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Affect Theory

Discuss about the Job Satisfaction for Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations.

The chosen topic for the assignment is job satisfaction.

Job satisfaction is the level of contentment that the individuals receive while they are into some kind of jobs. It includes the factors whether they like their jobs or they are doing it forcefully. It includes certain behavioral components that are related to their jobs. It is important for an individual to get satisfied in their job fields. It can be seen in many cases that the individuals face certain issues in their job fields. They face behavioral issues that becomes a stress for the individuals and they become unwilling to work in the organization. Initially money was considered to be the main factor of satisfaction for the employees (Huang et al. 2016). Later with the money the job profile was considered to be one of the most important aspect of a job. It is important for the employees to be satisfied of their jobs. If they cannot like their job they will never be able to do justice to the job. They will lack in their duty to serve the organization as they will not be able to give their best. There are many models of job satisfaction that will be analyzed in the discussion area. It is indicative of the behaviors that occur in the organizations. Job satisfaction is dependent on few factors like the environment of the workplace, it is dependent on the behavior of the supervisors and the persons of the management (Zablah et al. 2016).

There are certain methods or models of the job satisfaction out of which the affect theory is an important theory. The foremost theory is the affect theory. This is the theory that has been proposed by Edwin A. Locke (Reilly et al. 2014). According to this theory, the main premise is that by job satisfaction an individual means what one gets in a job and what one wants. The satisfaction and the dissatisfaction of the job depends upon the fact whether the individuals got the things they wanted or whether they did not get the things they wanted in their job. It varies from one employee to other. In some case the employees prefers autonomy in the job and in other case the other employee does not prefer so. This theory also reveal the fact that excess amount of particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction. The feelings of dissatisfaction becomes stronger when a worker values more the particular facet that is the reason of his dissatisfaction (Gabriel et al. 2014).

Dispositional Approach Theory

The other theory is the dispositional approach theory (Judge et al. 2017). This theory suggests that the individuals vary in their tendency to be satisfied with their jobs. The job satisfaction can be considered to be an individual trait. The expectation of satisfaction of an individual is a stable process. It is not a changing process. It remains stable over time and across other jobs and careers. This models have stated that according to the research the identical twins who was raised apart have same level of expectation of job satisfaction (Korsgaard, Meglino and Call 2015).

The other theory includes the equity theory. According to this theory, the person views fairness in regard to the social relationships such as with an employer. In this the person identifies the amount of things gained from a relationship and compares the same with the output that is the things that is given out. This is done in order to produce a ratio of output and input (Lazaroiu 2015). This theory suggests that in case there is an inequality between the two individuals or two social groups, the probable situation that the person can go through is stress. This is because a disparity that might occur between the relationship of input and output. This is explained better with the help of an example. If two employees have been hired by the company with the same job profile and if one is getting high payment compared to the other, the one who is getting less paid will undergo the situation of distress in the workplace. In the other situation if both the employees gets equal pay, with equal responsibilities, the feeling of equity will be maintained that will be healthy for the organization. The theory has been supported many psychologist, who have come up with other suggestions of the theory. Some psychologists opined the fact that there are three level of behavioral response patterns to the situations that perceived equity or inequity. These are the benevolent behavior, behavior that is sensitive to equity and entitled behavior. The benevolent behavior include the fact that the employees are satisfied when they are under-reward while they are compared with their coworkers. The equity sensitive includes that everyone should be believed and they should be fairly rewarded. The entitled includes that the individuals believe that everything they receive from the organization they work is those things that their just due (Cappelen et al. 2014).

Equity Theory

In this context the discrepancy theory should be considered to be a major theory that can be discussed. This include the concept that is used to explain the ultimate source of anxiety and dejection. This is experienced by the employees when he is unable to fulfill his duties and responsibilities (Hardin and Donaldson 2014). In such cases he goes through the feeling of anxiety and he regrets over the situation for not performing well. The feelings of dejection comes just after this. This theory contains the fact that the individuals will learn to take their duties and responsibilities. They usually feel dejected when they are unable to achieve their hopes and their aspirations. In this the individuals learn to fulfill their obligations and their hopes. The individuals learn to fulfill their duties and their responsibilities and in case they are unable to do so they will be punished. With the passage of time the duties and the responsibilities become principles which can be used as a tool of self-guide. This theory also explains that in case the achievement of the obligation is obtained then the reward can be praise, approval or love. The individuals gain respect from this. The dissatisfaction increases when the employees fails to obtain respect, rewards and they are filled with the feeling of dejection and as a result usually feel depressed and therefore suffer from depression (Dobrow et al. 2015).

The other model of job dissatisfaction is the two-factor theory. This is sometimes known as the motivator-hygiene theory. This theory was introduced by Frederick Herzberg. This theory included the factors like satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. According to this theory, the factors like satisfaction and dissatisfaction are guided by different factors like motivation and hygiene factors. An employee requires constant motivation from his supervisors in order to perform well and to carry out all the job responsibilities (Bakker and Demerouti 2014). Motivation is usually seen as an inner force. Motivating factors are those that aspects of the job that make people want to perform. It increases the will power of the employees to work. It enhances the will of the employees to perform well in the organization and to achieve the goals of the organization. Once the individuals attain the organizational goal, the individual attains satisfaction of job. The other aspect that is included in the theory is the factor of hygiene. This includes the aspects that are related to the working environment. This usually include the payment structure of the company, the policies of the company and the practices that are adopted by the supervisors. (Argyris 2017)

Discrepancy Theory

The final model includes the job characteristics model. This model was proposed by Hackman and Oldham. This model opines the fact that there are certain essential characteristics of the job that are responsible for the job satisfaction. Everyone is not influenced by this. The individuals who want to achieve high targets and growth require strength. They are highly affected by the characteristics of the job. This requires the development of new skills that are required for the job (Serhan, Tsangari and Business 2015).

While concluding this can be mentioned that there are many factors that influence the option of job satisfaction. These factors include the environmental factors which includes the factor of communication overload and underload. The other part of this is the superior-subordinate communication. The individual factor is another major factor of job satisfaction. This includes emotion, genetics as well as personality. The other factor that influences the job satisfaction is the psychological well-being of an individual. Apart from this the relationships with the people in the working place and the practical implication of the same has huge impact on the factor of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction not only affects the organization but also the organizations. If the workers in an organization is dissatisfied the organization itself becomes dissatisfied. It decrease the rate of production and hampers the quality of the work. Low job satisfaction can result to low morale and the employees show no loyalty towards the company. Therefore, it is important to have job satisfaction and to understand the factors that are related to the same.

References

Argyris, C., 2017. Integrating the Individual and the Organization. Routledge.

Bakker, A.B. and Demerouti, E., 2014. Job demands–resources theory. Wellbeing.

Cappelen, A.W., Eichele, T., Hugdahl, K., Specht, K., Sørensen, E.Ø. and Tungodden, B., 2014. Equity theory and fair inequality: a neuroeconomic study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(43), pp.15368-15372.

Dobrow Riza, S., Ganzach, Y. and Liu, Y., 2015. Time and job satisfaction: A longitudinal study of the differential roles of age and tenure. Journal of management, p.0149206315624962.

Gabriel, A.S., Diefendorff, J.M., Chandler, M.M., Moran, C.M. and Greguras, G.J., 2014. The dynamic relationships of work affect and job satisfaction with perceptions of fit. Personnel Psychology, 67(2), pp.389-420.

Hardin, E.E. and Donaldson III, J.R., 2014. Predicting job satisfaction: A new perspective on person–environment fit. Journal of counseling psychology, 61(4), p.634.

Huang, Y.H., Lee, J., McFadden, A.C., Murphy, L.A., Robertson, M.M., Cheung, J.H. and Zohar, D., 2016. Beyond safety outcomes: An investigation of the impact of safety climate on job satisfaction, employee engagement and turnover using social exchange theory as the theoretical framework. Applied ergonomics, 55, pp.248-257.

Judge, T.A., Weiss, H.M., Kammeyer-Mueller, J.D. and Hulin, C.L., 2017. Job attitudes, job satisfaction, and job affect: A century of continuity and of change. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), p.356.

Korsgaard, M.A., Meglino, B.M. and Call, M.L., 2015. The Role of Concern for Others in Reactions to Justice: Integrating the Theory of Other Orientation with Organizational Justice. The Oxford Handbook of Justice in the Workplace, p.387.

Lazaroiu, G., 2015. Employee motivation and job performance. Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations, 14, p.97.

Reilly, G., Nyberg, A.J., Maltarich, M. and Weller, I., 2014. Human capital flows: Using context-emergent turnover (CET) theory to explore the process by which turnover, hiring, and job demands affect patient satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 57(3), pp.766-790.

Serhan, C., Tsangari, H. and Business, S., 2015. Retention of fresh graduates: Identification of determinant factors through a modified job characteristics model. In Global Business Conference (pp. 200-202).

Zablah, A.R., Carlson, B.D., Donavan, D.T., Maxham III, J.G. and Brown, T.J., 2016. A cross-lagged test of the association between customer satisfaction and employee job satisfaction in a relational context. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(5), p.743.

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