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Two-Way Process of Communication

Discuss about the Communication Apprehension Among International.

This essay is a self-reflection assessment of my communication skills which is relied on the data generated through five diagnostic techniques. It also emphasizes on the two way process of communication. It also explains the concern generated by different techniques of diagnostic. The concern regarding communication is identified within me, which could be complex to develop my personal communication. These issues are anxiety when speaking in the public and giving the presentation in depth and low level of intercultural communication apprehension. In addition, this essay presents the literature review to focus on the key theories and concepts associated with interaction concern. By the reflective procedure, understanding on practices has increased by me that could be applied by me when dealing with concern of communication. After the review of literature, these practices will also demonstrated by me when constructing the action plan.    

I have applied several diagnostic techniques for assessing my communication in the different interacting situation. The first technique was self-perceived communication competence questionnaire that is a sign of how an individual assess their own competencies of communication when facing overabundance communication situations among a group of receivers.  

The self-perceived communication competence scale was established to collect the data associated with how competent individuals feel in sort of communication way with a different type of receivers. Early self-report determines the competencies that are structured to assess the competencies of developers and evaluates the elements of communication competence. This scale is created to demonstrate the communication competence of the participants (Shi, Brinthaupt, and McCree, 2015). Since, an individual makes a judgment regarding communication (such as whether they will even do it) hence it could be their perception about outside observers. It is significant that users of SPCC address that users are not a determinant of real communication competence yet it is a measure of perceived competence. While these two types of measures could be substantially associated, they are not the same thing. This measure estimates that above .85 score is good alpha reliability and demonstrates the strong validity. This measure also indicates the substantial predictive validity (Lie, 2018). In addition, a score of higher SPSS demonstrates the top interacting capability of self-perceived and common way of communication (public, dyad, meeting, and group) with receivers (friend, associate, and visitors)

Another technique was PRICA (personal report of Intercultural communication apprehension) which measures the feeling of an individual with regards to communication by asking to people for assessing the diverse communication condition and how one would act in them.  This technique is composed of twenty-four statement regarding the feeling of communication with other individuals. In this way, the score should be between 24 and 120 where below 24 score and above 120 score shows the mistakes in the computing score. Further, results which come amongst 83 and 120 demonstrate the maximum extent of CA and results which come amid 55 and 83 illustrates the moderate extent of CA as well as results which come amongst 24 and 55 exhibits the low extent of CA (communication apprehension).  

Diagnostic Techniques for Assessing Communication Competence

Nonverbal immediacy is a term which is practiced for assessing the attitude used to signal positive feelings with regards to another person. The notion relied on the performance of Albert Mehrabian completed in the 1970s. He is the foundation of renowned statistic that about 97% of communication is non-verbal. The non-verbal immediacy scale determines the difference between people of non-verbal immediacy. It was established by Virginia Richmond, James McCrotsky, and Aaron Johnson in the year of 2003. This interactive is the version of self-report. It is an advanced measure of non-verbal immediacy as a self-report (Hammick, and Lee, 2014). Alpha reliability projected that about .90 score must be projected. It determines the more validity as compared to earlier developed instruments as it has large amount of diverse contains. The expected validity of this instrument is also greater.

While applying this technique then, there would be need for identify distinguishes in self-reports results which come amongst males with females. It is statistically with socially vital for an individual. Further, extensive discrepancy in outcome of this mechanism could be accredited to natural. It also estimated whether these disparity are authentic (where, females could be really more nonverbal as compared to males) or role of social attractiveness (where, females believe they must be more rapid as compared to males think they should be) or a role of real notion has not yet been estimated (Bertsch, 2016).

The fourth technique was scale of talkaholic that determines the obsessive interaction. Certain individuals are obsessed to communicate. They are extremely spoken individual with have high complexity being calm in the existence of another individual. The score should be between 10 and 50. There is a large number of individuals whose result comes amongst 30 are borderline talkholics with could be competent for controlling the interacting several times. However, occasionally, these individuals discover themselves in the circumstances whether it is complex to be calm in case of obtaining the losses from communicate (Arquero, Fernández-Polvillo, Hassall, and Joyce, 2017). An individual with scores above 40 is talkaholics. They are actually obsessive communicators.  

The fifth technique was tolerance for disagreement scale that was intended to assess the degree by which people can abide another individual incompatible with what the people thinks to be factual. This aspect is homogenous to that of argumentativeness. It is stated that conflict in the interpersonal communication is in the wider area shows the tolerance of disagreement of the communicators. It also depicts the degree of liking between an individual. Alpha reliability expects 0.85 for the Tolerance for Disagreement scale (Perrault, and Silk, 2015). In addition, above 46 scores demonstrates the high TFD and below 32 indicates the low TFD. Scores amid 32 and 46 show the moderate TFD.

Self-Perceived Communication Competence Questionnaire

The outcomes from all the questionnaires were obtained through diagnostic tools. These results were quite accurate and I have gained my learning about my communication style as well as a preference for them. In Self-Perceived Communication Competence, I have obtained 78 score which indicates that I have average Self-Perceived Communication Competence. It is also stated that I have relaxed feeling while converse with my associates and making communication on regular time. On the other hand, I feel sometimes uncomfortable while converse in the public and amongst large set of individuals as well as meetings (Goldman, Martin, Bryand, DiClemente, and Ditrinco, 2014).   

From the outcome of PRICA (Personal Report of Communication Apprehension), I have addressed that moderate anxiety have found on me while converse in a meeting and public. I have also found that my overall CA (communication apprehension) result was 28 which, come under the category of low extent of ICA (intercultural communication apprehension) (LaRochelle, and Karpinski, 2016).

The Nonverbal Immediacy Scale Self Report (NIS-S) score of ? depicts that I experienced a high level of communication apprehension when giving a presentation that is associated with Nonverbal Immediacy. The fourth diagnostic technique, talkaholic scale provided me with a score of 32 demonstrating the borderline talkholic. Lastly, the tolerance for disagreement score provides me a score of 47 which indicates the high scale of tolerance for disagreement (Rimkeeratikul, Zentz, Yuangsri, Uttamayodhin, Pongpermpruek, and Smith, 2016).

It is analyzed that the score for Self-Perceived Communication Competence and Personal Report of Communication Apprehension comes in the range of average and low. Hence, I observed that there is a requirement for myself to enhance those fields of interaction whether I highly agreed that it is beneficial for communicating at the business level. I should try to decline the extent of apprehension from average to low. 

In case of PRICA (Personal Report of Communication Apprehension), I always try to eliminate the conflicts with disagreement from the intercultural interaction and also making efforts for resolving the problem tactfully. However, I believed disagreement is predictable in case of business particularly, in judgment. Further, it is found that communication could create complexity in case of generating disagreeing beliefs (Sabri, and Qin, 2014).    

I would like to show different experience, which were happened in last six months. This experience reflects on anxiety in public speaking and delivering a presentation in a meeting. First illustration was related to when I was deal as legal manager in company of business law. In this company, I was allocated the project for interpreting the findings to improve the process of sending responses, pleas with claims to courts in the predetermined due date. Moreover, I have to interpret the outcome obtained by the survey and meeting with the partners (Kim, Hwang, and Cho, 2018).                                       

Personal Report of Intercultural Communication Apprehension (PRICA)

Earlier to this meeting, I felt fairly anxious as I understood that I have required articulating my results in an appropriate manner as my associate, all of whom are legal representatives with having an inadequate understanding about the management tasks. Moreover, evaluating my earlier experience, legal representatives is difficult audience and this only increased the demands for interacting with delivering the presentation as precisely and visibly as feasible. When I was ready for presentation then, I found it complex for concentrating and remembering the content of communication (Amiri, and Puteh, 2018).

The second example of a communication problem was associated with the intercultural communication. When I was working in the multinational company of Australia then I faced difference in behavior of people due to intercultural communication. Behavioral difference amid me and my colleagues of different cultures could cause misunderstandings. Australian culture has guiding principle regarding what is considered in a feasible attitude.  Under Australian cultures, demonstrating in the eye of an individual at the time of talking could show my rude behavior whereas under the other culture non-participation from doing so, shows the rude behaviour (Coetzee, Schmulian, and Kotze, 2014).     

As per the view of Magsamen-Conrad Tetteh, and Lee (2016), communication apprehension could be referred as a fear and anxiety with regards to expected and unexpected communication circumstances within the individual and set of people. Because of these unfavorable associations regarding communication, a person with the elevated phase of communication apprehension will refrain from willingly engaging themselves in oral communication.

In support of this, Aeni, Jabu, Rahman, and Strid (2017) stated that there is four type of communication apprehension that is anxiety associated with audience, situation, context, and audience. Trait-related anxiety defined as an individual who is avoiding public speaking due to inadequate understanding and experience however with practice will be competent to perform in the public speaking movement.   

Machell, Blalock, Kashdan, and Yuen, (2016) stated that public speaking is defined as the converse of an individual to communicate amongst the audience because of low apprehension amongst the speaker. In addition to this, context communication is defined by the novelty situation and uncertainty. Along with this, situation anxiety can be developed through integration of components like social, psychological with cultural components. The competence for interacting is theoretically different from the communication apprehension. But, there are strong unfavorable relations amid factors. The key cause of communication concern demonstrated the low competencies of an individual to temporarily overcome their anxiety and keep the performance in disagreeable circumstances and in the unfavorable relations.

Nonverbal Immediacy Scale Self Report (NIS-S)

On the other hand, Barnett and Johnson (2016) discussed that public speaking competence is required in the life of an organization. Their investigation also shows that a predominant component of success in the professional career and developing the creditability and competency to interact fluently. From the investigation outcomes, it was also assessed that the degree to which communication apprehension impact the action of people is prominent. Consequently, how important it is to lower the extent of communication apprehension so it does not indicate the extensive unfavorable implication for individual’s professional competence within an organization (Noga, and Rupert, 2017).

As per the view of Simons and Riley (2014), culture aids the people for assessing the way of observing the viewpoints on the world, individuals, and incident. It also construes the way of beliefs, ideas, and life that is shared by an individual of the same society and goes through from one development to another. As a significant concern for all individual, engaged on the basis of social life and incorporating the basis of organizational structure. Reflecting the homogenous or different culture structure in which people are engaged in the communication procedure is regarded as an initial phase of intercultural communication.

In contrast to this, Oommen (2014) stated that the aspect of intercultural communication is referred as a communication procedure that exists between groups with different cultures. These groups are stated to be diverse from each other with regards to world perspectives, behavior patterns, norms, and values. An individual could be occasionally unwilling to interact with each other or be nervous during the procedure of communication because of cultural differences in the intercultural communication procedure. This apprehension is called as the intercultural communication anxiety.

Sham and Azmi (2018) stated that intercultural communication anxiety is referred as nervousness and fear of an individual who could be created in the face of interacting with a people with different culture. Intercultural communication nervous may create in certain cases. There are two important things named uncertainty and anxiety. People who have high anxiety feel themselves in uncertain circumstances because, during the interpersonal communication procedure, the person or situation they encounter is different and new (Munz, and Colvin, 2018). Thus, it causes the nervousness level of individuals to increase more.

In favored to this, Hsu and Huang (2017) opined that there are different components which may affect the level of uncertainty feeling under different elements such as the shared communication network, the similarity amid people communicating, social belonging and the noticeability amongst foreigners interacting. When a person in the intercultural communication media is competent to realize the culture is different from his then they may be less shy and accordingly experience less communication anxiety.   

Talkaholic Scale

After determine the two communication skills issues, I make action plan for overcoming the issues in next six months. Initially, maintain a personal journal would be effective thought procedure to maintain my each daily activity as it would support to accomplish my goal and support to react on front of others. In addition, it is also analyzed journal would be imperative for effectively demonstrates areas that required to change. It would also support to make an effective plan for run in the future. I improved my skills effectively by considering the journal article as it supports to make framework for upcoming plan (Hashemi, Hadavi, and Valinejad, 2016). I have discussed with my tutors regarding my speech anxiety issue and follow their recommendations as it support to overcome my speech anxiety issue effectively. I hired a mentor who has more than 20 years of experience in the diploma professional coaching. He has good experience in overcoming various communication issues. I would think to participant in their coaching class where I will improve my presentation skills and confidence level at the time dealing with others. It is also analyzed that mental practices and approaches could be imperative for effectively improving athlete’s performance (Kim, 2015). In addition, it is also analyzed that I would be capable improve my communication skills and make enable to deal with the different situation of communication issues. In addition, it is also analyzed that I would familiar with literature about communication anxiety and interpersonal battles. I have used different books like CA, and efficiency, whole guidelines for public speaking, with dealing interpersonal conflict. In addition, it is also analyzed that I have used interpersonal communication course to enhance my communication skills (McCroskey, 2015). It will also direct impact on improving my professionalism and significance in communication in the organization. Moreover, this course could be supportive for improving the capability to modify communication style as it could be relied on communication circumstances. I will also join course of Public Speaking wherein I trained by “the voice business” as it would support to decline my public speaking anxiety and enhance more awareness about the ways of presentation among huge amount of people (Neuliep, 2017). This course also offer ways by which I gain my understanding about the non-verbal communication technique as it could make effective communication. I will be capable to make effective speech. In addition, it is also analyzed that after six months completion, I realized that I gained my understanding towards future presentation at college in the organization. I understood that learning communication could be imperative for improving my communication skills and interpersonal skills that could be used by me in future (Shi-Yong, and Ali, 2015).

Gantt Chart showing Action Plan

June-18

July-18

August-18

September-18

October-18

November-18

Reading Journal articles

Developing Memo

     

Discussing with Mentor

going on crowd

       

Participating in Cultural Fest

     

Weekly communication with strangers

Tolerance for Disagreement Scale

Conclusion

From the above interpretation, it can be concluded that this essay presents the concise perception of different diagnostic technique of communiction that were used by me to collect the data to identify my issue in communication. Further, different communication concerns were addressed such as low intercultural communication with speaking in public. These issues are associated with the communication apprehension aspects and theories as well as disagreement regarding intercultural communication. It can be also summarized that intercultural communication is wider aspect which is discussed in the literature review. It is also found that the verbal with non-verbal communication, emotions, communication and listening also creates complexity in intercultural communication. It can be also evaluated that CA addresses different type of communication apprehension with competencies for interacting and speaking in the public. In the last, an action plan was developed based on the outcome of the investigation.

References

Aeni, N., Jabu, B., Rahman, M. A., & Strid, J. E. (2017). English Oral Communication Apprehension in Students of Indonesian Maritime. International Journal of English Linguistics, 7(4), 158.

Amiri, F., & Puteh, M. (2018). Oral Communication Apprehension among International Doctoral Students. English Language Teaching, 11(2), 164-171.

Arquero, J. L., Fernández-Polvillo, C., Hassall, T., & Joyce, J. (2017). Relationships between communication apprehension, ambiguity tolerance and learning styles in accounting students. Revista de Contabilidad, 20(1), 13-24.

Barnett, M. D., & Johnson, D. M. (2016). The perfectionism social disconnection model: The mediating role of communication styles. Personality and Individual Differences, 94, 200-205.

Bertsch, K. R. (2016). Digitally Mediated: Exploring the Correlation Between Hyper-reliance on Electronically-Mediated Communication, Verbal Communication Apprehension, and Interpersonal Relationship Skills. UK: Gonzaga University.

Coetzee, S. A., Schmulian, A., & Kotze, L. (2014). Communication apprehension of South African accounting students: The effect of culture and language. Issues in Accounting Education, 29(4), 505-525.

Goldman, Z. W., Martin, M. M., Bryand, M. C., DiClemente, R. K., & Ditrinco, E. A. (2014). College students' communication apprehension, receiver apprehension, and views about discussing condom use. North American Journal of Psychology, 16(2), 277.

Hammick, J. K., & Lee, M. J. (2014). Do shy people feel less communication apprehension online? The effects of virtual reality on the relationship between personality characteristics and communication outcomes. Computers in Human Behavior, 33, 302-310.

Hashemi, Z., Hadavi, M., & Valinejad, M. (2016). Communication Apprehension and Fear of Physician in the Patients Referring to the Clinics of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. Medical Ethics Journal, 10(37), 37-47.

Reflective Procedure and Literature Review

Hsu, C. F., & Huang, I. (2017). Are International Students Quiet in Class? The Influence of Teacher Confirmation on Classroom Apprehension and Willingness to Talk in Class. Journal of International Students, 7(1), 38-52.

Kim, J. Y. (2015). The effect of personality, situational factors, and communication apprehension on a blended communication course. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 8(S1), 528-534.

Kim, Y. H., Hwang, K. H., & Cho, O. H. (2018). Simulation education with problem-based learning: Effect on nursing students' communication apprehension. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 46(1), 151-160.

LaRochelle, J. M., & Karpinski, A. C. (2016). Racial differences in communication apprehension and interprofessional socialization in the fourth-year doctor of pharmacy students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 80(1), 8.

Lie, T. (2018). The Effect of Active Learning Strategies on Communication Apprehension in Information Systems Students in Taiwan. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 61(1), 101-109.

Machell, K. A., Blalock, D. V., Kashdan, T. B., & Yuen, M. (2016). Academic achievement at the cost of ambition: The mixed results of a supportive, interactive environment on socially anxious teenagers. Personality and Individual Differences, 89, 166-171.

Magsamen-Conrad, K., Tetteh, D., & Lee, Y. I. (2016). Predictors of disability-related attitudes: considering self-esteem, communication apprehension, contact, and geographic location. Psychology research and behavior management, 9, 329.

McCroskey, J. C. (2015). Introduction to rhetorical communication. UK: Routledge.

Munz, S. M., & Colvin, J. (2018). Communication Apprehension: Understanding Communication Skills and Cultural Identity in the Basic Communication Course. Basic Communication Course Annual, 30(1), 10.

Neuliep, J. W. (2017). Intercultural communication: A contextual approach. USA: Sage Publications.

Noga, T., & Rupert, T. (2017). Reducing Written Communication Apprehension for Students in Tax Classes. In Advances in Accounting Education: Teaching and Curriculum Innovations (pp. 57-97). USA: Emerald Publishing Limited.

Oommen, D. (2014). The relationships among perceptions of social support, Intercultural Communication Apprehension (ICA), and conflict management preferences in the context of cultural adaptation. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 43(3), 215-237.

Perrault, E. K., & Silk, K. J. (2015). Reducing communication apprehension for new patients through information found within physicians’ biographies. Journal of health communication, 20(7), 743-750.

Rimkeeratikul, S., Zentz, M., Yuangsri, N., Uttamayodhin, P., Pongpermpruek, S., & Smith, S. (2016). Communication apprehension in L1 and L2 among first-year students of a graduate program for executives in a public university. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 9(1), 1-10.

Sabri, U., & Qin, T. Y. (2014). Communication apprehension among Nilai college students. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 5(5), 46-49.

Sham, R. M., & Azmi, M. N. L. (2018). Causal Relationship Between Oral Performance and Communication Apprehension. KnE Social Sciences & Humanities, 3(4), 769-783.

Shi, X., Brinthaupt, T. M., & McCree, M. (2015). The relationship of self-talk frequency to communication apprehension and public speaking anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 75, 125-129.

Shi-Yong, P., & Ali, M. S. B. S. (2015). Communication Apprehension: A Comparison between English Majors and Non-majors in China. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 4(6), 190-195.

Simons, K. A., & Riley, T. J. (2014). Communication apprehension in accounting majors: Synthesis of relevant studies, intervention techniques, and directions for future research. In Advances in Accounting Education: Teaching and Curriculum Innovations (pp. 1-32). USA: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

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