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Discuss how to proceed as part of quantitative data analysis was already done from my side. 

Context of Study

The context of the research paper is laid on the manpower shortage in shipping industry. The seafarer shortage of shipping industry has increased by 24% from the previous year. Most of the seafarers are highly inclined to leave their current jobs (Caesar, Cahoon and Fei 2015). Furthermore, the young generation job candidates are unwilling to join the job role of seafarer. Moreover, the potential job candidates are having a negative perception regarding the job role of seafarer. Over the years, several studies have been conducted on the shortage of manpower in shipping industry. However, such studies were inadequate to provide actual reasons behind the seafarer shortage of shipping industry.

The purpose of this research paper is to explore the issues behind the shortage of manpower in shipping industry. Moreover, the research paper has huge significant for the shipping industry, as it has taken active initiatives towards identifying the issues faced by the seafarers and resolving their issues theoretically. The research will also highlight the issues associated with talent attraction strategy sustainable long-term recruitment of qualified seafarers for a recruitment company, X Marine Ltd. The research questions and research objectives of this research paper are effectively directed towards accessing huge authentic information regarding the reasons of manpower shortage in shipping industry. Moreover, the research will also use primary data collected from the seafarers of the shipping industry to collect the required information.

Seafarers are the most crucial and valuable assets of shipping industry towards leading its ultimate success. Such seafarers take the responsibility of shipping the valuable goods from one port to other effectively (Purba 2015). However, the shipping industry is facing huge shortage of seafarer towards leading organizational success. Moreover, global shipping industry is facing manpower shortfall of 16500 officers. The shortfall is also likely to increase from the coming years. Moreover, the existing seafarers are willing to leave their current job because of their risky lives onboard (Cips.org 2016). On the other hand, the young generation job candidates have negative perception regarding the seafarer job roles. They are unwilling to join the job role of seafarers because of disturbed social life onboard. It is ultimately leading to highly level of manpower shortage in the shipping industry. 

Rationale of the Research

What is the issue of Research?

In the recent situation, the shipping industry is facing huge issue of manpower shortage that is preventing its ultimate success. Most of the existing seafarers are highly inclined to leave their current job roles. Such seafarers are highly disappointed with the appraisal and job security of the organization (Gailitis and Fjodorova 2014). On the other hand, young generation job candidates are unwilling to opt for the job of seafarer, as they perceive a disturbed social life of the seafarers. In this way, the shipping industry is ultimately facing the shortage of seafarers for leading high level of shipping success.

Problem Statement

How it is going to be investigated?

This research has been conducted in order to resolve the issue of the shipping industry. This research has conducted research on the seafarers of shipping industry for identifying the reasons behind the manpower shortage. On the other hand, the recommendation provided in this research paper can also facilitate the shipping organizations towards managing their issues of shipping industry. 

What could be shade light of the research?

This research paper has investigated the issue of manpower shortage in the shipping industry. In this way, the shipping organizations can also use the alternative human resource management strategy for properly managing their seafarers. Moreover, the shipping organizations can easily handle their current critical situation of manpower shortage.

This research project aims at critically analysing the talent attraction strategies and sustainable long-term recruitment of qualified seafarers for a recruitment company, X Marine Ltd, for international shipping industry as in term of short word, “how to recruit skilled sea staff”.

  • To determine the factors associated with current labor market situation in Myanmar and critically analyse the state of Myanmar seafarers’ professionalism and access in international shipping industry
  • To evaluate the perception of young generation on seafarer career path based on influence of their contemporary social life, and current regional economic and political situation
  • To critically analysis the challenges for skilled base workmen ship and future seafarers’ career base on impact of advance technology changes in future modern shipping industry
  • Why Myanmar seafarers are less demand in international shipping industry compare with other nationalities in same industry?
  • Why young generation in Myanmar are less interest (or) unable persist in professional seafarer career path?
  • Can advance technology replace seafarer workforce in modern shipping industry?

This literature review will critically review the theories and models linked to skills and people shortages of seafarers in the shipping industry and the perception of young people about the career path of the seafarer. In addition, the impact of advance technology on the job role of seafarers as well as the fall in demand for Myanmar seafarers in international shipping industry will be investigated. The role of HR is supporting organizational performance and the strategies employed in order to secure the talent pipeline of seafarer will also be examined. The critcal review will draw on a range of sources including journals, academic textbooks and industry based websites in order to explore the theoretical and methodological approaches used by human resource within international shipping. 

At the present time, human resource management plays the most important role by setting the rules and regulations of the organization and resolving the HR related issues. As a result, it is possible for the organization to maintain the performance standard and achieve organizational objectives (Carraher and Carraher, 2016). In case of shipping industry the role of HR plays a crucial role as it involves managing national as well as international workers, difference culture, different nature of work, living situation, business ethics, majority of the cases it has been noticed that seafarers are facing tough challenges to manage their daily wok life situation.

Shipping industry can be considered as the lifeline of the world, which has developed and boosted the world economy. The shipping vessels carry the food products, energy resources and finish goods and make them available to the people around the world. Thus, almost all of the world’s trade goods are shipped by sea at some point in their life cycle, which contribute a lot in the world economy (Yuenet al. (2018). According to Caesar, Cahoon and Fei(2015), seafarers often face ugly storms and monstrous waves whilst at sea. In addition, seafarers face a range of tough challenges in their daily work life situation and these challenges are unique to each ship and are distinctively different to land based work environments. They live in close confined quarters and have limited recreational opportunities and lengthy shifts to cover 24 hour operational cycle. Their ability to tolerate hardships has added a lot to the world trade by shipping the goods of the organizations in a timely manner. The maintenance, control and repair of ships are highly dependent on the talented seafarers. Hence, if businesses around the world are to continue to thrive, the efforts of highly skilled and brave seafarers have to be both recognized and safeguarded. Hence, the maintenance, control and repair of such goods are highly dependent on the talented seafarers. Hence, the businesses around the world continue to thrive on the efforts of highly skilled and brave seafarers. In this way, the talented seafarers ultimately add to the world economy.

Rationale of the Research

Progoulaki and Theotokas(2016) pointed out that Piracy Zones are considered as the most significant sea trading routes for raw materials, foods and other manufactured products. Almost half of the world’s total sea-borne oil supply is passed through these pirate-infested areas. Seafarers are the one, who are just unstoppable in shipping such trading goods even through these risky trading routes. Nguyen et al. (2014) opined that talented seafarers facilitate the businesses to abide by the stringent laws and regulations imposed on sea protection. Hence, such seafarers ensure the protection of ships and environment, which leads to long term sustainability of shipping industry. Apart from that, seafarers are highly prone to several illnesses and diseases because of their continuous travel, nature of work and different weather in ship (Albert, Lazzari and Guy 2016). 

The manpower report published by International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) and shipping association BIMCO has demonstrated that global shipping industry is facing a manpower shortfall of 16500 officers (Bimco.org 2018). Sampson and Tang (2016) pointed out that the supply of shipping officers has been forecasted to increase steadily through improve recruitment and retention strategy, but it is predicted to be outpaced through increasing demands. Moreover, the manpower shortfall for seafarers may be grown to 147,500 officers by the year 2025 (Cips.org 2016). Furthermore, certain categories of officers like engineer officers at management level and officers for specialized ships such as LNG, chemical and LPG carries will particularly be in short supply. Presently, more than 1.5 million seafarers are employed in shipping industry. However, more qualified and highly trained seafarers will be needed, if the world economy continues to grow in future. The manpower report published by International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) and shipping association BIMCO has demonstrated that global shipping industry is facing a current manpower shortfall of 16,500 officers (Bimco.org 2018). Over rrecent years, the shipping industry has increased recruitment and training levels for reducing the officer loss at sea area through effective recruitment and retention strategy. However, Albert, Lazzari and Guy (2016)suggested that unless significant training provided to more officers, the growth of demand for the seafarers will far surpass the supply. Sampson and Tang (2016) suggested that whilst, the supply of shipping officers has increased steadily in recent years, they predicted that these efforts will be outpaced through increasing demands, with the demand for officers at the shipping industry having increased by 24.1% (Mitroussiand Notteboom 2015). This trend is set to continue with the manpower shortfall for seafarers being estimated to grow to 147,500 officers by the year 2025 (Cips.org 2016).

Research Aim

Certain categories of officers like engineer officers at management level and officers for specialized ships such as LNG, chemical and LPG carries will particularly be in short supply. Moreover, in this way, the shipping industry is not getting adequate talented officers for managing the crews in safe shipping of the ships from one port to others. Ruggunan and Kanengoni (2017) explained that the related activities like ship repair, ship recycle and ship building will create growing requirements for seafarers in shipping industry. However, the availability of adequate numbers of highly qualified and talented seafarers have become a real challenge for the shipping industry. Young people have become highly unwilling to join the shipping industry. It has ultimately caused shortage of seafarers in the labor market of shipping industry. Tsai and Liou (2017) pointed out that without continuing effort of promoting the careers at sea and improving the recruitment and retention, the misbalance between demand and supply of seafarers will continue to grow.

The seafarers are reluctant to join the shipping industry because of the remoteness and hardworking condition at sea. In the coming years, an increasing numbers of officers from the developing countries are expected to offset this decline (Ghosh et al. 2014).  Bloor, Sampson and Gekara (2014) stated that the technological changes, legal issues and economic booms of the developed and developing countries are giving option to the people to avoid seafarer jobs. The job candidates are getting another job options easily. Hence, such factors are highly affecting the labor market of shipping industry.

Currently, Myanmar job candidates having negative perception regarding the job of seafarers in shipping industry (Jensen et al. 2016). Worldwide, the people are highly reluctant to join the shipping industry due to their negative perception about the seafarer jobs (Ghosh 2017). Hence, the global maritime industry is warning about global shortage of deck and engineering officers in the shipping industry. Most of job candidates around the world now perceive the job of seafarers highly risky Goulielmos, Anastasakos and Gatzoli 2014). According to Ghosh et al. (2014), the total numbers of maritime accidents have increased by 10% in the years 2014 as compared with the accident rate of previous years. Hence, the people are highly unwilling to choose seafarer jobs, as their life can be at risk in the ship. Jensen et al. (2016) opined that the job candidates of Myanmar often perceive the seafarer jobs as highly hectic and tedious. Such stringent rules and regulations make the life of seafarers most hectic and tedious (Manuel 2017). Therefore, majority of the job candidates are likely to avoid the job of seafarer.

Research Objectives

On the other hand, Ghosh (2017) stated that most of the people perceive seafarer jobs as negative, as they have to sacrifice their social life. For a socialize person, it can be extremely difficult to accept the bitter fact of being too far away from the friends and families. Hence, due to the homesickness and fatigue for loneliness, most of the job candidates try to avoid the job of seafarers. In this way, the negative perception about seafarer professionalism is making the job candidates reluctant to choose the job of seafarer (De Silva, Stanton and Stanton 2011).

Certain shipping organizations hire the fresh graduates for their sole intension and expect to retain them as third officer or fourth engineers (Thomas, Sampson and Zhao 2003). These companies does not entertain these newly graduates and respect their degrees or training associated with them. Goulielmos, Anastasakos and Gatzoli (2014) pointed out that most of the organizations treat the young generation graduates as their liabilities. The employers do not provide any scope of career development and such mistreatment leads to low morale of the fresh graduates (Lobrigo and Pawlik 2015). Hence, the organizations face extreme difficulties in recruiting and retaining such young generation as seafarers.

New generation is an interconnected generation and they are mostly connected with each other through social media. They highly value being in an almost instantaneous contact with family and friends via phones, emails, chats, SMS, physical contacts and sometimes simultaneously. According to Lobrigo and Pawlik(2015), the social networking framework like Facebook, MySpace, Instagram have become highly associated with them for their self-expression and inter connectivity on a global scale. As a seafarer, such generation always misses their interconnection and feels alone without having proper internet access on the ship (Paukszt at al. 2017).

The fresh graduates should have proper skills and talents for ensuring the safety of ships at sea. Without having proper hands on experience, the fresh graduates often face extreme difficulties in operating and controlling the ships (D’agostini 2017). Moreover, Manuel (2017) opined that most of the young generation seafarers do not get adequate support and kind supervision from their superiors. Most of the young generation people perceive seafarer job as having helpless at their workplace (D’agostini 2017). As a consequence, he suggests that most of the young generation people perceive the role of seafarer job as unattractive and hazardous which is a negative factor in choosing seafaring as a profession. 

Research Questions

Seafarers are to stay long days alone at the sea apart from their families and relatives. Furthermore, lack of social welfare in the ships also hinders their ability to connect with their family member friends even over the phone or social networks. Hence, the young generation people perceived seafarer job negative, as it can create a huge gap with their family members leading to disturbed social life. (Lobrigo and Pawlik 2015 (Thomas, Sampson and Zhao 2003)

The seafarer professionals get very less scope of getting promotion in their jobs. The main objective of young generation people is to have a proper career development. However, they may not get proper scope of professional development at the professional of seafarer. Hence, such people are being highly reluctant in selecting seafarer job (Paukszt at al. 2017).

Hygiene Two Factor theory has basically been built over the motivational factors of the employees. Such motivational factors help the organizations in recruiting and retaining top talented employees for longer period of time. According to this theory, some factors in organizations result in job satisfaction, while some other factors prevent job dissatisfaction. D’agostini (2017) pointed out that hygiene factors are those factors, which are highly essential for the existence of motivation among the employees. The absence of these factors leads to job dissatisfaction and these factors are extrinsic to work (Xu and Zhang 2016). Hence, hygiene factors are also called dissatisfiers in organizations. This theory will effectively assess the reasons behind the dissatisfaction level of the seafarers in shipping industry.

Employees are more likely to work in an organization for longer period of time, when the working conditions are safe, clean and hygienic. The equipments of the workplace should be updated and well-maintained for ensuring risk free working environment (Abuelenin 2017). Such unsafe working environment is resulting in dissatisfaction for the seafarers. Hence, the people are highly reluctant to choose the seafarer job as their career option (Albert, Lazzari Dodeler and Guy 2016).

The relationship between the superiors, subordinates and peers should be acceptable and appropriate for the existence of motivation among the employees. According to Paukszt at (2017), conflicting relationship among the organizational members and presence of humiliation element leads to dissatisfaction among the employees. Likewise, the seafarers of Myanmar shipping industry always face conflicting relation among the organizational members in different cross cultural boundaries (Manuel 2017)

Motivational factors yield positive satisfaction among the employees, which are actually intrinsic to the work. Such factors encourage the employees to stay at their current job for longer period. Hystad, Nielsen and Eid (2017) pointed out motivational factors are actually rewarding to the employees, which lead to superior performance to the employees and retain them for longer period of time.

Literature Review

Proper and true recognition of the employees for their accomplishment always lead to positive satisfaction among the employees. However, Jensen and Bergqvist (2016) opined that the seafarers of Myanmar shipping industry are less likely to be appraised for their true accomplishments. Hence, the shipping industry is facing extreme difficulties in retaining and attracted talented seafarers.

Advancement opportunities in an organization are highly effective for motivating the employees and retaining them for longer period of time. According to Sulaiman and Seng(2016), career development is the ultimate goal of the employees. However, the shipping organizations of Myanmar are providing less opportunity to seafarers to support the achievement of career goals. Such lack of promotional opportunities is making the seafarers highly dissatisfied at their workplace (Sampson and Gekara 2014).

Increasing percentage of ageing workforce can be a major issue for the talent management of the organization. Moreover, in case of Myanmar shipping industry, the young generation people are having negative perception regarding the profession of seafarers (Manuel 2017). In this way, the ratio of ageing workforce is increasing as compared to those young seafarers. 

Such aged workforces are having less advanced technological knowledge, which is a major issue in handling technically advanced equipments (Bloor, Sampson and Gekara 2014)

Maintaining and controlling the ships in toughest sea and roughest weather is extremely challenging for the seafarers. According to Manuel (2017), in spite of advanced technological equipments, the seafarers at the sea are always at the mercy of sea. In this situation, seafarers need proper training and learning for being aware of the tactics for properly handling the ships (Mitroussi and Notteboom 2015).However, the seafarers are not getting adequate training from the leaders of their organizations.

One of the major issues in Myanmar shipping industry is increasing work pressure and risky working condition. The seafarers of this industry have to work even up to 77 hours in any seven days period. International Transport Worker’s Federation data demonstrates that around 25% seafarers work over 80 hours a week (Bloor, Sampson and Gekara 2014). On the other hand, these employees can get a much flexible job in other industry, where the working hours are quite less as compared to shipping industry. In this way, these employees are seeking better job opportunities in some other industry or the same industry in other countries. Furthermore, the negative perception about seafarer profession is also hindering the willingness of job candidate to join seafarer job (Hamori et al. 2015).

Importance of Talented Seafarers in Shipping Industry

Rewards and achievement recognition provide a feel of value to the employees within the workplace. However, Mitroussiand Notteboom(2015) pointed out that the shipping organizations of Myanmar do not provide attractive rewards for their accomplishments. Hence, the talented seafarers of Myanmar shipping industry feel undervalued in their workplace. They are more likely to choose better job options, where their accomplishment would be valued (Tsai and Liou 2017).

On a global scale, it has been calculated that adaption of current automation technology can affect 50% of world economy, 1.2 billion employees and $14.6 trillion in wages (Sampson and Tang 2016). As discussed previously, shipping industry is currently struggling with seafarer recruitment and retention. It is suggested that digital transformation reduce the need for seafarers helping to reduce pressures on manning and crewing problems. The surface of automation and smart ships may seem like an answer to the seafarer shortage problem of shipping industry. Tsai and Liou (2017) pointed out that with the automation of advance technology, the shipping organizations can work remotely to control the ships through remote operation. Hence, such technology can obviously reduce the need of seafarers and it can even be a replacement for the seafarers.

As per the report of insurance company Allianz in 2012, almost 75 to 96 marine accidents had been occurred due to error of seafarers. On the other hand, Ghosh (2017)opined that the automated machines of installed at the ships can accurately and precisely check the functionality of shipping equipments. D’agostini (2017) stated that the blend of autonomous remote control technology has led to sailing of ships autonomously in open water through picking the best route and speed. In this way, advancement of technology can replace the seafarer workforce. However, technology is still incapable of proper space observation, prediction and complex decision judgment. Apart from that, technological error can even lead to disastrous accident of ships. Hence, the need for highly talented and skills seafarers would remain constant even after the implementation of automated technology (Ghosh 2017). 

Majority of job candidates are likely to avoid seafarer profession, because of risky working condition at sea. The lives of the seafarers are always at risk in the toughest sea and roughest weather. Paukszt at (2017) stated that the people are highly reluctant to choose seafarer profession, where their lives will be at risk. Hence, the shipping organizations should provide improved working condition for the seafarers, where the risk for their lives would be reduced. Furthermore, young generation people are reluctant to choose seafarer jobs, as they cannot access internet facilities and social welfare properly at sea (Lobrigo and Pawlik 2015).

Jensen and Bergqvist(2016) stated that most of the seafarers feel extremely alone at their workplace, as they have to stay long period of time at sea far from their families and friends. It makes the seafarers highly homesick and alone. In such situations, the shipping organizations should try to make social sustainable working groups. Such groups will help each other to share their feelings and emotions, which will somewhat compensate their loneliness. In this way, the seafarers will be happy at their workplace and it will help the shipping organization to retain the talented seafarers for longer period of time (Progoulaki and Theotokas 2016).

Promotional opportunities meet the ultimate goals of the employees at their work life. It is the proper evaluation of the employees for their true work accomplishment. However, the shipping organizations do not provide adequate promotional opportunities to the seafarers, which are ultimately de-motivating them. Hence, the shipping organizations should provide adequate promotional opportunities as per the true evaluation of the performance of the seafarers. It will keep the seafarers motivated and encourage them to stay in their current job for longer period of time.

The seafarer professionals of Myanmar shipping industry are facing extreme complexities in handling ships at difficult situation. Moreover, these professionals are not getting adequate support from their supervisors for properly controlling the ships (Progoulaki and Theotokas 2016). Hence, the managers of shipping organizations should be highly concerned about the providing training and transferring expert knowledge to the seafarers. In this way, the seafarers will feel easy at their working environment, which will encourage them to stay in their organizations for longer period of time.

Lack of social welfare is making disturbed personal life of the seafarer. Such disturbed social and personal life is discouraging the job candidates to avoid the seafarer job. Hence, the shipping companies should provide adequate opportunity to use social welfare at the ships. It will definitely improve the social and personal life of seafarers, which will encourage the job candidates to opt for seafarer jobs.

While concluding the literature review, it can be said that shipping industry carriers almost 90% of total world trade. Almost 1.5 million seafarers are serving the shipping industry and help the world trade in exchanging of goods from one port to other port. However, in recent time, the shipping industry is facing a seafarer shortage of 16500 officers. Moreover, the demand for seafarers has been increased by 24.1%. Young generation job candidates are highly reluctant to choose seafarer profession as their career option. Disturbed social life, risky working environment at sea, lack of further career development options and many more factors are responsible for the unwillingness of the job candidates to join seafarer job. Hence, the shipping organizations should be concerned about providing improved working condition having proper social welfare. Apart from that, the organizations should also provide adequate training to the seafarers for making them feel easy to handle the ships.

Introduction

Research methodology chooses the appropriate methodologies for collecting the most relevant and useful information regarding the topic of the research. This research paper has selected more appropriate research methodologies for collecting most authentic information regarding the shortage of seafarers in shipping industry. Moreover, the paper has selected suitable research approach, research purpose, data collection method and sample size and data analysis for gathering authentic research information.

Increasing percentage of ageing workforce can be a major issue for the talent management of the organization. Moreover, in case of Myanmar shipping industry, the young generation people are having negative perception regarding the profession of seafarers (Manuel 2017). In this way, the ratio of ageing workforce is increasing as compared to those young seafarers. 

Such aged workforces are having less advanced technological knowledge, which is a major issue in handling technically advanced equipments (Bloor, Sampson and Gekara 2014)

Maintaining and controlling the ships in toughest sea and roughest weather is extremely challenging for the seafarers. According to Manuel (2017), in spite of advanced technological equipments, the seafarers at the sea are always at the mercy of sea. In this situation, seafarers need proper training and learning for being aware of the tactics for properly handling the ships (Mitroussi and Notteboom 2015).However, the seafarers are not getting adequate training from the leaders of their organizations.

One of the major issues in Myanmar shipping industry is increasing work pressure and risky working condition. The seafarers of this industry have to work even up to 77 hours in any seven days period. International Transport Worker’s Federation data demonstrates that around 25% seafarers work over 80 hours a week (Bloor, Sampson and Gekara 2014). On the other hand, these employees can get a much flexible job in other industry, where the working hours are quite less as compared to shipping industry. In this way, these employees are seeking better job opportunities in some other industry or the same industry in other countries. Furthermore, the negative perception about seafarer profession is also hindering the willingness of job candidate to join seafarer job (Hamori et al. 2015).

Rewards and achievement recognition provide a feel of value to the employees within the workplace. However, Mitroussiand Notteboom(2015) pointed out that the shipping organizations of Myanmar do not provide attractive rewards for their accomplishments. Hence, the talented seafarers of Myanmar shipping industry feel undervalued in their workplace. They are more likely to choose better job options, where their accomplishment would be valued (Tsai and Liou 2017).

On a global scale, it has been calculated that adaption of current automation technology can affect 50% of world economy, 1.2 billion employees and $14.6 trillion in wages (Sampson and Tang 2016). As discussed previously, shipping industry is currently struggling with seafarer recruitment and retention. It is suggested that digital transformation reduce the need for seafarers helping to reduce pressures on manning and crewing problems. The surface of automation and smart ships may seem like an answer to the seafarer shortage problem of shipping industry. Tsai and Liou (2017) pointed out that with the automation of advance technology, the shipping organizations can work remotely to control the ships through remote operation. Hence, such technology can obviously reduce the need of seafarers and it can even be a replacement for the seafarers.

As per the report of insurance company Allianz in 2012, almost 75 to 96 marine accidents had been occurred due to error of seafarers. On the other hand, Ghosh (2017)opined that the automated machines of installed at the ships can accurately and precisely check the functionality of shipping equipments. D’agostini (2017) stated that the blend of autonomous remote control technology has led to sailing of ships autonomously in open water through picking the best route and speed. In this way, advancement of technology can replace the seafarer workforce. However, technology is still incapable of proper space observation, prediction and complex decision judgment. Apart from that, technological error can even lead to disastrous accident of ships. Hence, the need for highly talented and skills seafarers would remain constant even after the implementation of automated technology (Ghosh 2017).

Majority of job candidates are likely to avoid seafarer profession, because of risky working condition at sea. The lives of the seafarers are always at risk in the toughest sea and roughest weather. Paukszt at (2017) stated that the people are highly reluctant to choose seafarer profession, where their lives will be at risk. Hence, the shipping organizations should provide improved working condition for the seafarers, where the risk for their lives would be reduced. Furthermore, young generation people are reluctant to choose seafarer jobs, as they cannot access internet facilities and social welfare properly at sea (Lobrigo and Pawlik 2015).

Jensen and Bergqvist(2016) stated that most of the seafarers feel extremely alone at their workplace, as they have to stay long period of time at sea far from their families and friends. It makes the seafarers highly homesick and alone. In such situations, the shipping organizations should try to make social sustainable working groups. Such groups will help each other to share their feelings and emotions, which will somewhat compensate their loneliness. In this way, the seafarers will be happy at their workplace and it will help the shipping organization to retain the talented seafarers for longer period of time (Progoulaki and Theotokas 2016).

Promotional opportunities meet the ultimate goals of the employees at their work life. It is the proper evaluation of the employees for their true work accomplishment. However, the shipping organizations do not provide adequate promotional opportunities to the seafarers, which are ultimately de-motivating them. Hence, the shipping organizations should provide adequate promotional opportunities as per the true evaluation of the performance of the seafarers. It will keep the seafarers motivated and encourage them to stay in their current job for longer period of time.

The seafarer professionals of Myanmar shipping industry are facing extreme complexities in handling ships at difficult situation. Moreover, these professionals are not getting adequate support from their supervisors for properly controlling the ships (Progoulaki and Theotokas 2016). Hence, the managers of shipping organizations should be highly concerned about the providing training and transferring expert knowledge to the seafarers. In this way, the seafarers will feel easy at their working environment, which will encourage them to stay in their organizations for longer period of time.

Lack of social welfare is making disturbed personal life of the seafarer. Such disturbed social and personal life is discouraging the job candidates to avoid the seafarer job. Hence, the shipping companies should provide adequate opportunity to use social welfare at the ships. It will definitely improve the social and personal life of seafarers, which will encourage the job candidates to opt for seafarer jobs.

While concluding the literature review, it can be said that shipping industry carriers almost 90% of total world trade. Almost 1.5 million seafarers are serving the shipping industry and help the world trade in exchanging of goods from one port to other port. However, in recent time, the shipping industry is facing a seafarer shortage of 16500 officers. Moreover, the demand for seafarers has been increased by 24.1%. Young generation job candidates are highly reluctant to choose seafarer profession as their career option. Disturbed social life, risky working environment at sea, lack of further career development options and many more factors are responsible for the unwillingness of the job candidates to join seafarer job. Hence, the shipping organizations should be concerned about providing improved working condition having proper social welfare. Apart from that, the organizations should also provide adequate training to the seafarers for making them feel easy to handle the ships.

Research methodology chooses the appropriate methodologies for collecting the most relevant and useful information regarding the topic of the research. This research paper has selected more appropriate research methodologies for collecting most authentic information regarding the shortage of seafarers in shipping industry. Moreover, the paper has selected suitable research approach, research purpose, data collection method and sample size and data analysis for gathering authentic research information. 

Reference List

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Albert, M.N., Lazzari Dodeler, N. and Guy, E., 2016. From a Seafarer’s Career Management to the Management of Interwoven Sea-and Shore-Based Careers. SAGE Open, 6(1), p.2158244016634146.

Albert, M.N., LazzariDodeler, N. and Guy, E., 2016. From a Seafarer’s Career Management to the Management of Interwoven Sea-and Shore-Based Careers. SAGE Open, 6(1), p.2158244016634146.

Bimco.org. 2018. [online] Available at: https://www.bimco.org/news/press-releases/20160517_bimco_manpower_report [Accessed 17 Mar. 2018].

Bloor, M., Sampson, H. and Gekara, V., 2014. Global governance of training standards in an outsourced labor force: The training double bind in seafarer license and certification assessments. Regulation and Governance, 8(4), pp.455-471.

Caesar, L. and Cahoon, S., 2015. Training seafarers for tomorrow: The need for a paradigm shift in admission policies. Universal Journal of Management, 3(4), pp.160-167.

Caesar, L.D., Cahoon, S. and Fei, J., 2015. Exploring the range of retention issues for seafarers in global shipping: opportunities for further research. WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 14(1), pp.141-157.

Choy, L.T., 2014. The strengths and weaknesses of research methodology: Comparison and complimentary between qualitative and quantitative approaches. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(4), pp.99-104.

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