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Every organization needs motivation theory because it helps employees to work together to achieve the objectives of an organization (Kamasheva et al., 2015). Below reveal some motivational theories which are very much implement by all alleged organization. The two motivational theories will work with different factors of organization and help the organization to develop the success of the companies and improve the performance of the employees so that they produce professionally along with the expansion of the company (Friederichs et al., 2015). Lots of organizations use these theories to bring improve in their organization and also help to recognize the environment of the organization. Firstly every organization wants to satisfy the basic needs to the needs for the success of every individual and for the better results organization want to use this model (STARSIGHT TELECAST, INC v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD ROVI SOLUTIONS, CORPORATION v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD, 2015). Under motivation different type of theories are introduced like:
Maslow’s hierarchy theory of motivation.
Herzberg’s two factor theory.
Motivation is very important element for improving the work productivity, reward system, firm understanding of how to narrate the job satisfaction. In motivation manager’s role is to induce each and every individual behavior and action toward accomplishment of some objectives. The main purpose of this review is to see the overview of two theories which explain motivation in the work place and also addressed the factor that say about the job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Under these motivational theories three qualities are included: it determines the direction of action, it focuses on internal forces and last it energises for action.
Abraham Maslow is an American psychologist, one of his article were he mention the Maslow’s hierarchy ‘theory to desire’ (Taormina and Gao, 2013). He wants to identify what constitute positive mental health and happiness, not just the mind illness and unhappiness. Maslow was hence motivated to start a complete new movement in psychology ‘a third waves’, which he call ‘humanistic psychology’ (Pereira, de Campos and Camarini, 2012).
Figure: Hierarchy of needs (Pereira, de Campos and Camarini, 2012).
Physiological needs- it’s a basic needs which include food, water, rest etc.
Safety needs- The safety needs work mainly on psychological needs. Of course we try to keep away from a poke in the eyes with a sharp stick. But formerly we manage a confident level of physical comfort; it helps to set up stability and constancy in a chaotic world. Security and human security are come under this type of needs (Pereira, de Campos and Camarini, 2012).
Love and belongingness needs- this come after psychological and safety needs. Once a want has been significantly content over a long period of time it becomes functionally absent. Under these friends, intimate relationship is there (Pereira, de Campos and Camarini, 2012).
Esteem needs- under this self esteem plays a vital role, David McClelland called this type of esteems is needs for esteem. McClelland assume that individual disparity in needs is tied to character, and they transform slowly if at all. Prestige and feeling of achievement are the part of self esteem.
Self-actualization- Maslow describe this need as “the want to become more and more what one is, to develop into everything that individual is capable of becoming”. Under this achieving one’s full potential, including creative activities etc are the part of self- actualization (Pereira, de Campos and Camarini, 2012).
In his theory he mention hierarchy of needs, it’s a model in which he attempt to confine these different levels of human motivation. It represents the design that human beings are propel into action by different motivating factor at different period –self fulfillment needs psychological needs and basic needs (Wu, 2011).
In his theories the hierarchical arrangement is not intended to mean that the persons who pay attention on higher needs are someway better than those people who pay attention on lower needs. According to this it simply means unless and until if the person will not satisfied their lower need they will not satisfied their higher needs too (Pereira, de Campos and Camarini, 2012). Like for example if the person is suffering from hunger and cold, then they don’t have the time to concern about their self esteem because that time there focuses on foods (STARSIGHT TELECAST, INC v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD ROVI SOLUTIONS, CORPORATION v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD, 2015).
Maslow planned, what he use to identify creditable people like Eleanor Roosevelt, Albert Einstein, Jane Addams, and Frederick Douglass comparatively than fearful people or mentality condition, whereas inscription “underdeveloped, untrained, the lecture of crippled and harmful specimen can give way only a cripple psychology” (Pereira, de Campos and Camarini, 2012). Maslow considered the healthiest 1% of the college academic community” (STARSIGHT TELECAST, INC v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD ROVI SOLUTIONS, CORPORATION v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD, 2015).
Maslow's theory was completely expressed in his 1954 degree of personality and motivation. The sequence relics a very well-known arrangement in sociology study, association training.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is commonly portrayed in a shape of a pyramid, which mostly necessary levels of wants at the downward and the necessities for self-actualization at the peak. Similarly the pyramid has revolved away in facto form to distinguish the hierarchy.
In Maslow’s theory the most vital four level of pyramid which include what Maslow used to called deficiency needs because it represent self esteem, love, security, etc. if this requirements are not introduce or not accomplished – with the elimination of the main primary condition- then human being feel worried and strained in work place. This theory suggests the basic needs what human being want in their life, and with the help of this stages human being will fulfill their needs. Maslow also suggested or introduced a new term name “metamotivation”, which explain how to inspire people at workplace and help the people to go additional than the level of the necessary requirements and go all- out for usual betterment (Kohte, 2015).
Herzberg’s two factors theory of motivation is also known as hygiene theory or dual factor theory (Krankenhausbelegung beeinflusst Mortalität, 2015). This theory is somehow related to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Frederick Herzberg’s think that it is connected to satisfy or dissatisfies for workers at workplace (Herzberg, 2009). Herzberg called this factor in job satisfaction as motivators and factors that present disappointment as hygiene (Krankenhausbelegung beeinflusst Mortalität, 2015).
Figure: Herzberg’s Hygiene and Motivational Factors (Krankenhausbelegung beeinflusst Mortalität, 2015)v.
Motivational are things which allocate psychological maturity and enlargement in the work. This theory is somehow connected to self-actualization. Hygiene, while useful in an efficient way which will prevent dissatisfaction and if it will useful in a poor way then it can result in to negative sensation in the work. Herzberg’s introduce two steps:
Eliminate job dissatisfaction: Under this Herzberg’s introduce hygiene factors which cause dissatisfaction to the employees,
They fixed poor and disruptive company outline. Offer efficient and non disturbing management, create and hold a society of esteem and self-respect for all team members, ensure them that wages are competitive (Giorgi, Shoss and Leon-Perez, 2015).
Create condition for job satisfaction: to satisfy their employee Herzberg’s say that they need to address the motivating factors which are associated with work. It is kind of job enrichment. Every job should be examined and determine how it could be done in better way and how to satisfy the person who ar doing the work (Tabvuma, Georgellis and Lange, 2015). For the employees they provide opportunities for achievement, recognizing their working condition, creating works that is rewarding and which match the skills and abilities of the workers, by providing them much more responsibility to each team member as possible, offer them a training and development opportunities so that people can pursue the position they want within the company (Krankenhausbelegung beeinflusst Mortalität, 2015).
Maslow’s theory of motivation represents a pyramid. Pyramid consider five types of needs which include self-actualization, self esteem, social needs, safety need and last is physical needs (Poorsheikhali and Alavi, 2013). Each of these includes various needs which and person attain. First one start with food, shelter, drinks and at the end it includes self-actualization need. This type of needs is necessary which individual wants in their life, by using these theories human being fulfillment their needs. Maslow’s theory have also been largely criticize since the theorist believed that needs can be satisfied accordingly, single set of need is fulfilled first then only the other set of needs will fulfilled (Stone and Lukaszewski, 2009).
For example, organization which follow Maslow’s theory of needs are Virgin Media, they use this theory of needs to encourage their employees (Virgin Media employs managed-learning company, 2011). Organization contain a framework for their employee career progression named as “Your story framework” (McPherson, 2014), which consist of everyday meeting to evaluate their evolution , and also discuss about the performance and development strategy which is the key success of their employee’s career and provide facilities to improve their professional life (Virgin Media employs managed-learning company, 2011). This also helps in the growth of an organization. Virgin Media includes some steps which will help the employees to ensure uniformity and do justice to satisfy the needs of pyramid. The company considers that if the working atmosphere is goods and friendly will help the employees motivated toward their work and help them to give their best (STARSIGHT TELECAST, INC v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD ROVI SOLUTIONS, CORPORATION v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD, 2015).
Real life organization which use this theory are TESCO, it’s a British MNC company deals with universal merchandise and grocery. TESCO comes under the second largest company in revenue and third largest in retailer. Tesco has many stores across 12 countries including Asia and Europe, were as grocery market leader in the UK, the republic of Ireland, Malaysia, Thailand and Hungary. In the year 1919 Tesco was founded by Jack Cohen as a group of market stalls which was expanded rapidly and over 100 Tesco stores across the country in the years of 1939. The company admits that behind their successful is employees work, they keep on motivating their employees to give their best so that they don’t diverge from their position in the marketplace. The company knows that if employees are happy and motivate, then no one can stop them to earn profits (Kim and Hallsworth, 2015).
Under this Herzberg’s define a model which states to facilitate certain factor which are motivated and satisfy the workers on opposing some other factor like hygiene, and hygienic creates dissatisfactions if workers are absent (Krankenhausbelegung beeinflusst Mortalität, 2015). If this factor are recover than disappointment might be disallowed on the other hand improvement factor will not motivate the employee alone (Barnes, 2011). Frederick Herzberg’s showed in their theories how to motivate employee, they think that motivate an employee truly help the organization and it will help to create company needs while making employees feel happy in the workplace (Virgin Media employs managed-learning company, 2011).
With the help of this hygiene factors TESCO motivate their employees. It allows the employees by provide appropriate and suitable communication, and also involve workers in the decision making procedure and delegate accountability. It organize forum every day where workers will be a part of the conversation and opinion on pay rise. It shows the credit of work TESCO people do and company also give rewards to their employees. TESCO Company gives an opportunity to their employee to decide what will be the restaurant menu, by this employees get motivated and capable to make selection which will enlarge and increase their use in the restaurant. TESCO also give opportunities to their managers and their workers to receive a huge attention and divide in their exacting employment (STARSIGHT TELECAST, INC v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD ROVI SOLUTIONS, CORPORATION v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD, 2015).
Figure: Two-Factor theory of motivation.
In this the above motivational theories are explained and help the organization with positive results. Motivation leads to boost in employee fulfillment which revolves lead to higher efficiency and profit maximization (Virgin Media employs managed-learning company, 2011). Begin with the Virgin Media to TESCO; performance of the individual above mention in the theories has improved employee satisfaction (Krankenhausbelegung beeinflusst Mortalität, 2015). According to the current survey on employee satisfaction in which employees of the company give their opinion on why they don’t want to leave their organization. In Virgin media company employee want to work with them more because they think that company fulfillment their needs as per they want (Furnham, Eracleous and Chamorroâ€Premuzic, 2009). They also say that company keep on motivate them by providing some benefit which will help them to work more in that company. Employees think that in this company salary which are provided to them are very profitable and also working environment are good which they like it. Another company is TESCO which help the employee to get motivated by using Herzberg’s two factor theories (Werbel and Balkin, 2010). Company trained their employee well in the organization so that they do their work well and come up with the positive results, which will help them to satisfy their customers. They focus more on motivator’s part which will prevent dissatisfaction in hygiene. In this organization recognition and reward in time are the two factors of employee’s dissatisfaction (Amaratunga and Baldry, 2002).
Friederichs, S., Bolman, C., Oenema, A. and Lechner, L. (2015). Profiling physical activity motivation based on self-determination theory: a cluster analysis approach. BMC Psychol, 3(1).
Giorgi, G., Shoss, M. and Leon-Perez, J. (2015). Going Beyond Workplace Stressors: Economic Crisis and Perceived Employability in Relation to Psychological Distress and Job Dissatisfaction.International Journal of Stress Management.
Herzberg, F. (2009). Elementary non-Archimedean utility theory. Mathematical Social Sciences, 58(1), pp.8-14.
Kamasheva, A., Valeev, E., Yagudin, R. and Maksimova, K. (2015). Usage of Gamification Theory for Increase Motivation of Employees. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences.
Kim, W. and Hallsworth, A. (2015). Tesco in Korea: Regulation and Retail Change. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, p.n/a-n/a.
Kohte, W. (2015). Leitsätze. Juristische Rundschau, 2015(3).
Krankenhausbelegung beeinflusst Mortalität. (2015). Krankenhaus-Hygiene + Infektionsverhütung, 37(1), p.27.
McPherson, J. (2014). You told me your story without words. Journal of Poetry Therapy, 28(1), pp.63-64.
Pereira, V., de Campos, G. and Camarini, G. (2012). Maslow’s Theory of Motivation - Hierarchy of Needs: Results from Construction Operational Workers in São Paulo City, Brazil. AMM, 174-177, pp.2339-2342.
Poorsheikhali, F. and Alavi, H. (2013). Correlation of Parents’ Religious Behavior with Family’s Emotional Relations and Students’ Self-actualization. Journal of Religion and Health, 54(1), pp.235-241.
STARSIGHT TELECAST, INC v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD ROVI SOLUTIONS, CORPORATION v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD. (2015). Reports of Patent, Design and Trade Mark Cases, 132(1), pp.63-72.
Tabvuma, V., Georgellis, Y. and Lange, T. (2015). Orientation Training and Job Satisfaction: A Sector and Gender Analysis. Human Resource Management, p.n/a-n/a.
Taormina, R. and Gao, J. (2013). Maslow and the Motivation Hierarchy: Measuring Satisfaction of the Needs. The American Journal of Psychology, 126(2), pp.155-177.
Virgin Media employs managed-learning company. (2011). Industrial and Commercial Training, 43(3).
Wu, Q. (2011). Analysis about Hierarchy Needs Model of Technology Employees. AMR, 281, pp.243-248.
Amaratunga, D. and Baldry, D. (2002). Performance measurement in facililities management and its relationships with management theory and motivation. Facilities, 20(10), pp.327-336.
Werbel, J. and Balkin, D. (2010). Are human resource practices linked to employee misconduct?. Human Resource Management Review, 20(4), pp.317-326.
Furnham, A., Eracleous, A. and Chamorroâ€ÂPremuzic, T. (2009). Personality, motivation and job satisfaction: Hertzberg meets the Big Five. Journal of Managerial Psych, 24(8), pp.765-779.
Stone, D. and Lukaszewski, K. (2009). An expanded model of the factors affecting the acceptance and effectiveness of electronic human resource management systems. Human Resource Management Review, 19(2), pp.134-143.
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