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Literature Review Motivation And Learning

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Discuss about the Motivation and Learning.



Motivation is self-desire to accomplish a task without any force and fear. It ensures the organization and an individual in achieving its targeted goals and objectives (Dörnyei and Ushioda, 2013). This research is aimed to explore the concept of motivation and motivational theories that enhance the productivity and performance of the individual as well as organization. Several factors that drive the motivation concept and its significance in one’s life and organizations have been described precisely. In addition to this, the learning aspects with motivation concept have been illustrated profoundly. Lastly, a brief on self-reflection of both the concepts together have been covered in this research study. 



Motivation is process to create the desire of employee or an individual to accomplish a task with full force. It affects intensity and intension of the employee and keeps them involved with human emotion to their errands (Petri and Govern, 2012). Motivation is mostly very much related to leadership. On the other hand, in an individual’s life it is also associated with the experience and attitude towards life.  Motivation in life as well as in organization is an imperative element to carry out things forward. It is the internal and very personal feeling of an individual. Moreover, need is the base of motivation because its fundamental is to achieve something in return. Motivation has both the sides negative and positive along with this, it is related with the psychological concept that makes the process intricate and complex at the same time (Robins, 2012). Motivation often leads to innovation and creativity which ensures the excitement and involvedness of worker towards completion of work.

In addition to this, there are mainly two types of motivation intrinsic and extrinsic which influences an individual’s desire. Intrinsic motivation are deep rooted internal belief and wants like curiosity, honor, order, power, social contacts, acceptance and social status while extrinsic motivation is external in nature are rewarding for outside satisfaction such as benefit packages, organized activities, employees status, designations and bonuses (Herzberg, et al., 2011). Moreover, there are various other internal sources example passion towards a particular activity or hobby, continuity and discipline, working with work ethics and values, pride in work, particular self-oriented vision, and quality of life for the family, ecstasy towards achievements, growth and challenges However these all factors are positive emotions that drive motivational desire in an individual.  As a negative emotion of motivation, elements example desperation, fear, insecurities and low confidence can fuel the heat to act pessimistically (Herzberg, et al., 2011). Moreover, the leadership and learning experience of an individual also impacts on the motivation aspect.

On the other hand, motivation is a very significant approach to add sustainability to the desires to reach a targeted goal. Some of the most prominent benefits are immense satisfaction in working towards goal that facilitates higher efficiency and effectiveness to work. As a result it increases productivity and performance of an individual (Wentzel and Miele, 2016). A motivated person leads to operation profitably and achieves their goals most of the time successfully, if directed aptly. Furthermore, it helps the organization or any group as a best solution for resistance to change organizational structure or management structure. Motivation aids the organization to use its resources fully and proficiently. Motivation supports in building strong brand image plus also ensures minimum strikes and disputes in an organization. Not only, it sets up an effective coordination between workers but also motivation helps in establishment of friendly relationship between employees and management plus also among workers (Maslow, 2013). It also assists management in reducing various costs such as supervision cost, expenses incurred to monitor and track employees.


Review on role of Motivation in Learning

According the Williams and Williams (2011), in the field of education motivation is an essential factor that helps the student to find a direction to accomplish a task. There are mainly five ingredients that are student, educator, method/process used by the teacher, environment/ surrounding and content that pushes students to learn things successfully. These motivational theories and factors only works when the need is constant and the process is persistent until the student learn advantageously.  In case of students, factors like intrinsic and extrinsic motives, individual and social needs, hierarchy of needs, perceived well being, purpose of the work, focus and efficiency, public speaking competency, study time and habits, lecture attendance and educational plan in the long run are main elements that impacts their motivation (Williams and Williams, 2011). Educators/teachers are influenced with aspects like individual motivation level, subject knowledge, skills associated to teaching, qualification, remarks and performance evaluation through quality tests, human relation with scientific management and enthusiasm.

Furthermore, content emphasis on the achievements and student experience, student ownership, competency, innovation and critical thinking, comfort and connections among other students, adjustments with the use of IT and novelty experiences. Along with this, methods to satisfy intrinsic and external desires entail experimental or self-learning, incentives, mutual and individual goals, verbal conformity, training and interactivities, encouragement and praise and caseworks (Williams and Williams, 2011). Lastly, environment includes creating positive learning environment, teamwork, engagement and empowerment that are responsible for student learning. The authors also explained that a teacher should also make efforts to find new possibilities to motivate students with different methods and comprehend self awareness about their own style and discovering area of improvement persistently. This research paper is review of literature investigated by various authors and researchers.


Similarly, in the opinion of Kong (2009), motivation and learning English language are interconnected with each other. Learning a foreign language is highly depends on the influencing motivational factors. Consistent practice and regular motivation is the principle to learn a language in a given period of time. It is complex and difficult to manage language learning continuously; hence intrinsic as well as extrinsic motivation plays a vital role for this purpose. The author also explains that higher motivation can mostly achieved by using personal cause as motivation  example, self belief, need, goals and arousal (Kong, 2009). Besides that there are various ways to motivate language learning intentionally, such as incorporating adventurous and surprising elements in the activities, innovative and creative technique to entice self determination. Along with this, rewarding techniques, suitable surrounding and environment plus creating opportunities for growth and development of comprehension in the student will help the language learning. In the end it is crucial to always mix up new techniques in learning process to encourage students more and more (Kong, 2009). This paper was based on the theoretical rationale which has also been supported with facts discovered by different authors and scholars in their researches.

In addition to this, Rehman and Haider (2013), states that learning and motivation connection has a huge and fundamental influence on school students. They explained that school students can improve their achievement, marks and learning procedure with the help of motivation. The motivation can be augmented through various factors including teachers and their way to teaching. Teachers are very useful in facilitating high motivation and also one of the reasons of low or bad motivation leading relative performances.  Additionally, theories like instinct theory, drive theory, arousal theory are responsible for student’s motivation. Authors also determined simple techniques such as supportive style, favorable environment and competition among student that can motivate them for better performance (Rehman and Haider, 2013). In order to testify the research authors have used research methodology involving literature review and collection of data through direct interview of teachers.

Lastly, Mensah and Atta (2015) also investigated regarding the concept of learning, motivation and student goal orientation and connection between these three.  The classroom experience is very important to direct the motivation and achievement of learning goals. This research also emphasis on the personality, attitude and behavior of teachers that highly impacts on the student learning. The analysis of data and research findings are based on the thematic collection of information which includes teachers as well as students. In addition to this, data analysis and fact findings are executed in a proper manner to achieve the desired results (Mensah and Atta, 2015). Furthermore, the research has also defines its implication and limitation for the future references.


Self-Reflection on Motivation

In my personal opinion, motivation is very necessary in individual’s life for any task whether related to personal or organizational goal. It helps in identify the need and purpose of particular work and doing. Many times in life, individual encounters a time when motivation is low and you stop or give on something due to low motivation.  In a particular case, when I was 12 years old my parents wanted me to learn piano but my interest towards guitar learning was greater. At that time, I refused and resisted like a 2 year old kid and being stubborn I shifted to guitar instead. Thus, I can say personally my motivation to do things is passion towards my hobby. On the other hand, money and economic benefits are also one of the important aspects associated to learning. And after all this years, I come to know about one of the realization that one of the reasons switching my passion to guitar is more understandable and motivating teacher than in piano. When I think of my favorite teachers my guitar teacher is one of the top teachers out of entire list. She was one of the most humble and enthusiastic teacher I have ever seen. She used to encourage every single child and motivate them to do better than before. She also used to play some exciting learning games with students and give rewards to them in between. My experience in guitar classes was full of joy and memories which has also directed my career and my future choices. Thus, my motivation was combination of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation both. Besides that motivation and connection of teachers, surrounding and other aspects are important in learning experiences (Robins, 2012).


This study has been exploring a vast correlation between motivations and learning that can enhance the productivity and performance of any individual. Along with this, it can also be explored with the above study that teacher’s personality, behavior ad attitude also plays effective role in enabling the higher motivation in the learning aspect of school going students. Some theories and methods are also been described to view the reviews of literature in enhancing the knowledge related to the role of motivation in learning. It precisely illustrates factors that impacts the learning of schools students and increasing their efficiency through motivation.



Dörnyei, Z., and Ushioda, E. 2013. Teaching and Researching: Motivation. 2nd ed. Routledge.

Herzberg, F., et al. 2011. The Motivation to Work. Transaction Publishers.

Kong, Y. 2009. A Brief Discussion on Motivation and Ways to Motivate Students in English Language Learning. International Education Studies 2(2), pp. 145-149.

Maslow, A. H. 2013. A Theory of Human Motivation. Simon and Schuster.

Mensah, E., and Atta, G. 2015. Middle Level Students' Goal Orientations and Motivation. Journal of Education and Training Studies 3(2), pp. 20-33.

Petri, H. L., and Govern, J. M. 2012. Motivation: Theory, Research, and Application. 6th ed. Cengage Learning.

Rehman, A., and Haider, K. 2013. The impact of motivation on learning of secondary School students in Karachi: an analytical study. International Educational Research International 2(2), pp. 139- 147.

Robins, G. 2012. Praise, Motivation, and the Child. Routledge.

Wentzel, K. R., and Miele, D. B. 2016. Handbook of Motivation at School. Routledge.

Williams, K., & Williams, C. 2011. Five key ingredients for improving motivation. Research in Higher Education Journal, 11.


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