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Analysis

Discuss abou the Importance of Cultural Studies in the Modern World.

The report is based on understanding the development of cultural studies in organisations. The advantages and limitations of studying about cultures in organisations are provided in detail in the report. The reason behind choosing this topic is the fact that organisational culture is one of the essential things that need to be considered by the manager. This is because in an organisation various people of different backgrounds work together in order to attain the goals of the company. Hence, the culture, thoughts and beliefs of the people are different from one another. According to Williams, Perillo and Brown (2015), cultural studies are considered as the analysis of the political dimensions of the cultures. The history of the ideas such as ideology, ethnicity and gender discrimination and so on are considered as part of the cultural studies that are associated in the society.

Organisational culture is referred to as the values and behaviours that are valuable in the development of social as well as a physiological environment of an organisation. It represents the collective values of the members of an organisation and ensures that the vision and norms of the organisation are maintained (Carlos, Rodrigues, & Dibb, 2014). Understanding cultures in an organisation can add to the growth of teamwork and mutual trust among the people working in the sector. However, certain disadvantages also exist in studying the organisational culture. Most of the times the managers of an organisation tend to subdue to the cultural background and history of the organisation keeping in mind the current position. The existence of cultural behaviours can also act as a limitation as people tend to find it difficult to formulate creative ideas due to the existence of cultural (Cavusgil, Knight, Riesenberger, Rammal, & Rose, 2014). Hence, the study of cultures in an organisation covers every aspect that is important in the development of a proper functioning of an organisation.

The report focuses on the need for studying cultures in organisations. In this context, the report will include examples of various organisations that have diverse cultural people working in it. Example Waikato Institute of Technology that has an international fame will be included in the report in order to provide a proper analysis of the topic. However, the report will not include any interview or responses from managers or employees working in an organisation. The report will be conducted using secondary analysis that will be based on journal articles, books and websites. Hence, the limitation of the report is that it does not include the thoughts of the people working in an organisation in order to understand the reason behind cultural studies.

Concept of cultural studies


The information regarding the reasons, advantages and disadvantages of cultural studies is based on secondary sources. The secondary sources come from analysing various journals articles that are useful in providing information about the topic. Apart from this sources have been taken from website and books in order to get a detailed analysis of the factors that influence organisational culture and its studies in organisations. The information from these sources is important for completing the report.

Concept of cultural studies

Cultural studies are considered as a theoretical, political and empirical engagement of cultural analysis. According to Brown (2011), cultural studies focus on the dynamics that deal with the contemporary culture and historical foundations that define the historical integration and the formation of different policies and philosophies. It is a form of investigation that deals with critical social phenomena such as ideology, class structure, gender discrimination and the generation gap that exists. The development of cultural studies initiated in Britain in the early 1970s. It is mainly considered as interdisciplinary factors that exist among the individuals. However, Martins and Terblanche (2013) countered this by saying that sometimes it is considered leading to anti-disciplinary practice. One of the key aspects of cultural studies is the fact that it takes into account the approaches that define political engagement which include Marxism, post-structuralism, history, political theory and so on.

Parker and Bradley (2010) observed that cultural studies seek to identify the evaluation of control and power in the society. The political, as well as the social aspects of various periods, are identified in the cultural dimensions of the society. Cultural studies became a global movement during the rise of neo-liberalism in Britain and the United States. Over the areas, a distinct approach to cultural studies has emerged that differentiate in the national and regional factors in countries the United States, Canada and so on. Abdul, Sambasivan and Johari (2013) stated that the main purpose of cultural studies is to examine the power and the relation it has in the political as well as social context. It attempts to expose the knowledge that the individuals with varied cultures possess. It also helps in the ethical evolution of modern society and the political actions that are involved in the society.      

Historical, social and political trends of cultural studies

As stated earlier, cultural studies developed during the 1970s in Britain. The origin of the term came in 1964 after Richard Hoggart coined the term during the foundation of the Birmingham Centre of Cultural studies. However, after the appointment of Stuart Hall, the concept became closely related to the contributions made by Hall (Giroux & McLaren, 2014). After the 1970s, cultural studies took on new dimensions in the gender and racial discrimination between people. It also attracted a lot of international minds and spread globally during the 1990s. According to Hall (2016), new knowledge productions were encountered that led to the rise of phenomenon such post-structuralism, post-colonialism and post-modernism.

Historical, social and political trends of cultural studies

Cultural studies led to the growth of political aspects that are important for the society. The advent of Marxism, Feminism, post-structuralism and so on is mainly due to the political aspects of the concept. The existence of culture in the regions promoted the growth of policies and procedures that led to the rise of political interference. The development of the concept spread beyond Europe and as a result led to changing of cultural aspects. For example in a country like Australia, distinctive courses emerged that led to the rise of cultural studies in the country. Nelson, Treichler and Grossberg (2012) stated that the colonisation of the country by the British led to the development of cultural aspects in the country. In this regard, the post-colonialism led to the dissemination of cultural aspects and new political rules followed in the country. Hence, the social rise of cultural studies is largely due to the advent of political as well as the historical development. In the modern days, the rise of awareness of different culture is mainly due to the migration and settlement of people with various cultures at a place. This is also an advent of understanding an organisational culture and the ways to maintain the cultural phenomenon (Chen & Morley, 2016).

Advantages of cultural studies

According to Haffar, Al-Karaghouli, Djebarni, & Gbadamosi, (2017), cultural studies provide certain advantages that lead to understanding and acceptance of the concept in the modern world. Some of the advantages of cultural studies include:

Assumptions are either proved or disprove: The assumptions made in the application of culture in the society usually come from the demonstration of the truth. Cultural studies help in identifying the truth behind the existence of several aspects of the society that may be important for individuals. However, most of the times it is seen that the truths revealed do not always replicate the modernity of a society (Hall, 2010).

Less costly and time consumption: Cultural studies are relatively less costly as compared to other educational courses. The reason behind this is the fact that primary analysis is not conducted in order to understand the reasons behind the development and existence of culture in the society. In this regard, less time is also required in order to complete the course and make a career from it. According to Giroux and McLaren (2014), cultural studies provide opportunities for a fast career growth due to the fact that individuals can research about cultures while pursuing the course.

Advantages of cultural studies

Focuses on a specific time period: Cultural studies focuses on a specific time period in order to understand the development of culture in the modern world. The analysis helps in understanding the history of cultural development in the countries and its application in organisational context. This is important in order to build collaboration between people belonging from various cultures (Giroux & Shannon, 2013). The focus on a specific time period helps in analysing the factors that lead to the growth of cultural phenomenon in the countries and the effectiveness it has on the modern society. It also contains multiple variables that result in the understanding of the development of the concept.

Creation of new theories: In order to complete the studies related to the development and existence of culture, various researchers need to be undertaken. These researchers help in the development and identification of new theories that are important in the growth of the concept in the modern world (Agger, 2014). Hence, it brings into focus various factors that were not explored in earlier days. This creates an opportunity to develop new ideas and policies that may help in changing the cultures of a society as well as organisations.    

Disadvantages of cultural studies

Despite the advantages, certain issues remain that prevent in adopting cultural studies as a means of developing the society. These disadvantages include:

Failure to analyse behaviours over time: Cultural studies deals with the policies and procedures in the social and political aspects of a country. However, it fails to understand the behaviour of the people in the society and the manner in which the behaviours change with the application of the cultural changes (Wood et al., 2016). Hence, this is a major disadvantage of the course as people are the core factors that determine the existence of culture in a society. Hence, analysis of the behaviours of people in various times is necessary for the cultural studies.

Failure to determine cause and effect: Cultural studies fail to determine the cause behind the existence of factors that lead to the growth of cultural dimensions and differences in a society. According to Waddell, Creed, Cummings, & Worley, (2013), the causes that lead to the existence of culture are mainly due to the existence of various people in organisations all around the world and the policies and philosophies that the people believe in. Hence, the effects of the cultures can have a negative impact on the success of an organisation as it may be difficult for people of various cultures to work together initially. Cultural studies do not provide an in-depth analysis of such events.

Flawed research: Wiengarten, Gimenez, Fynes, & Ferdows, (2015) observed that the findings from the research of the cultural aspects of a society may not always be accurate. This is mainly because of the fact that a society may consist of people with different cultural backgrounds. Sometimes with a longevity stay in a society people of a different cultural background tend to adapt to the existing culture. Hence, the cultural studies fail to identify such cases that lead to the deception of cultures (Ovseiko, Melham, Fowler, & Buchan, 2015). The research made by the scholars may not always be accurate in terms of gaining positive data from the society.

Application of cultural studies in organisational context

After analysing the concept, background, advantages and disadvantages of cultural studies, the application of it can be put in organisational context. Waikato Institute of Technology is one of the reputed organisations that provide cultural studies as a part of its course. The organisation dedicates itself in spreading cultural studies in order to understand the various aspects that lead to the existence of cultural phenomenon in an organisation (Zhu, 2015). The aim of the institution is to provide knowledge to the people in terms of adapting in the diverse cultural backgrounds that may be important in the future. In this context, the application of the study in an organisation can be highlighted. Carvalho, Sampaio, Rebentisch, Carvalho and Saraiva (2017) stated that the spread of people belonging to different cultures is a common phenomenon for most organisations. Hence, the cultural study course provided by Waikato Institute of Technology can be useful in order to make the people prepared about the events.

According to Laforet (2016), understanding differences in cultures can help an organisation as well as an individual to formulate strategies that lead to its success. This is particularly important in group projects because individuals from different cultural backgrounds exist in the groups. Waikato Institute of Technology provides an opportunity to analyse this phenomenon and ensure that individuals pursuing the course understand the importance of cultural studies. Over the years, cultural studies have evolved largely due to the establishment of organisations (Al Saifi, 2015). The application of these studies can help in maintaining and gaining knowledge about the various cultures, policies and procedures of different people. Thus, the importance of cultural studies can be felt while working for an organisation with diverse people of various organisations. Waikato Institute of Technology provides such opportunity to understand the cultural differences in organisations.  

Conclusion

Thus, it can be concluded that cultural studies are an important factor in the modern world. This is because with the advent of various people in the world and the existence of different organisations, understanding the cultural backgrounds of the people is important. The history and development of cultural studies date back in the early years of development of the concept. The evaluation of the concept and the study in the modern world is largely due to the theoretical aspects of the concepts. Waikato Institute of Technology is one of the leading pioneers of promoting the study course. The support provided by the institution in terms of embracing this study helps the people to gain excessive knowledge about the various cultural beliefs of countries around the world.

After analysing the advantages and disadvantages of cultural studies it can be recommended that Waikato Institute of Technology instigate certain changes that are required for the improvement of the course. One of the biggest disadvantages of cultural studies is the fact that it fails to provide perfect information. Hence, changes can be made in the manner in which the research is conducted. This can help in eliminating any possibilities of false information that may be gathered in cultural studies. Waikato Institute of Technology can provide opportunities to take up a primary curse in order to ensure that the behaviour of the people can also be understood. This can be done by ensuring that during the course, the university an open up interactive sessions with people that belong to various cultural backgrounds. The policies and belief of the people can be analysed along with the development of cause and effect. The reason for the existence of cultural differences and the effects it has on the people needed to be analysed by conducting primary course materials. Hence, the application of these changes can help Waikato Institute of Technology improve its reputation as the leading university in the country providing the opportunities for cultural studies.  

References

Abdul, Z., Sambasivan, M., & Johari, J. (2013). The influence of corporate culture and organisational commitment on performance. Journal of management development, 22(8), 708-728.

Agger, B. (2014). Cultural studies as critical theory. Routledge.

Al Saifi, S. A. (2015). Positioning organisational culture in knowledge management research. Journal of Knowledge Management, 19(2), 164-189.

Brown, A. (2011). Organisational culture. Financial Times.

Carlos, J., Rodrigues, A. & Dibb, S., (2014). The role of corporate culture, market orientation and organisational commitment in organisational performance: the case of non-profit organisations. Journal of Management Development, 33(4), pp.374-398.

Carvalho, A. M., Sampaio, P., Rebentisch, E., Carvalho, J. Á., & Saraiva, P. (2017). Operational excellence, organisational culture and agility: the missing link?. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 1-20.

Cavusgil, S. T., Knight, G., Riesenberger, J. R., Rammal, H. G., & Rose, E. L. (2014). International business. Pearson Australia.

Chen, K. H., & Morley, D. (Eds.). (2016). Stuart Hall: Critical dialogues in cultural studies. Routledge.

Giroux, H. A., & McLaren, P. (Eds.). (2014). Between borders: Pedagogy and the politics of cultural studies. Routledge.

Giroux, H. A., & McLaren, P. (Eds.). (2014). Between borders: Pedagogy and the politics of cultural studies. Routledge.

Giroux, H. A., & Shannon, P. (Eds.). (2013). Education and cultural studies: Toward a performative practice. Routledge.

Haffar, M., Al-Karaghouli, W., Djebarni, R., & Gbadamosi, G. (2017). Organisational culture and TQM implementation: investigating the mediating influences of multidimensional employee readiness for change. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 1-22.

Hall, S. (2010). Cultural studies: Two paradigms. Media, Culture & Society, 2(1), 57-72.

Hall, S. (2016). Cultural studies and its theoretical legacies. Stuart Hall: Critical dialogues in cultural studies, 262-275.

Laforet, S. (2016). Effects of organisational culture on organisational innovation performance in family firms. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 23(2), 379-407.

Martins, E. C., & Terblanche, F. (2013). Building organisational culture that stimulates creativity and innovation. European journal of innovation management, 6(1), 64-74.

Nelson, C., Treichler, P. A., & Grossberg, L. (2012). Cultural studies: An introduction. Cultural studies, 1, 50.

Ovseiko, P. V., Melham, K., Fowler, J., & Buchan, A. M. (2015). Organisational culture and post-merger integration in an academic health centre: a mixed-methods study. BMC health services research, 15(1), 25.

Parker, R., & Bradley, L. (2010). Organisational culture in the public sector: evidence from six organisations. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 13(2), 125-141.

Waddell, D., Creed, A., Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. (2013). Organisational change: Development and transformation. Cengage Learning.

Wiengarten, F., Gimenez, C., Fynes, B., & Ferdows, K. (2015). Exploring the importance of cultural collectivism on the efficacy of lean practices: Taking an organisational and national perspective. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 35(3), 370-391.

Williams, B., Perillo, S., & Brown, T. (2015). What are the factors of organisational culture in health care settings that act as barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practice? A scoping review. Nurse education today, 35(2), e34-e41.

Wood, J. M., Zeffane, R. M., Fromholtz, M., Wiesner, R., Morrison, R., Factor, A., ... & Osborn, R. N. (2016). Organisational behaviour: Core concepts and applications. John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd..

Zhu, C. (2015). Organisational culture and technology-enhanced innovation in higher education. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 24(1), 65-79.

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