Concern and issue of gangs in America
A review of the history of the problem. Start by discussing the history of your problem. Remember your topic should be focused. You can't include the entire history of the topic, pick and choose what is appropriate for YOUR specific topic. A discussion of statistics may be appropriate to include here, it depends on the topic. For example, instead of domestic assault the problem might be â€œlack of treatment options for domestic assault victims. If this were the case, the history of your problem would not be a history of domestic assault, but a history of anger management counseling and other types of treatment options that have developed over time for domestic assault offenders. Then you would move into a discussion of how options like these are not readily available for most domestic assault victims.
A discussion of diversity issues/concerns related to the topic . This discussion will vary from topic to topic. You must identify issues of diversity associated with your particular problem. In the proposal stage you were reminded that you will need to discuss your topic from a diversity perspective, and soÂ now is the time to do it. It is important that you pick a topic that you can have a well developed discussion of this topic. Try and use information you learned in your diversity course. A discussion of statistics may be appropriate to include here, it depends on the topic. Using the above example again, perhaps it is easier for middle class women who have the resources to hire a psychologist to help them, but women who are of lower socioeconomic status have to rely on social services to provide this type of counseling. This is an issue related to diversity. Look for diversity issues and concerns in the articles you are reading. Ground your arguments in empirical evidence! This section needs to be at least a page long. Again, this section needs to be at least a page long.
A discussion of the ethics associated with this topic .Again, this will vary from topic to topic. There are no right or wrong answers about what the ethical issues might be; it is up to you to decide. In the proposal stage you were reminded that you will need to discuss your topic from an ethical perspective, and so now is the time to do it. It is important that you pick a topic that you can have a well developed discussion of this topic.Try and use information you learned in your ethics course. A discussion of statistics may be appropriate to include here, it depends on the topic. Considering the example above again, the ethical issue that comes to mind is that some in the court system may want to order domestic assault victims to seek treatment. The ethical problem comes in if women do not follow this order (in other words, do not comply with a court order) which would generally mean some type of punishment for lack of compliance. Many would argue that this is re-victimizing someone who is already a victim, which would raise serious ethical concerns. This section needs to be at least a page long. Again, this section needs to be at least a page long.
A discussion of any laws (federal, state, and/or local) associated with your topic. While this will also vary from topic to topic, there are likely some laws associated with each one. You might have to do a little bit of digging. These may be mentioned in your empirical articles, but if not, textbooks and websites may be good resources for you. You may also find this out from talking with practitioners in the field.For the example above, the laws may have to do with what types of treatment are mandated for offenders, and the student would have to see whether any of these could apply to treatment for victims as well.
A discussion of programs/strategies/policies that have been used to respond to the problem and if possible, a discussion of evaluations associated with it. Look for this type of information in your articles. You may also need to dig a little bit on the web. This may also come from talking with practitioners in the field.
a. What works?
b. What doesn't work?
c. What's promising (but needs more research)?
d. How do we know? This section should be at least two pages long.
A theory review. You need to select at least two theories that are used to either describe the problem and/or used to explain the current response(s) to the problem (see "Theories to Use" document in the course content). Each theory must be thoroughly described (this includes all the tenets of the theory and the theorists name associated with it, so you will want to discuss what the key independent and dependent variables are for each of your theories). This is not just a one paragraph summary of the theory, this is a thorough discussion of the theory. Use your books from CJS 320 and you may need to use additional sources to get more information. You should find an empirical study that used your theory to look at your crime if possible. After you describe the theory you need to correctly apply it to your crime problem.
Concern and issue of gangs in America
The word “Gang” originated from a German word Gangr which means “Going , a journey. In the USA Gangs can include various types of groups such as local street gangs, national street gangs, motorcycle gangs, prison gangs, organized crime gangs and ethnic gangs. Approximately 1.6 Million people belonged to a gang as of 2016. The figures also provided that close to 35,000 gangs where actively present in the country during such period. Various American gangs originated from urban areas and are still present in such areas. In various cased gangs such as the national street gangs originated in cities like Philadelphia, New York City, Miami, Los Angeles and Chicago. Such gangs latter shifted to other cities of the country.
The purpose of this paper is analyzing the gangs which are present in the USA. The paper provides the issues which originate of out the presence of such gangs. The ethical principles which are triggered in relation to the issues of the gangs are also discussed in the paper. The paper analyzes the programs and strategies in relation to gangs as well as conducts a theory review related to the indentified issues.
Gangs are evidently not a newly developed phenomenon. There are several issue and concerns which originate out of such gangs which needs to be addressed proactively to ensure peace in the society. According to the department of justice alone in California there are about 200000 gang members. In addition to this report statistics provided by the Los Angeles District Attorney's Office depict that there are around 135000 gang members in Los Angeles. These statistics suggest that there has been an increase of 280 to 3005 increases in the number of gang members in Australia. According to National Gang Center, on 21st September 2017, a female deputy district attorney had been beaten violently while she had been jogging in San Bernardino by members of a gang which have been put on a murder trial by her. She had suffered critical injuries and had been taken to the trauma center by the police. As stated by Brenneman (2011) although the overall rate of violence in USA is declining there is a continued rise in the number of gang violence incidents taking place across the country. The primary reason for such continued rise in violence is the rise in the number of gang members across the country and there is further no sign which depicts that the problem is going to be under control any soon. As stated by James Howell an expert of the National Gang Center, one more reason for the increase in gang violence is the disintegration of gangs in a number of smaller gangs. The concerns in relation to gangs in the country are significantly rising which is making the citizens feel unsafe on the streets as well as their homes.
Ethical issues related to Gangs in America
As stated by Seelke (2011) most of the gangs in America are comprised of the youth. There are unique ethical dilemmas which are faced by therapists which treating a young gang member. The source of such dilemmas results out of clinical problems which emerge inevitable while treating young persons. Some of the clinical issues while treating such population result out of trust problems as they have observed and experienced much violence and have generally participate in criminal activities. The ethical problems which emerge subsequently while treating the part of the population consists of ensuring confidentiality, compiling with the duty to protect and warn, and imposing the personal values of an individual.
As highlighted by Howell, (2011) social conditions are defined as an issue by the government through making expenditure towards them. The statement has been true to a large extent when it comes to gang violence. Densley (2013) provides that gang violence is not a kind of problem which can be solved merely by throwing money at it. There are significant ethical issues which arise out of the situation related to gangs. The primary issues is related to that of integrity. Integrity is required not only to avoid being associated with the gang violence itself but also to gain the trust of the members who needs to be treated. The issue of integrity is also significant towards working alongside with the police and social agencies striving to eradicate gang violence form the country. Another issue related to ethics which has a significant role to pay towards the gang members is that of justice. While the primary motive is to ensure that the members can be made to leave the gang life, it also needs to be noted that families who have been harmed by such violence are provided with justice. Another ethical principle related to gang violence is of responsibility and fidelity. Not only loyalty towards the members who are being treated has to be maintained but also the responsibility to protect the members exists.
There have been several initiatives taken by the governments in relation to addressing the issues and concerns related to gang violence in the country. A few of such legal measures include section 456 of the Gang Abatement and Prevention Act of 2007 which have been introduced on various occasions before in different forms. Another legislation is the Fighting Gangs and Empowering Youth Act of 2007 section 990. These measures involve diverse methods of addressing the situation such as creation of programs for the purpose of preventing any gang recruitment. Some of the state legislation in relation to gang violence include Arkansas § 6-15-1005 for the purpose of promoting equitable, accountable and safe public schools. California Ed Code § 51264 provides guidelines for the purpose of including in-service training program towards gang violence as prevention of drug and alcohol abuse. Louisiana § 15:1424 set out provisions in relation to setting up of advisory boards related to Gang prevention and Juvenile Delinquency. Minnesota § 145.958 for preventing youth violence in the state, Missouri § 161.650 for the establishment of adopting and identifying violence prevention programs and districts for the purpose of administration and state boards for the purpose of adopting programs for preventing violence. In California the legislature, governor and attorney general have made a corporation towards designing a wide array of laws towards addressing gang violence in relation to communities all over the state. This partnership had resulted in the enactment of California Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention Act which primarily focuses towards criminal gangs organizations.
Programs/strategies in relation to gangs
There have been several programs and initiatives which have been taken by the government as well as various Non government organizations towards addressing the situation of Gangs in America. This section of the paper describes and discusses strategies and programs initiated for addressing gang problems in America. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) have initiated a coordinated and comprehensive response to the gang situation in America. The OJJDP uses a combination of strategies which have been long supported by them which includes training, evaluation technical assistance, demonstration programs and research to combat gang problems. Funded and community bases evaluated programs have been developed by OJJDP which have the objective of coordinating enforcement, intervention and coordination of strategies. A national gang center had been initiated by the organization which takes a coordinated approach in relation to preventing gang crimes and limiting gang involvement. The NGC is a efficient entity which provides appropriate responses to the concerns of practitioners, public and the researchers.
There are a variety of strategies which are used by the criminal justice agencies for the purpose of tackling criminal activities related to gangs. These include prevention, intervention, suppression and assessment. Preventions mean programs, activities and services which have been initiated to prevent people taking part in gangs. The strategy of intervention is used to draw individuals who are closely associated with gangs out of them. This can be done by offering community service opportunity, law enforcement and coordination. Suppression involves activities like parole, probation, prosecution and law enforcement. The process of assessment involves finding out the extent of the problem. The process involves three steps, identifying people for data collection, collecting and analyzing data and finally preparing reports of the final findings (Glaser, 2017).
This section of the paper analyzes the problems related to gangs in America based in different theories. The primary theories which have been chose by the paper to discuss the problem are the general strain theory and the differential association theory. The theories have been used to provide an over view that why are people joining gangs. According to Robert Agnew the developer of the general strain theory there are for strains which result in a criminal activity (McShane, 2013). The society see strains as unjust. Strains are high in magnitude, strains are related to low level of social control and pressure and incentives are created by strains towards engaging in criminal activities. Thus according to the principles of the theory people join gangs because of strain. It has been provided by Thrasher F. M. (2013) that one of the primary reason why people join gangs is to seek protection from domestic abuse. Thus the prevention of people from joining gangs can be initiated by providing better living conditions and protection to those who are vulnerable to abuse and strains. For implanting such measures these individuals have to be identified initially.
As provided by Edwin Sutherland in his differential association theory criminal behavior is motivated in individuals through interactions with other while learning attitudes, techniques and values (Bruinsma, 2014). The theory emphasizes on how individuals learn to become criminal but not why they chose to become criminals. Thus as per the principles provided by the theory the neighborhood is a significant influence through which individuals learn to be a part of a gang through interaction with gang member. As the gangs are present in the neighborhood interaction with such people take place and the individuals are influenced to join gangs.
While the rate of overall criminal activities in America are declining there has been a constant rise in the number of gangs in the country which is resulting in criminal activities. There are various reasons which have been indentified in relation to why and how people join gangs. These are mainly due to abuse, need of protection strains, customs and neighborhood influence. There have been various programs and strategies taken by both government and non government organizations to address the program. These include prevention, assessment, suppression and intervention. As stated by Greg Boyle “even gang members imagine a future which does not include gangs”. The strategies if properly implemented can address the problem effectively.
Brenneman, R. (2011). Homies and hermanos: God and gangs in Central America. Oxford University Press.
Bruinsma, G., 2014. Differential Association Theory. In Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice (pp. 1065-1075). Springer New York.
Densley, J. A. (2013). How gangs work. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Glaser, B. (2017). Discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Routledge.
Holmes, R. M., Tewksbury, R., & Higgins, G. (2011). Introduction to gangs in America. CRC Press.
Hong, J. S. (2010). Understanding Vietnamese youth gangs in America: An ecological systems analysis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 15(4), 253-260.
Howell, J. C. (2011). Understanding and combating gangs in America.
Maxson, C. (2011). Street gangs. Crime and public policy, 158-182.
McShane, M. ed., 2013. An Introduction to Criminological Theory. Routledge.
Rodgers, D., & Baird, A. (2014). Understanding gangs in contemporary Latin America.
Seelke, C. R. (2011). Gangs in central America. Current Politics and Economics of South and Central America, 4(1), 67.
Thrasher, F. M. (2013). The gang: A study of 1,313 gangs in Chicago. University of Chicago Press.
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:
My Assignment Help. (2021). Issues And Ethical Considerations Of Gangs In America. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/cjs490-criminal-justice-senior-capstone/gangs-in-america.html.
"Issues And Ethical Considerations Of Gangs In America." My Assignment Help, 2021, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/cjs490-criminal-justice-senior-capstone/gangs-in-america.html.
My Assignment Help (2021) Issues And Ethical Considerations Of Gangs In America [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/cjs490-criminal-justice-senior-capstone/gangs-in-america.html
[Accessed 04 December 2023].
My Assignment Help. 'Issues And Ethical Considerations Of Gangs In America' (My Assignment Help, 2021) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/cjs490-criminal-justice-senior-capstone/gangs-in-america.html> accessed 04 December 2023.
My Assignment Help. Issues And Ethical Considerations Of Gangs In America [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2021 [cited 04 December 2023]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/cjs490-criminal-justice-senior-capstone/gangs-in-america.html.