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Excavation

The schedule activities expected to take place are excavation, compaction, reinforcement and concreting, installation of walls, installation of doors and windows, roofing, landscaping activities and finishes (NSW Government Fair Trading, n.d.). These are discussed below:

Excavation: In practice, this is the second stage of the construction process on site and usually comes after site clearing. This is the removal of all loose top soil in order to reach the desired reduced ground level of a site. This can include hand excavations or use of excavator. This site in the best suited method of excavation for this particular site would be the use of excavators as the excavation work is extensive (NSW Government Fair Trading, n.d.). Excavation can be done using a variety of machinery i.e. moving and non-moving plant.

Compaction: This is the replacement of an appropriate hard material on site that helps improve both the bearing capacity and reduced ground settlement on the site. It could incorporate the excavated material if it is hard but in most cases new hard-core material is usually brought to the site for hard filling. This is done after the foundation has been laid but before the slab concreting. It is normally done by the use of a compacting machine and it is necessary to do it in layers in order to prevent the material from unbulking prematurely which may cause future soil settlement problems.

Reinforcement and Concreting: this activity involves fixing the steel reinforcement layers on the surface being concreted and placing a predetermined proportion of cement, sand and coarse aggregate. The finished product, concrete is usually necessary where good compressive and tensile strength is required and where durability is a factor. This is usually done for slabs, beams, columns and shear walls. The steel for use in reinforcing varies as per the load imposed on the building and an overall process of structural design is usually done to determine a suitable ratio of all the quantities that is both economic and sufficient for the overall structural strength.

Installation of walls: this is a masonry task of erecting the partitions of a structure. These could be of various material ranging from masonry blocks to timber, glass and concrete. The finished product serves as a partition between two adjacent rooms or separated parts of a single room (NSW Government Fair Trading, n.d.). There are instances where the walls need to be structural walls and these can be cast with concrete either on or off site. The installation process then resembles the process of column erection.

Installation of doors and windows: this step usually comes after all the concreting and partitioning work has been done as it necessitates a finished surface or partition. It is among the last of the construction procedures and is only proceeded by the finishing’s stage. Further plastering is usually done before painting over the door and window frames in order to even the surface. This can fall under the carpentry or glazing sub-trade but in rare occasions, these responsibility can be taken up by a steel fabricator.

Compaction

Roofing: this is the installation of a roof and is usually done immediately the beams above the last storey have been set up. This involves erection of wall plates, trusses and roof covers and later the installation of ceilings. This stage can fall under the responsibility of a carpenter or steel fabricator depending on whether the structure has steel or timber trusses. Roofing is important on weatherproofing a house and necessitates special attention and should therefore be constructed before finishings are incorporated and tested beforehand.

Finishes: these are all the activities taken after all the structural, partitioning, access and roofing members have been erected and services installed in the structure. They range from basic painting to the luxurious aesthetic painting coats and surfaces in a building ready for occupation. It is usually the last stage of construction within the structure.

Landscaping: these are all the activities embarked on when preparing the sites aesthetic appearance. They include cleaning after the construction wastes, gardening and any block or concrete works that occurs outside the structure being constructed (NSW Government Fair Trading, n.d.).

Construction projects by default require many complementary professions that include different sub-trades (NSW Government Fair Trading, n.d.). The relevant sub-trades required for this project besides project management and technical consultation teams include:
1. Site establishment (Fencing, site office, services etc.)
2. Excavator
3. Electrician
4. Plumber & Drainer
5. Gasfitter
6. Concreters for both the in situ Concrete slab and pre-cast concrete walls
7. Carpenter for the Structure’s formwork, internal and external fittings, and cladding.
8. Steel Fabricator
9. Roofer
10. Glazier for any windows and glass partitions
12. Plasterer for internal linings & ceiling
13. Paver
14. Tile-mason for tiling walls & floors including waterproofing
15. Painters
16. Carpet Layer.

The order of activities is indicated in the Gantt chart below with their corresponding activity write-up in the MS Excel table attached. The Gantt chart below indicated the period of construction for a duration of 12 months commencing on 1st October 2017 and closing on 1st October 2018.

The case study building in the diagrams attached satisfies the criteria for classification as both a class 5 and class 6 structure. This is evidenced by the allocation rooms for retail purposes in the ground floor and allocation of office space in the first floor (Flex Profit Hub, n.d.).

The case study building is also below the 1200m height above datum mark required to classify a building site as an alpine area. In compiling the checklists, the report is therefore only going to be concerned with those regulations that affect the mentioned classes.

Table 2: Structural Provisions

Part No.

Section

Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions/Comments (applicable clauses)

Relevant AU Std./ Code

Compliance Achieved

FIRE RESISTANCE

C1.1

Type of construction required

The building falls under type C as it falls under classes 5 and 6 and this makes it the least fire resistant type of building.

NCC Part One

N/A

C1.2.

Calculation of rise in storeys

The building has 2 storeys as determined following provision under the roof but above the ground level.

NCC Part One

N/A

C1.10

Fire hazard properties

i. While the building’s floor linings and coverings have not been specified, it can be assumed to be above a concrete surface as the slab is concrete making it satisfactory. They should comply with provision C1.10

ii. The plasterboard wall materials indicated in the drawings all have a minimum insulation rating of between 2.1 and 2.3 but no information on the wall linings has been provided.

AS 5637.1

RFI FROM DESIGNER

C1.11

Performance of external walls in fire

The external walls must comply to the specifications indicated in provision C1.11

AS 5637.1

Yes

C1.12

C1.12 Non-combustible materials

The plasterboard wall lining must be satisfactory as the provision necessitates it be non-combustible.

AS 5637.1

Yes

ACCESS AND EGRESS

D1.2

Number of exits required

The building must have at least one horizontal exit per floor as the building height does not exceed 25m

AS 1428

Yes

D1.4

Exit travel distance

All points on the floors on both stories must be less than 20 m from the nearest exit

AS 1428

No

D1.10

Discharge from exits

The exits of these buildings must be free from any blockage at the point of discharge or suitable barriers provided in order to prevent vehicles from obstructing the exits.

AS 1428

Yes

D1.12

Non-required stairways, ramps or escalators

A non-required non-fire isolated staircase must not connect more than 2 storeys

AS 1530

Yes

D1.13:

Number of persons accommodated

Number of persons accommodated in the ground floor retail stores at any given time should not be more than 23 for retails 1 and 2, 17 for retails 3-6, and on the first floor not more than 14 for office 1 and 26 for office 2.

AS 1428

RFI FROM DESIGNER

D2.13

Goings and risers

The staircase in the building should have:

i. Risers less than 18 per flight and but they should be more than 2.

ii. The particulars of the goings and risers and their quantities and dimensions as specified in the table 2.14

iii. Goings and risers to be constant in each flight

AS 4586

Yes

D2.14

Landings

The landings in the case study building must have a maximum gradient of 1:50 that are incorporated to control the amount of risers in per flight. Each landing is also required to not be less than 750 mm long, as the staircase in this building involves a change in direction.

AS 4586

Yes

D2.15

Thresholds

The thresholds in the case study building must comply to the provision D2.15

AS 1428

Yes

D2.16

Barriers

Barriers to prevent falls must be provided for each flight of the staircase in the building as specified in tables D2.16a-c.

AS 1428

Yes

D2.17

Handrails

The staircase should be provided with a set handrails covering at least one side of each flight.

AS 1428

Yes

D3.3

Parts of a building to be accessible

All parts of this building are required to be accessible.

AS 1428

Yes

HEALTH AND AMMENITY

F1.4

External above ground membranes

The waterproofing membranes required for external above ground should be as per the Australian Standard 4654.

AS 4654 Parts 1 and 2.

RFI FROM DESIGNER

F1.5

Roof coverings.

All roofing work should be done in full compliance with the Australian Standard AS 1562.1.

AS 1562.1

RFI FROM DESIGNER

F1.6

Sarking

The sarking should be done in such a way that all the materials comply with the specifications identified in the Australian Standard AS/NZS 4200 Parts 1 and 2.

AS/NZS 4200 Parts 1 and 2.

RFI FROM DESIGNER

F1.7

Waterproofing wet areas.

All waterproofing for this building for wet areas should be done in compliance with American Standard AS 3740.

AS 3740

RFI FROM DESIGNER

F1.9

Damp proofing

Damp-proofing should be carried out in accordance with the code AS/NZS 2904.

AS/NZS 2904

RFI FROM DESIGNER

F1.13

Glazed assemblies

All glazed members (i.e. all windows) that are on an external wall must comply with code AS 2047.

AS 2047

Yes

F2.3

Facilities in Class 5/6 buildings

Sanitary facilities for the building must be provided to match the number of occupants or users.

NCC Part One

Yes.

F3.1

Height of rooms and other spaces

The minimum floor height for the case study building should be 2.4m except in corridors and passageways, above stairways and in sanitary facilities.

NCC Part One

Yes

F4.4

Artificial lighting

All artificial lighting must be provided in this building to all corridors, frequently occupied rooms, staircases and paths to egress.

AS/NZS 1680.0

RFI FROM DESIGNER

F4.5

Ventilation of rooms

All rooms in this building should comply with the natural or artificial ventilation requirements in the codes AS 1668.2 and AS/NZS 3666.1.

AS 1668.2 and AS/NZS 3666.1.

Yes

F4.6

Natural ventilation

All natural ventilation must be provided according to F4.5 and must consist of windows, doors and openings that can be opened and closed at will.

AS 1668.2 and AS/NZS 3666.1.

Yes.

F4.7

Natural ventilation borrowed from adjoining rooms

Not applicable as all rooms have all rooms have part of the external wall as one of their walls.

AS 1668.2 and AS/NZS 3666.1.

N/A

ENERGY REQUIREMENTS

J1.5

Walls

Each external wall forming part of the envelope must abide by the requirements in table J1.5a.

AS/NZS 4859

RFI from Designer

J1.6

Floors

Each floor forming part of the envelope must abide by the Total R value requirements in table J1.6.

AS/NZS 4859

RFI from Designer

J2.4

Glazing

All glazing on both external and internal walls must not exceed the aggregate air conditioning value provided in the table J2.4

AS/NZS 4859

RFI from Designer

J5.2

Air conditioning systems

All air conditioning systems must comply in all parts to all the control requirements stated in the provision J3.2.

AS/NZS 3823

RFI from Designer

J6.2

Artificial lighting

Artificial lighting to all rooms in the building must be provided where the illumination meets the illumination power density requirements in Table J6.2b

AS/NZS 3823

RFI from Designer

J6.3

Interior artificial lighting and power control

The artificial lighting mechanism must be controlled by a switch or any other switch control device.

AS/NZS 3823

RFI from Designer

To demonstrate the compliance, a comparison of provisions in the case building against the performance requirements and “Deemed to Satisfy” (DTS) provisions in the NCC will be carried out. Expert judgement will also be invoked. The comparison will only be carried out for sections C and F.

C1: Fire Resistance and Stability:

According to provision C1.1, the building falls under type C as it falls under classes 5 and 6 and has 2 storeys as determined following provision C1.2. This makes it the least fire resistant type of building.

Reinforcement and Concreting

According to provision C1.10, while the building’s floor linings and coverings have not been specified, it can be assumed to be concrete in nature as the slab is concrete making it satisfactory. The plasterboard wall linings indicated in the drawings all have a minimum insulation rating of between 2.1 and 2.3 and no more than two wall lining groups have been used for a room making it complacent with the provisions C1.10 and C1.11.

According to provision C1.12, the plasterboard wall lining used is satisfactory as the provision qualifies it as non-combustible.

C2: Compartmentation and Separation:

The building is within the limits of the maximum fire compartment floor area specified by the provision C2.2 as the biggest room is still less than 2000m2 in area.

As the other clauses do not apply to this type of building, its level of satisfactoriness can be qualified by the performance requirements in CP1 - CP9 which it has met.

C3: Protection of Openings:

Provision C3.2 is assumed as the nearest boundary is unknown at the moment and no site-plan is provided to verify the distance from the fire-source feature. However, as no boundary is indicated within 3 meters of any wall, the building will be considered to not require and FRL.

The minimum distance between external walls in and openings in consideration of the angles between them as specified in provision C3.3 has been fully met as indicated in the drawings. 

F: Access And Egress

Part F1: Damp proofing and weatherproofing

For the requirement that the building should have a system or means of:

  • Disposing surface water that has collected or has been concentrated at any part of the building,
  • Preventing surface water from entering the building,
  • Drainage for the surface water of the specified recurrence periods
  • Preventing entry of water through roofs or walls that cause both, undue dampness and member deterioration and dangerous conditions,
  • Controlling ground moisture from causing undue dampness and unhealthy conditions,
  • Prevention of water from penetrating fittings and hidden spaces.

No information has been provided to test for the:

  • Waterproofing membranes required for external above ground being as per the Australian Standard 4654.
  • All roofing work being done in full compliance with the Australian Standard AS 1562.1.
  • The sarking being done in such a way that all the materials comply with the specifications identified in the Australian Standard AS/NZS 4200 Parts 1 and 2.
  • All waterproofing for this building for wet areas being done in compliance with American Standard AS 3740.
  • Damp-proofing being carried out in accordance with the code AS/NZS 2904.

However, all glazed members (i.e. all windows) that are on an external wall are in compliance with code AS 2047 as shown in the case study building plans. The rest of the specifications should be determined after information has been supplied by the designers.

Part F2: Sanitary and other facilities:

For the requirement that:

  • Suitable sanitary facilities be provided in relation to the building’s occupants (i.e. number and gender), function of building and needs of people with disability,
  • Sanitary compartment be provided,

Sanitary facilities for the building been provided to match the number of occupants or users. Every room has a sanitary facility except 3 ground floor retail stores which share one. As the number expected to use them is relatively low (3 retail stores mean 10 or less employees), the sanitary facilities have not been differentiated into male and female facilities. However, that should not be a problem as no special requirements are necessary. If however, more than one user would want to use the sanitary facility at the same time, the rest are easily accessible so no more facilities are required.

Part F3: Room heights:

For the provision that a space should have enough room to not interfere with any of its intended uses and functions, the building has attained the minimum floor height that should be no less than 2.4m except in corridors and passageways, above stairways and in sanitary facilities. This is evidenced in the building plans by the fact that the lowest floor height is 2.7m on the first floor. This is the average height across the entire floor indicating that the performance requirement has been fully met.

Installation of Walls

Part F4: Light and ventilation

For the provision that:

  • Enough openings be provided in the building and distributed enough to allow for natural light,
  • Artificial lighting be provided to allow safe movement and access within the building,
  • Means of ventilation be provided in the building for occupants in all rooms
  • Contaminated air be removed from the building in a manner that caused no harm to other occupants or properties nearby,

No information has been provided for all artificial lighting that has been provided in this building to all corridors, frequently occupied rooms, staircases and paths to egress. This information should be requested from the designer and be supplied first in order to demonstrate compliance. If it is not there, it should be incorporated into the building in order to meet the minimum requirements.

However, the building has incorporated:

  • Enough windows for every room in this building complying with the natural or artificial ventilation requirements in the codes AS 1668.2 and AS/NZS 3666.1 as shown on page 6 and 7 of the diagrams.
  • Natural ventilation according to F4.5 that consists of windows, doors and openings that can be opened and closed at will. This is indicated in the building plans as seen on pages 1 and 2.

However, the provision of rooms borrowing natural light from adjoining rooms is not applicable as all rooms have all rooms have part of the external wall as one of their walls.

Conclusion:

Full compliance of all the regulations stated in the NCC in regards to Part F: Health and amenity cannot be fully verified as the designers are still yet to provide some information. The parts which have not met the compliance requirement have been highlighted and proposals made to ensure full compliance. All other compliance measures not highlighted in the performance requirements’ deemed to satisfy provision are acceptable when taken as is. However, whereas this compliance measure has only been conducted for the health and amenity sector only, further reports or research can be done to indicate compliance in any other section left out. At the moment, it is recommendable as is and regarded to satisfy all provisions laid out for the required fire resisting properties.

From the drawings of the case study project, the structure is in Victoria State which is subject to the Victorian regulations and local requirements. These codes, however are in compliance with the National Construction Code and do not vary much apart from a few particulars as indicated below:

1: National Construction Code: this is the overall construction guideline reference code for use in the entire country. It has 3 Volumes, the first one providing regulations for commercial (class 2-9) buildings, the second providing regulations for residential and non-occupational buildings (class 1 and 10) and third volume providing plumbing regulations. For the case study building, only the first one is used with the relevant regulations being the structural provisions, fire resistance, access and egress, services and equipment, health and amenities, and energy saving.

2: Building Interim Regulations 2017: this is a document highlighting the all the regulations specific to Victoria State. It contains standards defined in the NCC volume one and two codes. It also contains other statutory legal requirements that offer a guideline into how the overall building processes from start to finish in that particular state should occur i.e. from commencement of the building process to completion and consequent maintenance. The document heavily borrows from the Building Code of Australia (BCA) and other Australian building and structural design standards (Victoria State Government, 2017).

3: Victoria State Index: these are standards incorporated by the state to offer more direction in construction specific to that area. From the list of state specific indexes, the only regulation that would affect the case study building is the adoption of AS 2118.1 as a regulatory construction standard (Australian Building Codes Board, 2013).

Installation of Doors and Windows

4: Australian Standards: the BCA borrows heavily from Australian Standards that are directly enforceable during construction of a class 5 and 6 building. Australian Standards for construction are also observable even when not referenced by the BCA or state and territorial government regulations and so must be adhered to (SAI Global, 2011). The relevant standards used have been indicated in the checklist.

References:

Australian Building Codes Board, 2009, BCA 2009: Building Code of Australia, Australian Building Codes Board.

Australian Building Codes Board, 2010. An investigation of possible Building Code of Australia (BCA) adaptation measures for climate change. Australian Building Codes Board, Canberra.

Australian Building Codes Board, 2010. Performance standard for private bushfire shelters. Part one.

Australian Building Codes Board, 2013. National Construction Code Series Volume 1, Building Code of Australia 2013, Class 2 to 9 Buildings. Canberra: Australian Building Codes Board.

Bukowski, R.W. and Babrauskas, V., 1994. Developing rational, performance?based fire safety requirements in model building codes. Fire and Materials, 18(3), pp.173-191.

Flex Profit Hub, n.d. Differences Between Commercial and Residential Property Investment. [Online]
Available at: https://flexprofithub.com/commercial-property-investment/differences-between-commercial-and-residential-property-investment
[Accessed 31 Aug 2017].

Forte, C., 2014. The Design Process: Residential vs. Commercial. [Online]
Available at: https://www.architecturelab.net/the-design-process-residential-vs-commercial/
[Accessed 30 Aug 2017].

International Standardization Organization 2003, Houses – Description of performance – Part 1: Structural safety, International Standardization Organization 2003, ISO 15928-1:2003, ISO, UK.

International Standardization Organization 2006, Sustainability in building construction – Sustainability indicators – Part 1: Framework for development of indicators for buildings. International Standardization Organization 2006, ISO/TS 21929-1:2006, ISO, UK.

International Standardization Organization 2007, Sustainability in building construction – Environmental declaration of building products. International Standardization Organization 2008, ISO 21930:2007, ISO, UK.

International Standardization Organization 2008, General principles on the design of structures for durability, International Standardization Organization 2008, ISO 13823:2008, ISO, UK.

International Standardization Organization 2008, Sustainability in building construction – General principles, International Standardization Organization 2008, ISO 15392:2008, ISO, UK.

International Standardization Organization 2010, Sustainability in building construction – Framework for methods of assessment of the environmental performance of construction works – Part 1: Buildings. International Standardization Organization 2010, ISO 21931-1:2010, ISO, UK.

NSW Government Fair Trading, n.d. Suggested Construction Sequence - Owner Builders. Sydney: NSW Government Fair Trading.

SAI Global, 2011. Guide to Standards - Building and Construction. s.l.:SAI GLOBAL.

Standards Australia 1992, Design and installation of sheet roof and wall cladding – Metal. STANDARDS AUSTRALIA 2002, AS 1562.1-1992, Standards Australia, Sydney.

Standards Australia 2002, Structural design actions – General principles. STANDARDS AUSTRALIA 2002, AS/NZS 1170.0:2002, Standards Australia, Sydney.

Standards Australia 2002, Structural design actions – Permanent, imposed and other actions. STANDARDS AUSTRALIA 2002, AS/NZS 1170.1:2002, Standards Australia, Sydney.

Standards Australia 2005, Basis for design of structures – Assessment of existing structures. STANDARDS AUSTRALIA 2005, AS ISO 13822-2005, Standards Australia, Sydney.

Standards Australia 2005, General principles on the reliability of structures. STANDARDS AUSTRALIA 2005, AS 5104-2005, Standards Australia, Sydney.

Standards Australia 2006, Automatic fire sprinkler systems, STANDARDS AUSTRALIA 2006, AS 2118.1-2006, Standards Australia, Sydney.

Standards Australia 2006, Glass in buildings – Section and installation. STANDARDS AUSTRALIA 2006, AS 1288-2006, Standards Australia, Sydney.

Standards Australia 2006, Residential timber-framed construction Part 2: Non-cyclonic areas, STANDARDS AUSTRALIA 2006, AS 1684.2-2006, Standards Australia, Sydney.

Standards Australia 2007, The glass and glazing handbook. STANDARDS AUSTRALIA 2007, HB 125-2007, Standards Australia, Sydney.

Standards Australia 2009, Concrete structures. STANDARDS AUSTRALIA 2009, AS 3600-2009, Standards Australia, Sydney.

Standards Australia 2009, Piling - Design and installation. STANDARDS AUSTRALIA 2006, AS 2159-2009, Standards Australia, Sydney.

Standards Australia 2009, Waterproofing membrane systems for exterior use – Above ground level – Design and installation. STANDARDS AUSTRALIA 2009, AS 4654.2-2009, Standards Australia, Sydney.

Standards Australia 2009, Waterproofing membrane systems for exterior use – Above ground level – Materials. STANDARDS AUSTRALIA 2009, AS 4654.1-2009, Standards Australia, Sydney.

Wilkinson, S.J., James, K. and Reed, R., 2009. Using building adaptation to deliver sustainability in Australia. Structural Survey, 27(1), pp.46-61.

Victoria State Government, 2017. The Building Interim Regulations 2017. Melbourne, VU: Victoria State Government.

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