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1. Developing Self-Awareness

1.Developing Self-Awareness

You are a sales manager in the Northwestern division of a large clothing manufacturing company. Recently, you and some other managers in your division attended the yearly national sales meeting in Chicago. Just now one of the other managers who attended the conference has come into your office. He says, “While I was at the conference, I took out some friends of mine in Chicago to dinner at an expensive restaurant, and charged it to my expense account. I said they were potential clients. Now my boss is questioning that. He says he wants proof. Would you write him a note saying you were there and that they were really potential clients?” What will you do? How will you do it? Why?

Aspects that should be addressed / included in your answer:

Identification of personal stage of moral development, explanations of how stage is likely to influence behavior, identification of own interpersonal orientation, explanation of how orientation is likely to affect what one is likely to do.

2. Solving Problems Analytically and Creatively 
You are working in a lower-level managerial position in a Boise firm. Your boss stops by to visit you one day, and says “I have got this problem with my boss. She is new to the firm, and seems to be taking pleasure in turning everything upside down. She has instituted new reporting procedures, new meeting schedules, new budgeting process, new everything! Now, I have been here far 15 years, and the old system makes sense to me. I have tried to be diplomatic by holding my peace, but I do not see any reason to change. If you ask me, I think she is one of those libbers, out to show her power.” What will you do? How will you do it? Why?

Aspects that should be addressed / included in your answer:

Identification of possible blocks to creativity, identification of a creative analogy, bringing back analogy to provide a creative solution or new viewpoint.

3. Managing Conflict 


Your office neighbor talks very loudly on the phone. It is very hard for you not to be disturbed in your work. You have talked to her about it in the past but it keeps going on. You are sitting in your office. It is happening once more and you are quite irritated about it. You have decided to confront this person now. What will you do? How will you do it? Why?


Aspects that should be addressed / included in your answer:


Use of recognizable conflict resolution approach, explanation of why this approach is appropriate, identification and explanation of reasonable alternative

4. Leading Positive Change 


You are in charge of a large sausage manufacturing company.  Up until now, everything has been running smoothly, but you believe it is time for a change.  You have been reading about empowerment and teamwork, and you think that if you can reorganize the employees into self-directed teams, your sausage company has a chance of becoming the most profitable sausage company in the United States.  Your management philosophy is that any profits the company makes should be shared with the employees.  Employees are concerned however, because they think that any change may be accompanied by downsizing and layoffs. What will you do? How will you do it? Why?


Aspects that should be addressed / included in your answer:


Establishing a climate of positivity, creating readiness for change, articulating a positive vision, identifying and explaining actions to be taken.

1. Developing Self-Awareness

Identification of problem

The ethical problem in this case is lying to protect or cover up a fellow manager’s inappropriate action of taking out some of his friends for a dinner during the national sales meeting in Chicago and charging the bills on the company’s expenses in pretense that they are potential customers, through writing a note to have witnessed his actions and assuring the boss that they were actually potential customers.

Relevant theories and concepts

Three basic paradigms can be distinguished are: ethical virtue, deontologism and consequentialist ethics or consequentialism, that is to say, the different versions of utilitarianism. However, the paper will focus on deontologism and consequentialism (Bartlett, 2003). Deontological ethic is an ethic that holds that certain acts are morally obligatory or prohibited, regardless of their consequences in the world. Consequentialism on the other hand is the theory that in order to determine whether an agent was right to make such a particular choice, it is necessary to examine the consequences of this decision, its effects on the world. Pettit stresses that this is, of course, the opposite of an ethical perspective: where an ethical approach evaluates an act by determining to what extent it satisfies the obligations or prohibitions incumbent upon the agent, consequentialism evaluates on the other hand an act by examining its consequences (Bartlett, 2003).

Analysis

The case clearly reveals that the manager who is at the problem committed a mistake and he want me to help him get out of the mistake by lying. He intentionally took out some of his friends in Chicago to dinner at an expensive restaurant, and charged it to his expense account. He then said they were potential clients. From deontological perspective, the manager committed a big mistake that should not be accepted no matter what. According to Kant, we have duties to ourselves and duties towards other men. And there are "perfect" and "imperfect" duties. A perfect duty is a duty that admits of no exception in favor of inclination. There are therefore perfect duties to oneself - for example, for Kant, not to commit suicide - and there are perfect duties towards others - for example, for Kant, not to make false promises. In both cases, no latitude is allowed to the moral subject (Bartlett, 2003). On the question of lies, Kant's moral philosophy is therefore very clear. As Georges Pascal summarizes, "we must not lie because we must not lie, and not because the lie will have happy or unhappy consequences" (Altman, 2011).

2. Solving Problems Analytically and Creatively

It was in 1797 that Kant took a position on an alleged right to lie by humanity . He then replied to Benjamin Constant's (1767-1830) interpellation, which claimed that Kant would have gone so far as to say “to assassins who would ask you if your friend they are pursuing is not a refugee in your house, lying would be a crime " (Altman, 2011). What Kant said he did say but did not remember where. Kant therefore asked himself the question "if [a man] is not absolutely obliged, in a statement that an unjust constraint forces him to hold, not to be truthful if he wants to preserve himself or others? a package that threatens him (Bartlett, 2003). In other words, the question here is whether a man, forced to speak, is not absolutely obliged to lie if he wants to preserve himself or others from a danger that threatens him? Kant answer was very clear. According to him, for every man, it is his "most stringent duty to be truthful in the utterances he cannot avoid, even if that veracity is harming or hurting others" (Altman, 2011). And not lying is a sacred commandment to the point that Kant considered that just thinking about the possibility of an exception to that commandment makes you a liar.

From utilitarianism perspective, manager’s mistake is unacceptable. No one will benefit from his mistake. According to utilitarianism, lies or truth must be judged by a calculation of disadvantages and advantages. In other words, if a lie maximizes the benefits of a situation, the utilitarian finds it moral to lie, the worse it would be even immoral not to lie (Altman, 2011). The weak point of utilitarian ethics is in the estimation of the consequences of the lie, on which the individual can be mistaken. But it is interesting to note that utilitarianism considers lying as an option always possible (Chun, 2005). For example, the case of the doctor lying to his patient about his chances of survival, thinking that he will allow him to enjoy the remaining time, refers to this utilitarian logic (Altman, 2011). However, from the case provided, lying will not yield any benefits because there were no clients. This means that I should say the truth (White, 2011).

Solution

Firstly, I want to say that I am in the stage five of preconventional morality as proposed by Kohlberg. This is stage where morality is based on moral principles. At this stage, laws are considered social contracts rather than rigid dictates. Those that do not promote overall well-being should be replaced when necessary to promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Consequently, I will have to apply utilitarianism theory because this is the theory that is appropriate at this stage. If I apply the theory, it will turn out that the best action is to say truth.  

3. Managing Conflict

I would not accept to write a note to the manager supporting that his friends were actually potential customers since I did not witness this action and I have no facts about his friends and their possibilities of being potential customers. Additionally, I would try to make the manager understand the effects of his actions and explain to him my moral decision on the issue, seek for his opinions over my decision and talk to him further to make him understand the importance of acting as per the ethical and moral standards of the organization.

Identification of problem

The issue associated with the case is that the boss complaining is used to status quo and is not ready to adopt new culture imposed by the new boss. In other words, the boss complaining is in conflict with the new boss because of their conflicting interest.

Relevant theories and concepts

There are three concepts that needs to be considered. The first concept is resolution of conflicts. This concept indicates the need to understand how the conflict begins and ends, and seeks a convergence of the interests of the actors (Edwards & Haslett, 2011).

The second concept is conflict management. It is a concept that recognizes that the conflict cannot be resolved in the sense of getting rid of it, and that it puts the accent on limiting the destructive consequences of the conflict. It is a concept that does not reflect the broad sense of pacification, and is limited to the technical and practical aspects of the effort. Try to realign the divergences.

Another concept is conflict transformation (Harris & Walton, 2009). The emphasis on the dialectical nature of conflict. Social conflict is a phenomenon of human creation that is a natural part of human relationships. Conflict is a necessary element of the human transformative construction and reconstruction of the organization and social realities. Conflict can have destructive patterns that can be channeled into a constructive expression. The transformation of the system and the structure is assumed. The transformation suggests a dynamic understanding of the conflict, in the sense that it can move in constructive or destructive directions.

In the face of conflict, whatever its nature, there is a multiplicity of reaction possibilities, both individually and collectively, with the following attitudes, depending on whether the conflict is accepted, avoided or denied. First entails overcoming  (its existence is recognized and there is willingness to overcome it) advantage (its existence is recognized and it is sought to take advantage of it). Second reaction entails denial  (avoids recognizing its existence). The third reaction entails evasion  (its existence is recognized, but without desires to face it). The third reaction entails accommodation  (its existence is recognized, but it is decided not to give an answer). The fourth reaction entails arrogance  (its existence is recognized, but without giving an adequate response). The fifth reaction entails aggressiveness  (combat with a hostile, violent and / or military response) (Jacobson & Rycroft, 2007).

4. Leading Positive Change

Analysis

Based on the case, my boss seems to be concerned that he will not fit well into the new system introduced by new boss. However, it is clear that the new boss does not know that some of the employees including my boss are not happy with the new system. This means that the first thing is resolve the conflict. Resolving the conflict will begin by notifying the new boss about the reaction of the employees towards his system of administration.

It is important to note that the choice of one or another modality at the beginning of the conflict and the changes of position or later attitude, will determine the process of the conflict and its possibilities of management or transformation. This means that the new manager should be informed that there are some employees who are not happy with new system.

The commitment of the trilogy that we mentioned before (resolution, management and transformation), has to do to a large extent to produce the necessary changes of attitudes in the parties involved so that the conflict emerges, is recognized, does not run down a dead end and It is situated on a path where there are possibilities of change and, therefore, of transformation. It also has to do, whenever possible, with the production of activities, internal or external, that positively influence the context of the conflict.

The approach to conflict, therefore, has to consider a diversity of factors that must be analyzed and how to change:  attitudes, contexts, powers, ways of communicating, cultural models, domain structures, etc. The powers of the new boss will have to be addressed. The voice of the employees will have to be raised and the attitudes towards the new system will have to be modified so that all parties can work together synergistically.

Solution

The first step is to let both parties recognize that there is a conflict. According to the case, the new boss seems unaware of the conflict. To approach the conflict, and to modify it, means first of all to recognize it, not to hide it. Many conflicts, like the one presented in the case, do not enter in the way of modification or solution because some of the parties involved do not want or do not know how to recognize their existence or downgrade the scope and significance of the conflict.

The second step is to initiate negotiation (Pranis, 2005). Whatever the subject matter implicit in a negotiation, this is always a process of interaction and communication between people who defend certain interests that are perceived as incompatible.

The third step is to determine the exit routes. Any negotiation process that seeks to reach a successful conclusion must seek the acceptance of the opposing parties to achieve a gradual change in their objectives, overcoming the initial incompatibilities. This will be the result of the efforts that they make, of how they treat and enhance the matters that are of common interest and of the efforts they carry out to achieve a range of negotiable issues, that eventually constitute a viable agenda for negotiation.

The last step is conflict transformation (Toews, 2013). This entails persuading the new boss to either be lenient with some of his rules or training my boss to adopt new culture and be flexible so as to sail through ever-changing business world.

Identification of problem

The issue here is that the neighbor causes irritation by talking very loudly on the phone and hence causing disturbances. However, the real issue is that the neighbor has been notified of the same but it keeps going on.

Relevant theories and concepts

Firstly, it is important to note that the conflict related to this case is a conflict motivated by arrogance (Turnuklu, et al 2010). It is apparent that the neighbor is arrogant and that is why he keeps talking loud even after being told that his noise causes disturbance. There is also essence of stubbornness. Stubbornness is based on an erroneous belief in the infallibility of its authority. Stubborn people come into conflict with all who require them to do what they do not feel ready for (Littlechild, 2009). They close the door to everything new in a vain attempt to leave everything in their places. These people are very afraid of change and with the help of stubbornness they try to prevent them. The temptation of stubbornness lies in the false idea that a person has great power in relation to others, because he takes an unshakable position and stops the course of the event. A stubborn person experiences a secret joy from his habit of refusing everything. Ultimately, although he proved to everyone that he can not move from his place, the obstinate man loses the disposition of those around him. Everyone starts to avoid it, not wanting to deal with a man who is impenetrable and difficult to communicate with. Often people tend to regard stubbornness as an attractive character trait, as if stubbornness is a sign of a strong personality. This is self-deception (Sellman, Cremin & McCluskey, 2013). A person does not need to be obstinate in order to be persistent in achieving the goal.

There are a number of concepts related to conflicts with arrogant and stubborn people. Firstly, uncertain opponent will try to stay "afloat" in the dispute. His position: neither yes nor no. Own rightness is not denied, the principles are sluggish, the goals are hidden, but the conflict is not obstinately exhausted. Secondly, confident interlocutor will resist stubbornly, enter into verbal skirmishes and persistently lead the dispute in a direction convenient for him. Thirdly, a dispute with a narrow-minded, stubborn or unbalanced person is considered one of the most difficult. The situation is difficult to control, because it is built on emotions and is not based on common sense. The style of behavior of such a person is intentionally aggressive, hostile, easily transformed into open insults and even assault. If it is impossible to resist morally, such people tend to a single weapon - physical strength. Lastly, conflict with a worthy, adequate rival is one of the best options for an effective dispute. Opponent acts constructively - seeks to resolve the conflict, shows restraint, self-control, is aimed at finding a solution to the problem. He is open, laconic and attentive to his opponent. In the dialogue, he tries not only to see the problem and find ways to solve it. High intelligence and ability to competently conduct a dispute allow him to resolve the conflict in a way that does not offend the opponent, and concentrate on the problem and come to a mutual correct solution of it.

Analysis

The conflicts like the one presented in the case can be used as a method of humiliating a person in someone else's eyes or becoming a kind of "tunnel" for releasing negative emotions - anger, anger, irritation. It is necessary to assess the opponent in order to find out with which person you have to argue. In fact, the neighbor may be having some personal problems, which makes him talk loudly.

The case presented shows that the neighbor is stubborn. A dispute with a narrow-minded, stubborn or unbalanced person is considered one of the most difficult. The situation is difficult to control, because it is built on emotions and is not based on common sense. The style of behavior of such a person is intentionally aggressive, hostile, easily transformed into open insults and even assault. If it is impossible to resist morally, such people tend to a single weapon - physical strength.

Solution

The analysis of the situation and the person will help correctly perceive the conflict, choose the right "points of contact". Carefully assessing the current situation, I will be able to correctly choose a strategy of behavior for the resolution or adjournment of the dispute. The outcome of the situation primarily depends on the position that I have chosen in response to the provocation.

The best conflict resolution will be forced transformation or adaptation. In this approach, the behavior of one of the opponents is fundamentally modified. He changes his position to smooth out the conflict by compromising his principles. Visually it looks like you reconciled with the opponent's beliefs. But your goal is to get out of the conflict, keeping a good relationship, and also to gain time to think about a new solution to the problem.

Identification of problem

The case shows that although it is justifiable that change is necessary, there is one obstacle and that is the employees are worried about the effects of change. Most of them are uncertain about what may happen to them. This is the issue that must be addressed before change process begin.

Related theories and concepts

The best theory that can be applied here is Kurt Lewin theory. Lewin considers behavioral change as the result of a set of forces within a system (he showed through a series of experiences in the USA that a group can evolve and influence the behavior change of its members). Lewin revealed that The groups are in a state of equilibrium (group dynamics / comfort zone) but they can change their behavior if the pressure for change is increased while the brakes are lowered. He also hinted that the involvement of the individual in the change of the group leads him to adopt new behaviors more easily. He proposed DCC model:  DEFROST - CHANGE - FREEZE , A reference model to describe the change with great simplicity and using the metaphor of the block of ice, explains the process of change. The first element is defrosting. It is to open the fridge to start the process, you must unfreeze the beliefs and habits until now used in the organization, not only as individuals but also as a group, as a collective. At this moment, doubts arise that generate tension, anxiety ... It is necessary to initiate awareness! The next thing is change. Here, change agents are expected to introduce the new way of working, to create that culture, new guidelines, new behaviors, internalize new guidelines. The last element is freeze. This is to transform in general this new way of working, solidify this new culture, or way of working or computer system etc

For the study of Resistances , he also made a very interesting contribution, Lewis's theory of the vital field tells us that we must know the negative and positive forces to identify the resistances of change, taking into account: those of the individual, his status Quo , and those of the group as it influences one another.

Regarding the change approach applied to organizations, mcGuire and Hutchings (2006) propose four elements that allow or not change: 1) guidelines, 2) inhibitors, 3) drivers and 4) organizational intervention. Tsoukas (2005) reflects the evolution of the topic of change in organizations proposing three approaches in time: the one based on processes and structures, the cognitive one and the one on discourse analysis. Pettigrew et al. (2001) link organizational changes and performances relating aspects of change expressed organizationally. Finally, Grubbs (2000) elaborates another proposal of typology of organizational change considering the number of variables used in the description of the nature of the change. On the one hand, evolutionary, episodic, revolutionary and continuous changes emphasize a variable; on the other, adaptive changes consider several, such as speed, flexibility, customer focus, innovation and independence. Also, a new term is proposed: morphing , which expresses general and continuous changes in products, services and resources, among others.

Analysis

A closer look at the case reveals that the main obstacle is the possibility of resistance. This means that appropriate approach that help address resistance should be adopted. Lewin also contributed towards theory of planned change focused on people. The little success that the proposed strategies for the planned change literature have when they do not consider people is announced. People are a common axis of study. According to Ramanujam (2003) 66% of the projects initiated fail due to the limitation of studies in the multidimensional conceptualization of human resistance. Achieving a change in individuals is a requirement to impact the organization (Paulsen, Maldonado, Callan & Ayoko, 2009).

Okhuysen (2001), observing the inertia from the congruence in interpersonal relationships, studies the formal interventions that generate incremental changes before what is required by the environment. Identify which groups with familiarity (congruence) resist the change. Because of this, congruence can generate inertia.

Solution

Based on the theories and the situation presented, it is clear that people should be prepared first. Within the management of change there are different models: the one of Kotter, of eight stages (1995); that of Jick, of ten steps (1991a and 1991b); the seven-step model of General electric, based on Lewin (1947), and the one developed by Galvin, Balkundi & Waldman (2010). Mento et al. (2002) take common elements of these models and propose one of twelve steps. There is also theory of positive change. However, the scenario can be best addressed by adopting theory of positive change. The theory of positive organizational change must be considered, since it seeks to find processes that give rise to changes based on the review of successful procedures and dynamics (Higgs & Rowland, 2005). In the field of positive organizational change, control must provide measures and rewards for an agent to align with the goals of the organization (Hardy & Macguire, 2010). Yu and Ming (2008) describe three control mechanisms: behavioral (standards), results (objectives) and inputs (selection processes)

References

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Higgs, MJ & Rowland, D (2005) All changes great and small. Journal of Change Management, 5 (2), 121-135.

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Galvin, B, Balkundi, P & Waldman, D (2010) Spreading the word: the role of surrogates in charismatic leadership processes. Academy of Management Review, 35 (3), 477-494.

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Assessment and Strategic Implications, Journal of Business Ethics, 57,269-284. 

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