Poor motivational activities: Through reviewing the case it can be identified that the management has not adopted any motivational activities like rewarding, recognizing, etc despite the employees are facing work overload (Abba, 2018).

The above mentioned key management issues are the factors which can directly contribute to the employee dissatisfaction level, poor performance etc.

Herzberg two factor theory of motivation proposes that if the needs of the employees are met they would be satisfied or else dissatisfaction would be the result. He categorizes the job factors which can measure the job satisfaction and dissatisfaction into two, which are the hygiene and motivational factors (Holmberg, Caro, & Sobis, 2018).


The hygiene factors include pay, benefits, physical work conditions, status, interpersonal relationships, job security, company policies and procedures. The motivational factors include rewards, recognition, participation, responsibility, growth and promotional opportunities etc (Buchanan, & McCalman, 2018).

According to the Herzberg, if the hygiene and the motivational factors are considered and met by the management of the organization, then the employee satisfaction can be achieved. The higher the degree of employee satisfaction higher would be employee commitment and performance. If the case is vice versa, if the management remain negligent in fulfilling these two needs of the customers then employee dissatisfaction would be the result. It can impact the employee and organizational performance (Dikmen, Y?ld?r?m, Y?ld?r?m, & Ozbash, 2017).

The case of the palm view hotel can be analyzed in terms of the Herzberg two factor theories.

Work conditions: The physical environment of the palm view hotel is poor which makes the employees dissatisfied. The insufficient boilers and other kitchen equipments make the work load of the chefs higher. The small spaces in the kitchen area are also an issue which makes the employee feels bad at work (Ziar, & Ahmadi, 2017).

Salary: The palm view hotel have no A chefs. The B chefs are performing the duties of the A chef which makes their work over loaded. The management is not taking any measures to appoint A chefs. They are also reluctant in providing promotion or salary hike to the B chefs.

Supervisor quality: The chef Andrews seems to have lower commitment towards the employees. Despite knowing about the practical difficulties which the chefs are facing at kitchen area due to lack of staffs, equipment and spaces, he didn’t highlighted the issue to the GM. Hence the supervisor quality is lower which causes dissatisfaction and stressful workplace (Kiruja, & Mukuru, 2018).

Situation Analysis using the theoretical framing “Herzberg two factory theory of motivation”

Company policy: The organization has good policies and procedures. It holds a good organization structure which is relevant for reducing ambiguity and ensures good performance. But the management fails to implement effective communication which generates dissatisfaction.

Coworker relations: When considering the lower levels of the organization structure the co worker relationships are good. But there are issues with the food service department and the chefs which blocked the communication between the departments. This can influence the organizational communication negatively.

Considering these situations from the hygiene factors perspectives the management has failed meet the hygiene factor requirements. This can lead to higher employee dissatisfaction level and can impact their performance badly (Kotni, & Karumuri, 2018).

Personal growth: The career growth for the employees is not ensuring in the palm view hotel while analyzing the situation. Here the B chefs are not provided with promotion or any compensation despite performing the duties of A chefs also.

Rewards and Recognition: The management fails to consider the extra effort taken by the chefs and other employees to serve the customers. The insufficient staff members has enhanced the work load of the existing employees. The management should have motivated the employees for taking extra effort through rewarding and recognition. This management failure has impacted the employee commitment and loyalty (Ristic, Selakovic, & Qureshi, 2017)

According to the Herzberg if the management focuses on improving the hygiene factors then it can decrease the employee dissatisfaction. If they management can focus on improving the motivational factors then the job satisfaction can be enhanced.

The behaviour of the employees within the organization can also be influenced by the local context. When considering the island Cyprus the opportunity for the potential employees in the hospitality sector is very high.

  • Demographic condition: The demographic condition of the island Cyprus indicates lesser number of worker availability when considering the demographic age. This is primary reason for the staffing issue which is existing in the organization palm view. The policies and procedures of the local government restrict the employment of foreign employees considering the welfare of the local people (Radwan, & Zhu, 2017).
  • Cultural context: They couldn’t place A chefs as this position requires experienced chefs. As per the culture of Cyprus, the employees do not change their organizations frequently. This has impacted the organization’s recruitment process. The lack of unavailability of chefs has made the work of existing employees overloaded (Yavetz, & Levina, 2018).

These local contexts have increased the demands of the potential employees. The attitude of the employees to quit from the work place generated from this local context. If they quit palm view hotels they can get better employment from some other reputed organizations. The behaviour of the chef Andrews to console the employee who was about to quit was also considering the challenge in getting potential staff members (Mostafaeipour, Zare, Aliheidari, & Sedaghat, 2018).

Improving the hygiene factors and the satisfiers as mentioned by Herzberg can enhance the employee commitment for the organization. Through empowering the employees, rewards, recognition, responsibility etc the commitment level of employees can be enhanced.

When the case of the palm view restaurant has been analyzed, it has been identified that the organization has some critical management issues. These issues have lead to higher level of employee dissatisfaction as per the theory of Herzberg two factor theories (Dobre, Davidescu., & Eid, 2017). One of the significant consequences which the organization can face due to this management failure is mentioned below.

Huge employee turnover can be considered as the significant consequence which the organization can face due to this critical management failure. The employees are dissatisfied due to increased work load, insufficient staffing, resources, ambiguity etc. They are also not provided with rewards and recognition which can demotivate employees. The demotivate and dissatisfied employees can quit the workplace looking for better opportunities. This turn over can put the organization into great trouble. The demographic situation of Cyprus highlights lack of talent pool in the island which makes the situation worst. This can finally impact the overall employee performance and hence will remain noncompetitive (Ogunnaike, Ekweme, Adeyemo, & Okedurum, 2017).

Herzberg’s Hygiene factors


The theoretical perspectives evidences that the management should meet the employee requirements, implement effective employee engagement program etc to retain the potential employees which can in turn benefit the organizations by making them loyal. The hotel palm view should consider these perspectives and should make changes in their management approaches. The case study analysis has been done through evaluating the situation of the palm view hotels considering the Herzberg two factor theories. Motivation and some other factors are identified as the key management issues. The consequences which the organization will have to face are highlighted effectively.


Alshmemri, M., Shahwan-Akl, L., & Maude, P. (2017), Herzberg’s two-factor theory, Life Science Journal, 14(5), 12-16

Abba, M. T. (2018). Effects of Training and Development on Employee Retention in Bauchi State Metropolis Banks, Operational Research, 4(1)

Buchanan, D. A., & McCalman, J. (2018). High performance work systems: The digital experience. Routledge.

Dobre, I., Davidescu, A. A., & Issa Eid, M. T. (2017), KEY FACTORS OF HEALTH EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION IN JORDAN, EVIDENCE FROM DUAL-FACTOR THEORY BASED ON STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELS. Economic Computation & Economic Cybernetics Studies & Research, 51(2)

Dikmen, T., Y?ld?r?m, D. D., Y?ld?r?m, A., & Ozbash, S. (2017). Examining Internal and External Motivational Factors in Job Satisfaction of Public Institution Managers and Employees, KHAZAR JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, 298

Hur, Y. (2017). Testing Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation in the Public Sector: Is it Applicable to Public Managers?. Public Organization Review, 1-15.

Holmberg, C., Caro, J., & Sobis, I. (2018), Job satisfaction among Swedish mental health nursing personnel: Revisiting the two?factor theory. International journal of mental health nursing, 27(2), 581-592.

Johnson, J., Irizarry, M., Nguyen, N., & Maloney, P. (2018), Part 1: Foundational Theories of Human Motivation.

Kiruja, E. K., & Mukuru, E. (2018). Effect of motivation on employee performance in public middle level Technical Training Institutions in Kenya. IJAME.

Kotni, V. D. P., & Karumuri, V. (2018). Application of Herzberg Two-Factor Theory Model for Motivating Retail Salesforce. IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17(1), 24-42.

Mostafaeipour, A., Khademi Zare, H., Aliheidari, T., & Sedaghat, A. (2018). Implementing Bounded Linear Programming and Analytical Network Process Fuzzy Models to Motivate Employees: a Case Study. Journal of Optimization in Industrial Engineering, 11(2), 11-24.


Ristic, M. R., Selakovic, M., & Qureshi, T. M. (2017). Employee motivation strategies and creation of supportive work environment in societies of post-socialist transformation. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 15.

Radwan, F. M. A., & Zhu, J. (2017). The Influence of Organizational Culture on Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention in Oil Companies in Libya.

Vilnai-Yavetz, I., & Levina, O. (2018). Motivating social sharing of e-business content: Intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, or crowding-out effect?. Computers in Human Behavior, 79, 181-191.

Ziar, S., & Ahmadi, S. (2017). Effective Factors in Job Motivation of Faculty Members of Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Based on Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Motivation in 1394. Journal of Medical Education Development, 9(23), 20-30.

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