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Although  the number  of  women on  boards  of directors  and in  top  management  positions in organisations all around the world is increasing it remains low, and is growing at a very slow pace Research into the reasons for the lack of female representation in higher management positions has attributed it to workplace barriers, insufficient numbers of qualified women further down the career ladder, discriminatory stereotyping of leadership attributes as male attributes, incompatibility between job structure and the demands of raising a family, and self-imposed  barriers. There is evidence of both horizontal and vertical segregation and consequences. gender discrimination include the gender pay gap.

Gender Roles and Barriers in the Workplace

The gender role in society reflects the way they act, speak, groom, dress and conduct themselves dependent on the assigned sex. Every society has gender role expectations but it varies from group to group. They also keep on changing in the same society over time. The gender roles are centered on the conceptions of femininity and masculinity. However, there are exceptions and variations. For instance, women are expected to be polite, obliging and nurturing whereas men are expected to be strong, hostile and bold. The gender roles are determined by the prevailing cultural norms. It influences men and women in almost every aspect of life.

The difference between both the sexes is used as a means to defend the existence. The difference between genders measures four dimensions like health and survival, education accomplishment, economic participation and opportunity, and political empowerment. This report discusses the current roles of men and women at the workplace. It defines the likely impending role of the men and women in the UK. In order to understand gender roles, it is segregated. The gender inequality across the world has been stated also in terms of gender roles and pay.

Gender Segregation

The women’s employment is inclined to be focused in a small number of industries and narrowed to a series of jobs defined as ‘women’s work’. Women generally held lower responsibility although they held the same position. Men can be employers, top professionals, managers, foremen and skilled workers in the society. 32.4 million people are working in the UK out of it 15.23 million are women and 17.17 million are men. 6.2 million women and 2.28 million men work on the part-time basis. There are 73% part-time women workers and are alleged to low paying occupations (Abendroth, Melzer, Kalev & Tomaskovic-Devey, 2017).

They have even moved to part-time work and causes occupational downgrading.  In the horizontal segregation, women are excessively assembled into a narrow range of jobs which is usually referred to as ‘ghetto occupations’.  The females in the Ghetto occupations are of low status, poorly paid along with the narrow job content. It offers only a few prospects for the promotion. The occupations which are conquered by women are viewed as less prestigious.

It can even be judged by from employment by education 2018, the manager’s position held by the males is 2260 and by females is 1226. In the vertical segregation, women are over signified in the low-grade jobs at the lower end of careers hierarchy. It is clear that women’s depiction remains slow however the diversity in the decision making leads to better decisions and better outcomes (Wright, 2016).

Gender Segregation in UK Employment

Women are better educated than the previous years. It is basically men’s supremacy of the maximum position jobs in the conventionally male and female occupations. The less vertical segregation has a better chance of attaining the highest positions as the portion of employment in the particular occupation increases. It is also referred to as a situation in which women watch men exceed them on the way to the topmost positions (Vuori, 2016).

Gender inequality

The gender inequality is faced at workplaces in the UK. It refers to a situation in which man and women are not equal. It is unequal treatment of personages solely or partially due to their gender. It rises due to differences in gender roles. It rises due to variances in the gender roles which are often dichotomous and categorized. The gender inequality refers to the factors like health, education, economic and political inequalities (Coates, 2015).

At the workplace, gender inequality refers to the difference between the salaries and authority of men and women (Goetz, 2018). This gap is found due to various factors like differences in education choices, differences in the preferred job and industry, amount of work experiences and differences in the number of work experiences.

The gender organization theory is an important theory of gender inequality. The leader as male view infuses power tactics in the organizations. The organization politics incline to be male-dominated. The change can be possible over time due to the enhanced number of female managers but it is still a challenge at senior level. The women are likely to have less masculine traits which are appropriate for an effective leader (Thompson, 2017).

There is a pay gap between men and women because women are appointed at lower pay, female-dominated industries pay less, due to different job titles, part-time work, maternity leave, and centralized collective bargaining. However, the Equality act 2010 has been embedded. It is required for the women to be aware of the masculine behaviors in order to be successful. The women are achieving positive outcomes academically but it is not reflected at workplaces. The number of female workers is continuously increasing but there is predominance of the part-time work (Davies, McNabb & Whitfield, 2015).

Gender inequality from a global perspective in terms of gender roles and pay

There is gender inequality in terms of the roles and pay on the global level. It states to the unequal treatment or the individual perceptions due to their gender. The gender pay gap is the variance between the compensation of the working men and women (Kleiber, et. al. 2017). The gender pay gap can be deliberate by the Workplace Gender Equality Agency (WGEA). The women are paid less than men. There are two kinds of pay gaps such as unadjusted and adjusted pay gap.

Gender Inequality in UK Workplaces

The adjusted pay gap considers the variances in the hours operated, profession is chosen, education along with the relevant experience. For instance, a female working taking maternity leave is likely to earn less from the person who does not take it. It contributes to the yearly earnings and leads to the gender gap. The unadjusted pay gap is considered much higher (Cornwall & Rivas, 2015). The unadjusted average salary of the female workers in the UK has been quoted as 78% of the regular male salary in comparison to the 88-93% for the adjusted average salary. Both internal and external factors contribute to gender inequality. The internal factors include working on the part-time when full-time employment is obtainable.

The external factors denote to working on a low skill job because of incompetence to obtain higher education. The gender pay gap lessens economic output and women are likely to rely on welfare payments specifically in old age. It is realized that men hold strong roles than women. Whereas the women hold the same amount of degree and skills still they hold lower positions in the organizations (Grosser, McCarthy& Kilgour, 2017). If by chances, females attain a higher position then also they are paid less remuneration. The greater time of the women’s out of the staff impacts to the career development and prospects.

Gender equality in Ireland

The gender equality at Ireland represents that 79% of the respondents are in favor of the legal measures to ensure parity among men and women in the office. The employment equality is essential to the achievement of gender equality and it comprises the principles of the Treaty of Rome 1958. The gender equality states to the equality between men and women in terms of the opportunities, treatment and economic achievements at the workplace. It is a goal of the European Union (Ozturk & Tatli, 2016). The issue of employment inequality is constantly increasing in Ireland.

There is sign of ongoing discernment and disparity due to growing miscellany and greater commitment of women at the workplace. The employment equality is valuable for individuals to attain full prospective in order to exploit the skills and efficiency of the workforce competently. The quality is even identified as dominant to the full incorporation of the well-educated women candidates of Ireland to maximize personal potential. The gender equality contributes to the economic growth and ensures that there is an adequate pension for men and women. The gender equality deals with the family leave prerogatives, equality of pay and defence of women during pregnancy (Holland, Rabelo, Gustafson, Seabrook & Cortina, 2016).

Global Perspective: Gender Roles and Pay Inequality

The gender equality can be achieved only if men and women appreciate the same rights and prospects in economic participation and in the decision making process. The Irish government has even launched a new better balance for the better business and commitment to equality in the workplace. No company in Ireland has made top 200 ranking of global business in terms of women holding or executive roles. In order to overcome such hindrance and improve the situation of women, the Irish government has undertaken gender equality operations to strengthen the voice of women. The government has even provided a outline of laws which offers identical treatment of both men and women (Kirton & Robertson, 2018).

The National Strategy for Women and girls 2017-2020 arrays out the government’s significances to improve the state of women in society. The gender equality operations are subsidized by the European social fund programme. There is even Gender Equality Index examines progress and challenges in attaining gender equality. It measures the variances between women and men in the domains of Europe. The index is also liable to measure violence against women and intersecting inequalities. It provides a result for each domain in the UK (Leskinen, Rabelo & Cortina, 2015).


This report has appropriately defined the management work and society. It can be evaluated that the employees in an organization have an important role in implementing the activities. There should not be such activities in an organization which can hinder the performance of women in society. It can affect women in the attainment of the future goals. The masculine power hinders to the women’s opinion in an organization. It acts as an obstacle for the women in their growth and employment goals. It can be evaluated that women can attain senior positions only if they are provided with equal opportunities and accountabilities.

The women are liable to be rewarded in the same manner as men in the organizations. It can inspire women to perform effectively. The masculine traits should be taught in an appropriate way so that they can be used equally by both men and women (Kabeer, 2016). There is pay inequality between men and women on the international level. The career breaks like maternity leave effects on the progression of women and reduce the employment days yearly. The part-time jobs and inappropriate education also impacts to the performance of the women in the organization (Miner & Cortina, 2016).

Gender Equality Issues in Ireland


From the above report, it can be concluded that the gender roles deliberates act, speak, groom, dress and conduct dependent on the assigned sex. The gender segregation can be divided into two forms horizontal and vertical. The horizontal segregation women are excessively assembled into a narrow range of jobs whereas, in the vertical segregation, women are over epitomised in the low-grade professions at the lower end of careers hierarchy. The gender inequality is basically the unequal treatment of individuals due to their gender. It raises due to differences in gender roles. The gender pay gap and role are the causes of gender inequality.

The genders pay gap the difference between the remuneration of the working men and women. The Workplace Gender Equality Agency (WGEA) is effective in calculating the gender pay gap. The women are paid less than men. There are two kinds of pay gaps such as unadjusted and adjusted pay gap which are successful in identifying the gender gap. There is an issue of gender equality in Ireland. It is evidenced by the on-going discrimination and inequality due to increasing diversity and greater engagement of women at the workplace. There are principles of the Treaty of Rome 1958 for the guidance of the gender equality at the workplace.


Abendroth, A. K., Melzer, S., Kalev, A., & Tomaskovic-Devey, D. (2017). Women at work: Women’s access to power and the gender earnings gap. ILR Review, 70(1), 190-222.

Coates, J. (2015). Women, men and language: A sociolinguistic account of gender differences in language. Routledge.

Cornwall, A., & Rivas, A. M. (2015). From ‘gender equality and ‘women’s empowerment’to global justice: reclaiming a transformative agenda for gender and development. Third World Quarterly, 36(2), 396-415.

Davies, R., McNabb, R., & Whitfield, K. (2015). Do high-performance work practices exacerbate or mitigate the gender pay gap?. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 39(2), 537-564.

Goetz, A. M. (2018). National women’s machinery: State-based institutions to advocate for gender equality. In Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?. Manchester University Press.

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Kirton, G., & Robertson, M. (2018). Sustaining and advancing IT careers: Women’s experiences in a UK-based IT company. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems.

Kleiber, D., Frangoudes, K., Snyder, H. T., Choudhury, A., Cole, S. M., Soejima, K., ... & Porter, M. (2017). Promoting gender equity and equality through the Small-Scale Fisheries Guidelines: Experiences from multiple case studies. In The Small-Scale Fisheries Guidelines (pp. 737-759). Springer, Cham.

Leskinen, E. A., Rabelo, V. C., & Cortina, L. M. (2015). Gender stereotyping and harassment: A “catch-22” for women in the workplace. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 21(2), 192.

Miner, K. N., & Cortina, L. M. (2016). Observed workplace incivility toward women, perceptions of interpersonal injustice, and observer occupational well-being: Differential effects for gender of the observer. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 482.

Ozturk, M. B., & Tatli, A. (2016). Gender identity inclusion in the workplace: broadening diversity management research and practice through the case of transgender employees in the UK. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(8), 781-802.

Thompson, J. D. (2017). Organizations in action: Social science bases of administrative theory. Routledge.

Vuori, J. (2016). Guiding migrants to the realm of gender equality. In Complying With Colonialism (pp. 219-236). Routledge.

Wright, T. (2016). Women's experience of workplace interactions in male?dominated work: The intersections of gender, sexuality and occupational group. Gender, Work & Organization, 23(3), 348-362.

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