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Definition and Types of Poverty

Question:

Discuss about the Canadian Governmental Theories Of Poverty.

Poverty is a big problem in the whole world, because thousands of people die each year due to this big issue. Poverty is an issue that needs to be addressed by everybody in the world, but more specifically the Canadian government, because if Canada does not try to fix this issue of poverty, the Canadian society would continue to suffer. The purpose of this research paper is to try to understand what the theoretical and ideology framework is about poverty. To discuss its implication to social policy, so we can understand the reason for why the Canadian governmental parties have not stopped it. all the above mentioned areas of scope would properly be understood through answering this question. What are some theories of poverty and its implication for social policy in Canada and other members of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries

Before delving into the theoretical understandings of poverty. I would like to define poverty and its types. According to Dr. Kathleen, poverty is defined as “a lack of necessary goods and services” (Kathleen, 2016, p.586). when individuals, families and communities are not receiving the basic services required, then their quality of life would deplete and fall into the state of poverty. As discussed in class, there are two types of poverty: absolute poverty and relative poverty. Absolute poverty refers to the lack of means necessary to meet basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter.). Those in underdeveloped and developing countries will experience high probability of diseases and malnutrition. Relative poverty takes into consideration individual social and economic status compared to the rest of society. There are some demographics and ethnicities that suffer from this form of poverty in Canada.

However, there is no official government definition of poverty in Canada. As per Statistics Canada, that is the national statistical agency, poverty is referred as low level of income for Canadians thriving in straitened situation. There are essentially three different measures for low level of income implemented by the Statistics Canada, namely, Low Income Cut-offs (abbreviated as LICOs), Market Basket Measure (abbreviated as MBM) along with Low Income Measure (abbreviated as LIM). Another significant point to understanding inadequacy of income in Canada is that diverse dimensions of poverty are associated to levels of consumption, income levels, costs of different goods and services.

Poverty Trends in Canada and Its Social Welfare System

Study of trends of poverty in Canada show that for the past 25 years to 30 years the rate of poverty founded on LICO (considering before tax) have oscillated between 15 percent and 20 percent. Likewise, rates founded on LICO (after consideration of tax) have ranged between 10 percent and 15 percent. Therefore, it can be hereby stated that poverty condition in Canada is a continual and an enduring one.


These communities who are inflicted with this are the immigrants, single mothers, indigenous Canadian and people with disability. Mentioned in our class discussion that there is poverty all over the world, but it is more prevalent in some countries. How did this concept of poverty come to existence?  According to the class “poverty has existed in some form since humans first began to organize themselves into societies” (NimoBokore, personal communication, January 25, 2018) humans inherently like to form groups within themselves to help control their surroundings. They also like to have power and resources to help maintain their societal groups Canada has a concept known as the    social welfare system This system was discussed in class as a concept that “is compromised of policies and programs designed to help individuals, families and communities”(NimoBokore, personal communication, January 11, 2018). 

This concept of social welfare system stems from the liberal ideology. Canada is acknowledged particularly as a liberal state. Fundamentally, no nation can be considered to be an ideal, nevertheless, the combination of policies as well as programs upholding poverty reduction along with income security in Canada can be categorised as conservative and social democratic. Canada Social Model can help in gaining understanding regarding the practical and at the same time informative approach of policy development adopted in Canada. Essentially, four different tags of policy can aid in the process of explaining the Canadian state provision for the purpose of social welfare. The four different policies include universal policy of social provision for the whole population, social insurance adopted to act as a shield for encouraging labour market, policy of social inclusion by means of institution of social minimum for mitigating the influences of marginalization. Finally, another policy includes the scheme of social cohesion for the purpose of fostering social assimilation in societies, stressing on solution based on the place.

Combating the threats and challenges of poverty have always called for the action from diverse segments of the Canadian society, counting families, businesses, household, communities as well as government. However, a single sector is not expected to meet the threats of poverty. In essence, the constitutional division of particularly powers as well as responsibilities among Canadian governments has to a large extent formulated the federal role in the policy designed for combating poverty. Basically, provincial as well as territorial governments in Canada have got the constitutional responsibility to deliver both health as well as social benefits to their citizens. In this regard, there are a number of agreements (federal, provincial as well as territorial) that are developed for the purpose of transferring federal funds to both provinces together with territories. In essence, the contracts include Canada Assistance Plan and Health and Social Transfer (CHST) among many others. National anti poverty as well as income security policies in specifically Canada include programs namely social benefits (for instance, pension programs), child along with family benefits and assistance (for example, Canada Child Tax Benefits), social assistance programs, diverse employment associated advantages, regulations for minimum wages. In addition to this, programs for delivering support for the poor counts employment training programs, programs for economic development of community, childhood care and support for educational support together with home as well as nurse visit.

Different Perspectives of Liberal and Conservative Parties in Addressing Poverty


This very system had undergone a plethora of alteration after world war l and the Great Depression.  After the second world war the social welfare state began to boom. The Canadian government was necessarily more centralized during the war, and it remained so afterwards. In Canada there are multiple different governmental parties.  These parties are liberal, and conservative. Although I have only mention a couple parties here, Canada has plethora of other governmental parties.  The conservative party is on the right wing of the political spectrum. They believe in personal responsibility, limited government, free markets, individual liberty, traditional American values and a strong national defense. Believe the role of government should be to provide people the freedom necessary to pursue their own goals. Conservative policies generally emphasize empowerment of the individual to solve problems. This form of government does not believe in providing social assistance to help support the individual. With this conservative perspective let us take a look the issue of poverty.

This right-wing perspective believes that poverty is an individual phenomenon. On this view, people are in poverty because they are lazy, uneducated, ignorant, or otherwise inferior in some manner. When new immigrants immigrate to Canada who do not understand the culture, language and structure of this country and they are placed in low-income neighborhoods, does this view of poverty apply to them? The liberal party believe in government action to achieve equal opportunity and equality for all. It is the duty of the government to alleviate social ills and to protect civil liberties and individual and human rights.  This for form of government believes the role of the government should be to guarantee that no one is in need. Liberal policies generally emphasize the need for the government to solve problems. It is evident that the liberal party more into providing social assistance, while individual develop themselves in society. According to the current liberal government  “Poverty and inequality are not just problems for individual Canadians – all of Canada is affected. For Canadians, poverty makes it more difficult to get and stay healthy, and more difficult to find and keep good work.”(Liberal Government of Canada, 2018).

It is evident that the liberal party is willing to help reduce the issue of poverty, but the conservative party just wants to blame the individual for them being in poverty. Poverty is an issue that unfortunately is apparent is our Canadian society today. In our class discussion, we mention that “Canada is amongst the most humane and caring on the planet”(NimoBokore, personal communication, January 11, 2018). However, these two governmental power houses have their own sides and agendas that they are to busy focusing on and this issue of poverty is thrown under the rug. Policies developed and implemented, but there are still issues of Canadian suffering from lack of attention given to them by the Canadian governmental parties.  “Canada has the highest level of poverty amongst the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)”(NimoBokore, personal communication, January 11, 2018).

Let us now discuss who are the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development(OECD) According to their website “The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD). mission is to globally impact the economic and social welfare of every human being through encouragement of policies” (OECD ,2018)The OECD’s core values Objective: Our analyses and recommendations are independent and evidence-based. Open: We encourage debate and a shared understanding of critical global issues. Bold: We dare to challenge conventional wisdom starting with our own. Pioneering: We identify and address emerging and long term challenges. Ethical: Our credibility is built on trust, integrity and transparency. (OECD,2018) Their focus is to help change the lives of many human beings across the globe by joining the countries together

Canada is a very enriched country with a unique culture and background. Canada governs its citizens through policy. As mention before Canada has governmental parties that help maintain order in the country. Some of these parties we addressed early this paper were the conservative party and liberal party. Each government has their theory on what poverty is., but none of these political ideologies have solved the issue of poverty.The reason for this lack of accomplishment, since these governmental parties are only in place for about four years at time they could tackle so many issues. Poverty is nationwide issue that is not prioritized. From the conservative government poverty is blamed on the individual lack of ability to work. On the other hand the liberal government provide a residual approach to the issue, but does not solve the issue. According the global mail” social policy advocates is urging the Liberal government to be more aggressive in tackling poverty, releasing a detailed report Tuesday with specific actions they hope to see in the 2018 budget and the promised national poverty reduction strategy that will follow.” (Globe and mail,2017) We can not wait for another government to fix this overdue issue of poverty. The article continues to state”Campaign 2000 was formed in the early 1990s to urge governments to deliver on an all-party House of Commons resolution to end child poverty by the turn of the millennium. Nearly three decades later, the coalition says there are still 1.2 million children and families in poverty.”(Globe and mail,2017) It honestly feels like by not addressing the issue, the government wants to be in poverty.

Conclusion

In conclusion, It is clear the theories of poverty from a Canadian governmental perspective were two. The liberal government party which sees poverty, has a residual approach to it. The conservative governmental party does not even see it as an issue but blames the individual. Poverty implication on social policy and members of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD) countries is due to the short period of electoral time. These governments are only in power for four years at time. We need to have a longer period where political powers can make a difference with overdue issues of poverty. Poverty needs to be on the forefront of any political party. This issue detrimental to lives of many low-income living individuals, families and communities.

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My Assignment Help. Theoretical Frameworks And Social Policy Implications Of Poverty In Canada And OECD Countries [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2019 [cited 01 March 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/canadian-governmental-theories-of-poverty.

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