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Task 1

Consider and identify a suitable area for research and develop a detailed research question with the aim, scope, objectives and success criteria for the project. Explain your research question, its aim, scope, objectives and success criteria to your tutor. You should provide a written justification for your choice of research question. Your tutor must agree your research question before you continue.

Task 2


Develop a detailed research proposal which:

1.Includes an evaluation of research techniques to assess their suitability to meet the aims, scope and objectives of the research project
2.Selects suitable research techniques
3.Provides a detailed proposal for your research.

Task 3

You should undertake a literature review and record and report sources relevant to your research project. Your review should be presented in an appropriate format and include: 

a.a critical review of the literature which informs the development of your proposal and the research project and report your findings 

b.a bibliography of material relevant to the research question and the literature review

Task 4

Carry out the research project. Collect, analyse and synthesise data and information to produce results and inform your research and the conclusions. You should summarise the findings of your research in a final written report, drawing conclusions and making appropriate recommendations. You should present the final report in a suitable format.
 

Task 1

1.1 Aim of the Study

The aim of the study is to explore the employee engagement depends on the organization productivity on the public sector in Qatar.

1.2 Scope of the Study

The paper suggests the possible understanding of employee engagement and performance management scenario to manage a sector in the desired form. The scope of the study analyses performance enhancement in public sector and employees’ engagement is needed for that reason. The proposal also suggests intrinsic and extrinsic factors are liable for employee’ motivation and that assure employees’ retention as well as the development of business in the public sector in Qatar (Moussa 2013). Through the scope of productiveness, the sector will improve in a motivated way and a good relationship with age and salary or employee is going to be sustained in this segment.

1.3 Objective of the Study

  • To identify the employee engagement factors in public sector industry in Qatar.
  • To point out the possible chances to enhance the organizational productivity in Qatar.
  • To connect the inter-relation between employee engagement and organizational productivity and make an impact on both the attribution to sustain a good market position of the company.
  • To recommend a legitimate design that provides enough suitable approach to employee engagement related to organizational productivity as well.

1.4 Success criteria of the Study

The study will cover all possible aspect of organizational production and that related to performance enhancement as well. The variables are taken for this format is quite effective to understand the limitation of the sector. The public sector is one of the growing sectors in Qatar. So, Qatar needs to involve more people in their public sectors job. People are a bit more reluctant in that case to join this sector but most of the case positive responses are not coming for the employees and they choose private sectors instead of the public sector as well (Singh, Jones and Hall 2012). The administrative initiative, work culture and reason behind the low work-level engagement are the concern matter of this study. The significance of the study implies the future outcome of the employee engagement and makes a suitable path to progress in organizational development.

1.5 Research questions

Question 1: What are the employee engagement factors in public sectors in Qatar?

Question 2: What are the chances of organization productivity in public sector organizations in Qatar?

Question 3: How to get a good position by relating both the variables in public sector organization?

Question 4: What are the recommended approaches taken by the public sectors to increase their employee engagement and enhance the development?

2.1 Evaluation of Research techniques

Research philosophy provides a great level of business understanding and delivers in-depth analysis over the topic. The section also delivers the classification of knowledge and embraces the philosophical brief to make a profound connection with the research (El-Haddadeh, Weerakkody and Al-Shafi 2013). The method of taking philosophy in dissertation always makes a belief with that knowledge that will answer all the possible aspects of data and identified the proper posting of business market as well. In essence of that, the assumption over knowledge and philosophical strategy to manage the variable is important in this methodology.

Task 2

In this research section, Positivism philosophy will be taken by the researcher. The philosophy adheres the actual matters only and gains observation from the secondary resources. The data collected by the secondary research and interpretation in between is the most important findings in this philosophy (Awan and Tahir 2015). To understand the problem evoked in Qatar n public sector is the major concern for this paper and through the positivism philosophy, the empiricist view and knowledge can be gained.

In this research method, Descriptive research design will be taken. The research design analyses the data collection method and makes a suitable way for findings and results. The research strategies and methods are important in this section to understand the context of the study. The design also highlights research process and techniques to consolidate the research (AlNaimi, Hossain and Momin 2012). The descriptive design has the pure observational process that methodizes the viewing and analyzing the process of recording participants. In this case, study oriented research, literature review oriented research will be delivered and that suggests the process to be done through the discussion and assumption.

The research approach is adopted in this kind of studies to develop the study at the basis of collected data and methodical analysis. The pattern of development in research can be understood through this process and that includes the collected formation of research analysis and deliverance. In this research approach Deductive approach will be chosen and that based on the existing theory and strategy to test results provided in the secondary research process (Shah, Irani and Sharif 2017). Most of the facts and figures are collected through the deductive way and the process also makes some link between the case and general circumstances as well. The hypothesis is not always required in this approach however effective approach of observation and make a pattern of test results are important in this approach. 

2.2 Data collection process and techniques

Data collection is a process of collecting information from the relevant resources and gets some finding and results. The process understands the research problems as well and evaluates the outcomes through the research conducted by the researcher. In this case, secondary research analysis will be used and through the secondary research, some validity and reliability of the topic can be gained. The research also makes an outline of the topic and makes a strong understanding of the reason for less employee engagement in public sector in Qatar. In case of secondary data collection, in-depth analysis of author and relate them to the source is the factual matter that connecting both the section quality as well as extend the contribution to the topic (Ali 2013). The topic must have two variables and through the secondary data, thematic data analysis technique can be discussed in the paper. The paper also makes a contribution to the research theme and that enhance to make better chances for the in-depth analysis perception.

Task 3

2.3 Research timeline

Week 1

Week 3

Week 5

Week 7

Week 9

Week 11

Week 12

Identification of topic

Reviewing the literature

Identification of research methodology

Collection of secondary data

Data analysis

Drawing conclusion and Recommendation

Final Submission

Table 1: Gantt chart of Research timeline

(Source: Created by Author)

3.1 Literature Review

Concept of employee engagement in public sector organization

Employee engagement is important for the sustainable condition of the organization. If a particular sector of the nation is facing that problem then it is quite sure that internal problems are liable for this reason. Non-profit partnership business of public sector industries, some of the important administrative sectors and some executives’ seats are vacant in public sector organization in Qatar. As stated by O’Neill, Hodgson and Al Mazrouei (2015) Employee motivation is responsible for that factor and employees are not willing to join public sector jobs for this reason. In 2013, the public sector in Qatar has increased the rate of employment by 94% as a big amount of money was invested at that time to change the infrastructure of public sectors. Change in education, healthcare, security processes, delivering social security in public sector also required in Qatar and that will enhance employee engagement as well. As stated by Elewa (2013) the public sector employees are lazy and unproductive in Qatar and they are high in age. So it is quite difficult for the organization to motivate them or provide them enthusiasm by any means. As mentioned by Weber (2016) the job security in public sector is high that is the reason competition is not persisted in that land. The sector is less extrinsic as well and young people are not willing to live a demotivated life there so they choose private sector organization where they can get some motivation and enthusiasm and prove their ability in work.

Theoretical perspectives of employee engagement

The theoretical perspectives are necessary to evaluate the employee engagement and with the relevant theories of motivation the justified link between the employee engagements established in this paper. Expectancy theory is used in this paper. The perception level is dealing with the expectancy and that encompasses enough effort to this level. In case of productivity, performance is needed from the employees. Vroom made a theoretical concept in this model to evaluate the instrument implementation in to get an ultimate outcome from the theory. Labeled valance will provide the anticipated satisfaction to employees in most of the cases; rewards and recognition are not available from all the organization. So the establishment of this process and get an approval from executives are the important aspect of this theory. As commented by Babar (2014) In case of employee engagement, motivation in utmost essential for moves them in the right direction to raise the productivity of that sector.

Task 4

Another theory mentioned in that segment is Two-Factor theory and the theory provide employees motivation. Work environment and working condition are important for any sector and employees to want proper treatment from the organization executives. In fact, Herzberg identified two sections in this theory and that provide enough recognition and growth opportunities for employees to encourage employees to join the sector. Hygiene factors and motivators are the two aspects of this theory and through the process of motivational work, the organization tries to engage more people with them. As commented by Barrie Jones (2014) a good supervision and relationship are also needed in that scenario to meet the employees’ engagement. Achievements, salary, and security in work deliver the hygiene factor in workplace and employees can take more responsibilities through that process. Evolve interest in advancement and growth is the acceptability of theory that encourages more engagement opportunities for the organization.

Concept of organizational productivity in public sector organization 

Organizational productivity is determined by the range of factors and analytical approaches. Productivity will increase if employees are in the state of happiness in the organization (Ibrahim and Harrigan 2012). The organization will support their employee in extrinsic and intrinsic motivational approach and provide them enough benefits that more engagement with the work will showcase in this concept. Individual and group behavior and effective communication within them consider as a boost over the performance and productivity in the workplace.

Theoretical perspective of organizational productivity

In case of motivating employees in an effective manner, McGregor X and Y theory are important in these perspectives. Every employee has different psychology and they have worked in a manner and deliver their best in the organization. Theory X considers those employees who are lazy and don’t want to work but they have enough talent to crack any situation. On the other hand theory, Y is considering those who work for self-fulfillment however they need right guidance to improve their performance. In that scenario, the organization has to motivate theory X employees so that they can actively take part in the development of the organization. As stated by Behar and Mok (2013) Good infrastructure in business and close track over them to evaluate their activity is the key concern of this section. On the other hand, theory Y employees need some training and right direction to work in an effective way. They can take a boost from the managers and they will perform well as they have will-power to do the work. Productivity will increase in that manner if all the aspects are under the supervision and possible amendments will be initiated by the management.

Factors that drive employee engagement

There are some driving factors for employee engagement and all these factors are related to motivating employees for the development of organization development. At first, the employees’ perception is important as per the job importance. Employees’ attitude towards the job relates to the engagement that delivers more opportunity to get involved in the process. Secondly, the clarification of job expectation is also required from the organization and employees need to maintain the process to make a proper establishment of engagement with the organization (Al-Khouri 2013). Third, the chances of career development and improvement opportunities are important in this matter to make organizational engagement with employees.

Feedback is a way of taking the opinion that organization wants from employees. Some of the feedbacks are coming from the employees regarding infrastructure, management or some sections of the organization to change the process. If an organization follows the process and does it as per the employee engagement then it will be effective to maintain employee engagement in an organization, other than this a negative reflection will come over the relationship and it hampers. The next important factor is the relationship with employees and managers. The direct relation is persisted in that situation where one-to-one relation with manager and employees is essential to understand the intrinsic scenario of the employee (Sala-i-Martín et al. 2012). The perception of ethos and values in the organization are also engaged with the performance model and that is inspiring for engaging employees. Effective employees communication is another factor related to employee engagement and that engage more people than expected. 

Impact of employee engagement on organizational productivity

Employee engagement is strongly related to organizational productivity. It is the stage of pledge and participation an employee has to their organization and its principles and attitude. An affiance employee is conscious of the business situation and works with contemporaries to recover performance in the job for the benefit of the organization. Employee commitment inventiveness has a straight impact on the organization's production. When employees are thinking about the organization success then the level of production also increases. The caring attitude towards the employee also enhances employee engagement process. All organizations desire their employees to be engaged in their work. Employee engagement is linked to customer satisfaction which is connected to an organization's monetary success (Sala-i-Martín et al. 2012). Engagement comes in a form when enough people concern about responsible for a good job and care about what the organization is demanding to attain.

They want to make the path for the organization and in most of the cases, the findings are highlighting the fact of effective employees’ engagement with the organization. The corporate background helps an organization to attach to the employees, provides them empowerment in judgment and thought to make process and establishes them to bear greater liabilities. Through the organizational productiveness, the act of performance and the contribution to the productivity is generated in a high range and those effects on the employees’ job satisfaction. Low manpower turnover is important for this situation so that organization can gain a high amount of productivity (Gardner et al. 2013). The higher performance is also depending on the relationship and organization managers and executives need to maintain that good relationship with them. In case of influencing employee engagement recruitment and selection of effective employee is important and that provide enough opportunity for the organization to enhance the productivity. There is such career development opportunities are also there as the factor of employee engagement and in most of the cases, the impact is far-fetched.

Gap in literature

In this literature review, all the scholars try to interpret their view of employee engagement and also made an impact of this with the organizational production. The gap shows in most of the cases are mitigation statement of communication problem is not discussed and along with that ethical consideration of the level of employees’ engagement and their effective feeling is not addressed in most of the literature part. The objective set by the researcher are almost met in this section but the growing advancement of opportunity in Qatar and public sector opportunities are not addressed in the objectives’ consequences. In most of the cases, consequences are addressing on the unproductive nature of the sector. But the sector also holds the administration and effective power of government and that need to qualify in some section (Sala-i-Martín et al. 2012). Qatar has some policies in government but they offer a large amount of money though from this sector. In case of retirement income, security in the job all these are allotted in public sector in Qatar but it to be addressed as the positive sight of a literature review that has not mentioned in any part of there. The employee engagement impact in an organization is an extensive process and production level is not improved if workplace attachment and consecutiveness are not addressed by the government.

4.1 Data collection results 

Theme 1: Factors behind lack of employee engagement in Qatar public sector

Qatar based public sector has not been able to engage the employees in work as the most of the employees are aged and they do not feel interested towards the monotonous work. The public sector is well-developed in Qatar and significant improvement needs to be made in public sector employees in order to provide speed in work process and quality.  

Sector

2015

2016

Annual growth rate

Private

1,145

1,234

11%

Government

188

204

6%

Domestic

154

157

11%

Mixed

145

155

2%

Table 1: Number of labor force by sector in thousand (Qatar)

(Source: Mdps.gov.qa 2018)

The above table shows that the employees in private sector are not much as the new aged employees do not want to work in this section. The total population of public sector employees touches 170 thousand in Qatar (Kirat 2015). The government does not provide extra motivation and rewards to work better and neither the government deducts or suspends the employees if they do not work hard. The employees do not get the option of career development and the work process is too much flexible for the public sector employees. The work process does not inspire the employees over there. 

Theme 2: Employee motivation issue in public sector in Qatar

The main reason behind the employee motivation in public sector of Qatar is associated with the lack of career development. Most of the employees here are aged and they do not feel any passion towards work. Extrinsic motivation is less in public sector; on the contrary, the private sector provides extrinsic motivation of money and rewards to the employees. Employees in public sectors work in health, education, environment, security, manufacturing, and commerce.  

Qatar based public employees’ age group (Male employees)

Percentage

15-24

25%

25-33

23%

35-44

40%

45-55

12%

Table 2: Qatar based public employees based on age group

(Source: Mdps.gov.qa 2018)

The figure shows that middle-aged persons in public sector are more and economic activity is less in this group. The employees are not engaged as they do not feel extra intrinsic demands towards the work process. They like spend idle hours as the common public observe. Employees also need management support in job motivation and employee commitment. As stated by Bener and Al-Hamaq (2016), managerial errors are predominant in motivating the employees. The sloth work process has been observing them in Qatar and workplace conflict is also seen. The salary package is good in Qatar public sector; however, the young generation thinks the public sector is unproductive. Young job seekers do not like to work in public sector as the correlation between employee motivation and job satisfaction exists here.

Theme 3: Recent drop in productivity in Qatar public sector  

The average salary of an employee who works in public sector of Qatar is $4000 a month whereas the private sector employees get $1400 on average (Rizzo 2016). A higher level of productivity is a challenge for the employees in public sector as the government tries to control many of the industries through the public sector employees. In private sector, 2.73% growth has been observed in private sector compared to 10.66% drop in the public sector (Nour 2016).

Public sector

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Construction

2.3%

2.5%

2.9%

2.08%

1.89%

Health

2.5%

3.5%

2.9%

1.80%

1.56%

Manufacturing

3.5%

3.9%

2.6%

2.9%

2.10%

Security

2.7%

2.8%

2.5%

2.1%

1.4%

Table: Service sector of public domain growth rate in recent years

(Source: Mdps.gov.qa 2018)

This table shows the drop in productivity in Qatar based public sector in recent years because of lack of employee engagement in the workplace. Construction and manufacturing sector have been observing the rapid decline of growth. The employees do not need to acquire employability skills to survive in this sector as they have guaranteed employment. The public sector employees are getting higher pay with short working hours, guaranteed job securities and fringe benefits. Nevertheless, the employees are not working possibly because of lack of intrinsic motivation and lack of responsibilities (Van Dooren et al. 2015). The leaders in this sector need to set the objective for them so that they can work hard and foreign workers need to work effectively.

Government always provides special preferences to the Qatari citizens in working in public sector jobs. Government tries to improve the Qatar based organizational productivity through the reduction of the cost base in right way and public sector modernization. In Qatar, the public sector organizations have been going through the high levels of disappointing levels of inefficient employees. Qatar government is trying to improve the infrastructure of the public sector through the promoting the service to the international arena (Legreid 2017). In Oil and Gas sector, Qatar has been moving to make itself one of the wealthiest countries. In public sector, the employees do not have requisite skills and lower levels of employees are getting the chances. Government is trying to provide training to the employees and service delivery improvement.  Qatar government is trying to provide prioritization to the public sector and alignment of the private sector to the public sector.

4.2 Analyze data and synthesize data 

It has been noticed that government of Qatar is trying to improve the condition through taking the prioritization. The public sector is also associated with economic development and it is related to the government spending. Government is aware of the facts that employees are not engaged as the employees are seniors and they do not feel the urge to work for the common people. In a literature review, as stated by Biyagautane et al. (2016), leaders in an organization play an important role to bring out the performance and productivity of an employee. In Qatar, the gender, age, and nationality in public sector play an important role. In McGregor's X and Y theory, it is specified that workplace motivation comes from external rewards, penalties and other motivating factors are job satisfaction and direct supervision. In public sector, the employees are not directly supervised by leaders. Private sectors employers depend on leaders, head of the departments and managers in Qatar. The leaders are not supportive and they do not possess the power of motivating the employees. Employees’ in public sector do not have enough responsibilities to handle in each day; therefore, they can spend enough time to spend. The private sector employees switch the work if they are not satisfied. In a literature review, as opined by Kirat (2015), aged employees have to work for the negative stereotypes and they have to work cohort with the young employees. In public sector, the young employees do not wish to work as the recent data shows that a number of the available job exceeds the available employees in this sector.

This objective has been met in the Thematic Analysis section and in the literature review. Employee engagement in Qatar public sector is done through the job security and lack of pressure in the work. Employees in Qatar public sector do not find enough career development plan and they do not feel motivated to work for the public sectors. Leaders cannot motivate them; however, they get flexible working hours and fair pay.

This objective has also been met in the thematic analysis and in the literature review. The government of Qatar takes some steps to increase organizational productivity where the employees feel safe because the managers do not punish the employees for poor performance. The leaders can take the transactional leadership style to bring out the motivation of the employees and the managers can start the training to provide requisite work skills.

Objective 3: To connect the inter-relation between employee engagement and organizational productivity and make an impact on both the attribution to sustain a good market position of the company

This objective has been met in the literature review section; however, this part cannot be illuminated in Qatar public sector point of view. Engaged employees can be an asset to the organization, however, in Qatar public sector, the employees are not motivated. Motivated employees provide organizational productivity, however, the recent statistics shown in thematic analysis provides the fact that public sector has been experiencing the rapid decline of productivity. 

Objective 4: To recommend a legitimate design that provides enough suitable approach to employee engagement related to organizational productivity as well

This objective has not been met in a proper way; however, the government initiative has been shown in order to improve the condition of the public sector where the employees need to be motivated. In the following section, the recommendations are given to develop the employee engagement in public sector in Qatar.

Conclusions 

In Qatar, the employees in public sector earn more than the private sector. The public sector provides the job security and the work responsibilities are low here. However, the young generation is not attracted towards the public sector and government of Qatar is trying to recruit more employees in public sector to give priority in public sector. In recent time, Qatar government provides benefits to the employees irrespective of the private and public sectors. The lack of motivation is predominant in public sector because the employees know that their job secured. Maximum numbers of employees in public sector are aged and they do not feel the urge to work properly to enhance the condition. The public sector employees gain pension scheme when retires. Public sector employees earn more and they spend more too. In the workplace, employee engagement is low as the senior level employees are unproductive and leaders do not motivate them to work hard. Poor performance is there with overstaffing as the employees can spend time without doing any work. Public sector's productivity is needed to improve the overall economic, social and environmental promises of the government vision towards 2030.

Implementing transactional leadership in public sector 

In public sector of Qatar, leaders and managers can implement transactional leadership style where the leaders will set a target for the team members. The leaders need to provide both punishment and rewards to the employees. Transactional leadership is focused on the short-term goal and it thrives on rules set by the leaders. The leaders should set the structural policies and procedures to govern the employees. This leadership style can engage the leaders and will motivate them.

Strategic priority towards employee engagement 

  The employers in public sector should take a strategic priority in order to engage the employees towards organizational goal. Qatar government has a plan to drive the growth of economic and social welfare for 2030. The government body needs to make employee engagement program to create organizational metrics to support the modernization of public sector. The strategic priority can be included motivation, recruitment, selection, pension scheme and employee engagement and communication.  

Communicate effectively 

The leaders and employees in public sector need to communicate fluently as lack of communication can create an issue for employee engagement that will result in lack of productivity. Leaders' set objectives need to be met by the employees in order to facilitate the benchmark. The communication can be horizontal that will highlight the improved facility and issues of employees.  

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