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Appreciate the philosophy and role of lean systems in operations management l Understand the various JIT techniques and how they are applied in both manufacturing and services contexts l Understand the different approaches to inventory planning and control l Describe and critically evaluate the use of JIT l Introduce MRP and ERP systems ‘The key principle of lean operations is relatively straightforward to understand, it means moving towards the elimination of all waste in order to develop an operation that is faster, more dependable, produces higher quality products and services and, above all, operates at low cost’. 

1.0 Effects of 3D printing on operations

The report analyses the effects of 3D printing into both operations and information management. Zhang et al. (2014) stated that 3D printing is also known as additive manufacturing that is probable to develop and impact the manufacturing industry since assembly lines are commenced in early 21st century America.

Brandenburg et al. (2014) argued that new technologies are developed could transform the production techniques of the manufacturing industry. It results in a considerable proportion of the manufacturing, becoming automated and removed costly workforces. It leads to a problem of globalisation trend that has characterised industry and consumption over last decades. It predicts tradeoff among transportation as well as a cost of labour. Petrick and Simpson (2013) demonstrated 3D printing as a developed and automated method to produce prototypes. There are various computing technologies used to draw 3D drawings such as with the use of computer-aided design. Therefore, it is termed as an additive process as each layer is being printed until the creation of a three-dimensional product.

1.0 Effects of 3D printing on operations

1.1 Concept of 3D printing for operations

3D printing is expected to change the manufacturing industry altogether. With a use of 3D printing, the 3D projects are expected to grow $5.2 billion by the year 2020. In the manufacturing industry, with a use of 3D printing, the manufacturers are competent to print the parts at a fraction of a cost. This production process begins to make a 3D model through the use of modelling software (Johnson, Scholes and Whittington, 2008). This emerging technology has a significant impact on how the manufacturers are doing business as it is related to shifting into material cost, the cost of increment, as well as the traditional assembly line and strategies related to product pricing (Slack, 2015). The effects of 3D printing, are analyzed as follows:

Savings of the material cost: 3D printing technology has potential to make the manufacturing method unlimited as well as exceptionally precise. As taking an example, the manufacturing industry wants a division made of aluminium, then a block is placed into CAD system, and extreme materials are cut away to create the part (Stadtler, 2015). Using this method, about 60-70 percent of the aluminium block is ended up based on complexity as well as shape required. The scrap is melted down, and then it is reused for further manufacturing processes. As 3D printing technology is additive, therefore the manufacturers are using minimum materials required to fabricate the parts (Gebler, Uiterkamp and Visser, 2014). As taken an example, a 3D printer is used to remove the process of melting down excess scrap material as well as wasted resources, make down the total cost of manufacturing material cost. It reduces capital tied up within the raw material and price to recover scrap.

Improvement in a calculation of incremental cost: As the initial cost of a 3D printer is million dollars, therefore this 3D printing technology reduces incremental unit prices for a company (Barnes, 2008). 3D printer costs far less than one finished throughout conventional manufacturing processes.

1.1 Concept of 3D printing for operations

Assembly line and pricing strategy: Within the manufacturing industry, sales team should work with the production team to ensure about delivery time are met and customers are satisfied from point of their sales through on time production as well as delivery. With use of 3D printing technology, the production team provides greater flexibility since the assembly line is set up time is being reduced to zero (Slack, Chambers and Johnston, 2010). Due to a flexibility of assembly line method, the sales representatives are push orders faster, and there are no requirements of waiting for finest production windows. The process of manufacturing is done at low cost and each order is treated like a rush order with shorter time for production. The companies are charging same price and increasing margin rate due to uniqueness of products available into 3D printing processes (Weller, Kleer and Piller, 2015) The impact of 3D printing on the manufacturing industry is merely theory. This technology continues to develop at rapid pace.

1.2 Use of 3D printing in Ford Motor Company

Ford Motor Company is using 3D printing since 1980s. The company purchases third 3D printer for rotor supports, damper housings and transmission cases. 3D sand printing is used for four-cylinder EcoBoost engines for fusion as well as brake rotors for an explorer. Ford 3d printed auto part is a prototype engine covers for Mustang (Greasley, 2009). Ford manufacturing company is focused on prototypes printed into plastic, and the company is looking for future 3D printed strategy when the production parts are printed on the metal.  

3D printing accelerates supply chain by manufacturing of non-critical parts on demand in order to maintain just in time (JIT) inventory. The biggest solution, which is provided by the additive manufacturing process, is capability to print JIT parts on demand (Greasley, 2009). Once the part is being digitised and stored in the file management system in virtual inventory. The part is reproduced by taking shorter lead-time and with no expensive minimum order, volume needs that often convey parts ordering and re-ordering (Beynon-Davies, 2009).

The manufacturing industry has capability to print parts on demand that provides an impact on price as well as flexibility. It permits the end users to print the parts for complex equipment that are structurally varied on a model as well as sub-model. Production of required parts for specific model means there is fewer inventories of parts, less price and warehouse spaces (Johnson, Scholes and Whittington, 2008). It also permits the manufacturer to move from just in time footing to the service equipment rather than just in case where the parts are stored in the warehouse. Therefore, it proves that the possibility of 3D printing technology is endless for the manufacturers.

1.2 Use of 3D printing in General Electric

General Electric is also a manufacturing industry that provides services from aircraft engines, generation of power and production of oil and gas equipment to medical, financing as well as industrial products. The company is also making investment into 3D printing. The industry builds more than 85,000 fuel nozzles for their new Leap jet engines. The nozzles are assembling from 20 various parts. It produces units in one metal piece, throughout successive layering of the materials (Weller, Kleer and Piller, 2015). This process is well organized and it creates designs.

1.2 Use of 3D printing in Ford Motor Company

The finished products are stronger and lighter than they are made on assembly line and without extreme temperatures in the engine. The 3D printing technology transforms the flexibility of manufacturing industry by permitting the company to slash time for development, elimination of tooling cost and simplification of production runs. Additive manufacturing helps the company to improve their materials productivity by elimination of waste, which accuse within traditional manufacturing and stimulate the configuration of a favourable circular economy.

3D printing faces some challenges before it is adopted by the manufacturing industry. One of the challenges is implementation of information system, which protects honesty of the new manufacturing procedure. The manufacturing industry should need to process an ERP application in their business (Brandenburg et al. 2014). This system has document control abilities, which is more fundamental.

The 3D printer requires setting up a workstation within ERP, with elements of enterprise asset management, which presents to make sure that maintenance is performed on it. It is required to make possible regular quality checks of parts, which are formed such that it can conclude that they conform to specifications as well as functional requirements (Slack, Chambers and Johnston, 2010). 3D printing is a new risk for the intellectual property. As use of this technology, the products are replicated rapidly; therefore, there is no need to develop of tools as well as fixtures. For a production of products using 3D printing to authentic, the customers are required to assure that the product is coming from a genuine supplier (Weller, Kleer and Piller, 2015).

Expansion of 3D printing provides the General Electric company influence with the device manufacturer with an opportunity to achieve growth in the industry. 3D printing helps in optimization of distributor operations. The primary advantage for the distributors is to sell the product directly to the end users. It also provides the distributors an edge in the customer service (Gebler, Uiterkamp and Visser, 2014). They can respond to the order quickly. For the turnover rate, the distributor can meet the demand in real time without longer lead-time.

2.0 Effects of 3D printing on Information Management

2.1 Concept of 3D printing for information management

The 3D printing had revolutionized the concept of the improved functionalities and it would form the support for the implementation of the improved technologies (Muth et al. 2014). The 3D printing had been renewed for implying the successful implication of the technology and its supporting factors. The 3D printing had been successively used in number of manufacturing companies for forming the support to the improved Information Management Operations. The adoption of the 3D printing had been largely helpful for most of the companies by using CAD application.

The software based printing of the required design models can be improved by the deployment of the technological advancements and processes. According to Schubert, Van Langeveld and Donoso (2013), the printing of the tools and machines had been deployed for implanting the active communication and development. The deployment of the improved technologies had formed the assistance for the development of the functional processes.

1.3 Use of 3D printing in General Electric

2.2 Use of 3D printing in Car Manufacturing Companies

The Car manufacturing companies had been using the 3D printing on a large scale for the deployment of the various parts of the car model (Gross et al. 2014). Even in designing of the cars, the CAD software had found its use for forming the accurate deployment of the operational models. The design of the car designs had been deployed for assisting the development of the car design and implication of the improved development of the Project Information Management Operations.

The car manufacturing companies had deployed software like CAD and Auto CAD for using the appropriate formation of the designs and parts required for construction of the car and automobiles. The 3D printing had upset the idea of the enhanced functionalities and it would frame the help for the execution of the enhanced innovations. The 3D printing had been restored for suggesting the effective ramifications of the innovation and its supporting elements. The 3D printing had been progressively utilized as a part of number of assembling organizations for shaping the help to the enhanced Information Management Operations.

The selection of the 3D printing had been to a great extent accommodating for the greater part of the organizations by utilizing CAD application. The product based printing of the required outline models can be enhanced by the arrangement of the mechanical headways and procedures (Ventola, 2014). The printing of the apparatuses and machines had been conveyed for embedding the successful correspondence and improvement. The organization of the enhanced advances had shaped the help for the improvement of the useful procedures.

2.3 Benefits of using 3D modeling for car manufacturing

The benefits of using CAD for the development of the car parts include the increase of the efficiency, more realistic designs, visualization of the scenario, and reduction of lead times. The Car fabricating organizations had been utilizing the 3D imprinting on a substantial scale for the arrangement of the different parts of the auto display (Bose, Vahabzadeh and Bandyopadhyay, 2013). Indeed, even in outlining of the autos, the CAD programming had discovered its utilization for framing the exact arrangement of the operational models.

The increase of the efficiency: The deployment of the CAD software for designing of the car parts and the car itself had been helpful for increasing the efficiency of the operations, and it would help in forming the improved functions for the improvement of the operations (Sun et al. 2013). The efficiency of the organization had been improved as the information processing would be helpful for developing the improved technology. The increment of the efficiency of the cars manufacturing had helped in forming the faster completion of the operations of the company.

More realistic designs: The outline of the auto plans had been sent for helping the advancement of the auto outline and ramifications of the enhanced improvement of the venture Information Management Operations (Compton and Lewis, 2014). The auto producing organizations had conveyed programming like CAD and Auto CAD for utilizing the suitable development of the plans and parts required for the development of the auto and vehicles. The designs have become more real, and it had helped the car companies for assisting the development of the improved designs and operations. The designs of the process would be helpful in developing the supportive development of the designs using improved graphics.

2.0 Impact of 3D printing on information management

Visualization of the scenario: The 3D modeling would be developed for implying the real time visualization of the scenario of car manufacturing. The 3D modeling using CAD would be helpful for developing the external features of the organizations. The visualization of the manufacturing scenario would be formed for assisting the development of the scenario of the operations for implementing appropriate development models.  

Reduction of lead times: The accuracy of the modeling had been increased due to the use of automatic CAD software (Inzana et al. 2014). The implication of the improved processes would be helpful for the development of the lead times and realize its use for an implication of the advanced processes. The formation of the CAD developed 3D printing would be helpful for implanting the successive development of the operations and formation of the improved processes.

2.4 Use of 3D modeling for spare parts of Audi

Audi had been using 3D modelling for developing its spare parts and designs of many cars and automobiles (Audi.com, 2017). The company had disrupted the whole supply chain by commercial production of the spare parts with the help of supply chain. The car manufacturing processes had been sufficiently developed for implementing the improvement strategies in Audi. The 3D printing had allowed Audi for forming strategic placement of the development plans. It had helped in reduction of the over compassion process of the development of the improved strategies, and it would help in the development of the improved technology. The formation of the improvement strategies would be helpful for compliance of the facilities of the development process (Chia and Wu, 2015). The Car fabricating organization, Audi had been utilizing the 3D imprinting on a substantial scale for the arrangement of the different parts of the auto display. Indeed, even in outlining of the autos, the CAD programming had discovered its utilization for framing the specific arrangement of the operational models.

2.5 Use of 3D printing at Blade for constructing chassis 

The car manufacturing company Blade had been using 3D printing for a development of the chassis for the cars. The 3D modeling would be developed for implying the real time visualization of the scenario of car chassis manufacturing. The 3D modeling using CAD would be helpful for developing the external features in chassis component for the organizations. The visualization of the manufacturing scenario would be formed for assisting the development of the scenario of the operations for implementing appropriate development models.  The blade had been using the prototype for the development of the chassis by using carbon cut fibre tubes.

The company would be able for developing the required testing on the prototype developed, and once the testing is cleared, the chassis engine would be ready for actual production. The auto producing organizations had conveyed programming like CAD and Auto CAD for utilizing the suitable development of the plans and parts required for the development of the auto and vehicles. The designs have become more real, and it had helped the car companies for assisting the development of the improved designs and operations (Billiet et al. 2014). The formation of the improvement strategies would be helpful for compliance of the facilities of the development process.

2.1 Role of 3D printing in inventory planning and control

Conclusion

It can be concluded from the report that the development of the 3D printing had been helpful for forming the improved technologies and it would be sufficiently helpful for implying the safety and development of the car manufacturing process. The car manufacturing organizations had been using 3D modeling for improving their operations and functions. The report had also helped in a realization of the impact of 3D printing in the car manufacturing organization.

The effects of 3D printing include savings of material cost, improvement in a calculation of incremental cost, and assembly line and pricing strategy. The Ford Motor Company had focused on prototypes printed into plastic, and the company is looking for future 3D printed strategy when the production parts are printed on the metal. The benefits of using CAD for the development of the car parts include the increase of the efficiency, more realistic designs, visualization of the scenario, and reduction of lead times. Audi, Blade, Ford, Mercedes, and many automobile companies had been using the 3D printing for implying the improved processes in the organization.

Some recommendations had been given for improving the use of 3D printing for forming the improved technologies in car construction companies, and they are,

  • Formation of the water tight Mesh
  • Removal of the non-Manifold Geometry
  • Review of the material design
  • Use of technologically advanced tools

References

Audi.com. (2017). Mission to the Moon - the lunar quattro moon rover. [online] Available at: https://www.audi.com/en/innovation/mttm/future_3D.html [Accessed 30 Jun. 2017].

Barnes, D. (2008). Operations Management: An International Perspective. Thomson Learning: London.

Beynon-Davies, P. (2009). Business Information Systems. Palgrave: Hampshire.

Billiet, T., Gevaert, E., De Schryver, T., Cornelissen, M. and Dubruel, P. (2014). The 3D printing of gelatin methacrylamide cell-laden tissue-engineered constructs with high cell viability. Biomaterials, 35(1), pp.49-62.

Bose, S., Vahabzadeh, S. and Bandyopadhyay, A., (2013). Bone tissue engineering using 3D printing. Materials Today, 16(12), pp.496-504.

Brandenburg, M., Govindan, K., Sarkis, J. and Seuring, S. (2014). Quantitative models for sustainable supply chain management: Developments and directions. European Journal of Operational Research, 233(2), pp.299-312.

Chia, H.N. and Wu, B.M. (2015). Recent advances in 3D printing of biomaterials. Journal of biological engineering, 9(1), p.4.

Compton, B.G. and Lewis, J.A. (2014). 3D?printing of lightweight cellular composites. Advanced materials, 26(34), pp.5930-5935.

Divergent. (2017). Blade Supercar - Divergent. [online] Available at: https://www.divergent3d.com/blade-supercar/ [Accessed 30 Jun. 2017].

Gebler, M., Uiterkamp, A.J.S. and Visser, C. (2014). A global sustainability perspective on 3D printing technologies. Energy Policy, 74, pp.158-167.

Greasley, A. (2009) Operations Management, Wiley, Chichester.

Gross, B.C., Erkal, J.L., Lockwood, S.Y., Chen, C. and Spence, D.M. (2014). Evaluation of 3D printing and its potential impact on biotechnology and the chemical sciences.

Inzana, J.A., Olvera, D., Fuller, S.M., Kelly, J.P., Graeve, O.A., Schwarz, E.M., Kates, S.L. and Awad, H.A. (2014). 3D printing of composite calcium phosphate and collagen scaffolds for bone regeneration. Biomaterials, 35(13), pp.4026-4034.

Johnson, G., Scholes, K. and Whittington, R. (2008) Exploring Corporate Strategy: Text and Cases. 8th ed. FT Prentice Hall.

Muth, J.T., Vogt, D.M., Truby, R.L., Mengüç, Y., Kolesky, D.B., Wood, R.J. and Lewis, J.A. (2014). Embedded 3D printing of strain sensors within highly stretchable elastomers. Advanced Materials, 26(36), pp.6307-6312.

Petrick, I.J. and Simpson, T.W. (2013). 3D printing disrupts manufacturing: how economies of one create new rules of competition. Research-Technology Management, 56(6), pp.12-16.

Schubert, C., Van Langeveld, M.C. and Donoso, L.A. (2013). Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs. British Journal of Ophthalmology, pp.bjophthalmol-2013.

Slack, N. (2015). Operations strategy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Slack, N., Chambers, S. and Johnston, S. (2010). Operations Management, 6th ed., Prentice Hall, Harlow.

Stadtler, H. (2015). Supply chain management: An overview. In Supply chain management and advanced planning (pp. 3-28). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Sun, K., Wei, T.S., Ahn, B.Y., Seo, J.Y., Dillon, S.J. and Lewis, J.A. (2013). 3D printing of interdigitated Li?Ion microbattery architectures. Advanced Materials, 25(33), pp.4539-4543.

Ventola, C.L. (2014). Medical applications for 3D printing: current and projected uses. Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 39(10), p.704.

Weller, C., Kleer, R. and Piller, F.T. (2015). Economic implications of 3D printing: Market structure models in light of additive manufacturing revisited. International Journal of Production Economics, 164, pp.43-56.

Zhang, L., Luo, Y., Tao, F., Li, B.H., Ren, L., Zhang, X., Guo, H., Cheng, Y., Hu, A. and Liu, Y. (2014). Cloud manufacturing: a new manufacturing paradigm. Enterprise Information Systems, 8(2), pp.167-187.

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