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Risks

Discuss about the Dynamic Analysis of Reciprocating Compressors Package for Optimal Gas Lift Injection?

The problems relating to the piping vibration are either onshore or offshore which sets the production, pipelining stations, refineries for a better setups of the petrochemical plants. There have been small reciprocating compressors from a varying power of 5 to 30 horsepower to handle all the automotive applications. A major facility has been given to the owners who are directly very sensitive to all the risks due to the consequences that are associated with releasing the product from a ruptured piping.

Some of the examples for the same are that there are highlights of the situations, where the failure in piping has generally caused the massive explosion with a loss to life and other environmental damages with the offshore spills and shutdowns.  

A complete discharge of pressures ranges from a very low to a higher pressure level which can handle the air compression along with multi-stage double acting compressors. They have been efficiently to handle the reciprocating compressors which are used to move pistons. Vibration can even cause a change in the problems of reliability and proper equipment setup with the fatigue depending on piping process which includes different branching connections as well as relief lines and ports of instrumentation, with nozzles, drains and valves. A set procedure with the pumping package has been a major issue on reliability which address to the scope of work.

There have been certain piping risks which could be evaluated using the piping system assessment:

A Small bore connections (SBCs) and branch attachments have been used to connect the entire process of piping.

There are certain ionic based compressor to handle the hydrogen compressing based on the liquid piston which handled the piston metal diaphragm compressor.

A proper rotatory screw compressor is able to handle the displacement to force all the gas to enter into the small space. This is important for the continuous operational pattern with the commercialized industrial applications which are set under the changing pressure.

There has been a failure relating to the bypass lining, PSV or the relief linings.

A complete transient has been set to start, stop and work on the emergency shutdown, closing and opening system to determine the excessive momentum changes in the flow of gas and liquid that results in stress.

The fretting and all damage relates to support piping.

Approach

The stress of pipe is analyzed under different conflicts, related to designing requirements of vibration. This has been set under the evolvement of Mechanical Vibration Design, which adds stiffness to the entire controlling vibration process. There has been increased flexibility for all the thermal analysis with the piping stress to analyze the structure of all the risks along with a major experience on the failure of stress.

A complete spacing on the offshore has been producing major facility patterns for the compressor which is limited to the piping layout and is very compact. There is a need to create a challenge for controlling the piping vibration process.

The system is elevated with a connection to rotate machinery to all cooler’s overhead, with vessels and headers. The entire process is elevated in the compressor, which typically sets a flexible range of connected piping under the difficulty setup and stiff piping which is supported to prevent the vibrational process.

All the requirements relating to safety have to work on double block and bleeding which involves the bore connections with the compressor. There is a configuration setup with an overhung weight that creates a change in stress and failure.

This EI guideline has been for a better staging approach

A qualitative assessment is based on the tool screening to proper evaluate the sources and other ranking orders of risks with the compressing pattern.

A quantitative assessment is applied to a higher risk determination to hold the failure and involve in addressing a higher risk area with certain corrective actions.

All the survey has been performed onsite and needs to be measures as per the requirements to refine the assessment depending on the as-built facility, or when a newer facility is said to complete.

The main focus has been on the systems to handle safety with business criticality. All the areas need to plant and assure the identification of potential issues. A proper air lifting uses the compressed air pattern to properly hold the operations like the underwater technology. This is important to calculate and handle the single point injection of air into the stream of liquid which normalizes through the bottom of the string system.

Front End Engineering Design (FEED) Stage.  There has been a variation design review which is for a better design of the piping. The entire structure is based on the development of a better machinery system which includes the skids and the foundation plan. The valuable input to the controlling if vibration is set for the different tasks in order to handle a proper process of designing. There are deliverables which have been set for a better vibrational scope of engineering and dynamics, with certain methodology and guidelines. The entire scheduling and designing considerations are based on the scope which includes the piping and a better supportive system for entire reciprocation of the compressors and pumps. A centrifugal compression and pumping is based on the structural support development.  

Front End Engineering Design (FEED) Stage

The integrated solution in compression packaging has been to align different applications and coordinate through all the designs for creating a technically sound system. This compression approach is able to handle and provide maintenance, which decrease the downtime process.

Detailed Design Stage. The work scope for this includes:

A proper assessment of the piping system which is able to identify the locations with a higher likelihood of failure (LOF) per Energy Institute approach.

As per the evaluative design, certain standards have been set for SBS and other support of piping which are able to handle the entire dynamic loading structure.

It is able to work on the integration of risks factor.

The implementation is based on the analysis, which figure out FIV, AIV, and Pulsation Analysis.

The calculations allow the entire vibration to limit to a higher LOF SBCs.

The integration of the vibrational pattern is based on the different project aspects to handle the reciprocating equipment setup with better system of piping and a proper centrifugal equipment, which is completely able to set a dynamic foundation and structural development.

A testing plan is prepared for all the measurements of field baseline measurements (this is to work on the phases of commissioning and operations).

With the rotatory vane compressors, certain blades have been inserted to handle the radial slots in the rotor which could properly mount the offset in either a circular direction or a complex shape. The compressor has been devised to handle the series of different increase and decremented values which could be handling the piston compressors with different technologies. A relative lower pressure for the material movement of bulk factors is able to handle the rotatory vane compressor and suit to drive the electric motor for better operations.

A proper conduction of the baseline vibration is important to hold the verification of different levels. A proper measurement of mechanical natural frequencies (MNFs) is set for the connecting setup which inspects the piping to support all the pipe strains and alignment. This is important for a conduction of transient vibration testing. To power the compressor, there are different motor systems which are able to handle the flow of gas turbines and the centrifugal flow, which is a part of all the jet engines. For a larger compressor, there are steam turbines along with certain electric motors, which are available for the single phased alternating current. The automobiles and other power compressors are important to take care of the power output of the diesel which could be increased by the proper in taking of air. There have been engines and other power compressors to handle the power setup which use all the exhaust gases to properly drive the connected turbine to compressor.

A proper conducting process needs to work on the specialists with the dynamics and necessary experience to hold the software tools and capabilities.

Conclusion

To address the integrating risks pattern of piping, vibration is set which facilitate the operations implemented under the Piping Vibration and Integrity Assessment (piping vibration audit). Taking into account, all the gas injection and compression, it has been seen that there is a loss of energy to all the components of compressor based on work appearance. In order to avoid all the risks, certain benefits are given to the employees for managing the operations, staff and shareholders as a whole. Some of the benefits generally include:

The increased approach for safety

The reduction in the risk to environment.

An increment in the operational uptime.

Reduction in the unplanned downtime and other failures.

A proper accuracy for data integration and management

Overall operation to reduce the risk development.

References

Eberle, K., & Harper, C. (2007). Dynamic Analysis of Reciprocating Compressors on FPSO Topside Modules. Part I & II, Compressor Tech Two, 10-16.

Eberle, K., & Harper, C. (2007). Dynamic Analysis of Reciprocating Compressors on FPSO Topside Modules. Part I & II, Compressor Tech Two, 10-16.

Salman, Y., Wittfeld, C. A., Lee, A. K., Yick, C., & Derkinderen, W. (2009). Use of Dynamic Simulation To Assist Commissioning and Operating a 65-km-Subsea-Tieback Gas Lift System. SPE Production & Operations, 24(04), 611-618.

Almasi, A. (2014). Compressors for Specialized Applications. Chemical Engineering, 121(6), 47.

Maretti, A., Giovannini, M., Pierluigi, N., & uovo Pignone, N. (1982). Shop Full-Load testing of Centrifugal Compressors. In Proceedings of the 11th Turbomachinery Symposium.

Bustos, E., & Mossolly, M. (2015, December). Shop Testing of Major Turbomachinery in Oil & Gas EPC Projects-Cost Savings & Schedule Impact. In International Petroleum Technology Conference. International Petroleum Technology Conference.

Devold, H. (2013). Oil and gas production handbook: an introduction to oil and gas production. Lulu. com.

Giampaolo, T. (2010). Compressor handbook: principles and practice. The Fairmont Press, Inc..

Stewart, M., & Arnold, K. (2008). Gas-liquid and Liquid-liquid Separators. Gulf Professional Publishing.

Stahley, J. S. (2005). Dry gas seals handbook. PennWell Books.

PART, A. Engineering Mathematics–III (Common to all Branches). Strength of Materials, 3(1), 0.

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