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What Are The Roles And Responsibilities Of The Leaders To Manage The Real Life Business Scenario?

What Challenges The Leaders Have Been Facing In Managing The Real Life Management Scenario?

How The Emerging Challenges Have Been Creating The Considerable Impact On Real Life Business Scenario?

Research Rationale

Management leaders face the day to day challenges in real life management scenario. Especially, the emerging advancements in the business world have created the dynamic situation for the leaders. According to Bartlett and Beamish (2018), majority of the leaders from the middle and executive level has been facing most of the challenges in the real life management scenario. Some of these challenges the development of managerial effectiveness, leading a team, inspiring the associated workers, directing the change, developing the employees’ efficiency level, maintaining cohesiveness among the team members, and managing the internal stakeholders as well as he politics (Deresky 2017). The study will point out the emerging challenges faced in the real life management scenario.  Furthermore, the study will develop Mintzberg Theory to identify managerial roles and responsibilities and simplifying the complex concepts of the workplace. The identification of the research objectives and questions and application of appropriate methodological approach would help in the developing the unreached ideas about the subject area. The ideas received from the research findings will help in understanding the real life challenges faced by the leaders within the organisation.

Current advancements brought to the business world have transformed the situation and demands of internal and external stakeholders. The organisations are generally driven by competition and technological mechanisms that create fruitful impact on customer satisfaction. The internal organisational management needs to respond towards the basic needs and demands of the business stakeholders (Crane and Matten 2016). Accordingly, the organisational functionalities are needed to be managed. Leaders play the most significant part in managing the internal organisational functionalities as well as the associated employees. These managers face day to day challenges to develop the organisational excellence and write the employees towards achieving their personal and professional goals. Especially, they face the majority of the troubles to maintain their work life balance in this dynamic working scenario (Binder 2016). The extent of these problems can sometimes be severe that may affect the organisational functionalities as well as the morality of the associated employees. In addition to this, it is noticeable that the sudden changes brought to the organisational functionalities may create the psychological barriers among the employees. They need to have adequate knowledge regarding the day to day challenges as they are the major information provider (Block 2016). The leaders need to take the responsibility to motivate them and retain them during such situation. The study would therefore focus on the probable challenges faced by the leaders in real life management world and the impact of these challenges to manage the organisational scenario.

Theoretical Framework: Mintzberg’s Theory

Determining the complexities in the real-life organisation, Kumar (2015) implied that the efficient leaders need to be much responsible to deal with this dynamic situation. Henry Mintzberg therefore developed the theoretical framework to break down the managerial roles and responsibilities for simplifying Organisational complexities. According to his Insight, the skills and efficiency level cannot be taught in classroom and need to be learnt through experiences (Korica, Nicolini and Johnson 2017).  Similarly, the leadership skills determine the development of the experiences and responding accordingly to the emerging situation. It generally simplifies the complex organisational functionalities and turns these into a more efficient culture.  Such cultures help the other employees to build their efficiency level by improving the area of concerns.

Breaking down the managerial roles suggests five different organisational structures. First is simple structure, which consists of several executive and multiple numbers of subordinates. Second is machine bureaucracy which identifies the workers as self driven machines (Arevalo, Laud  and Johnson 2016). These workers need to be responsible for their own task and decision making process. Each of the department needs to follow such guidelines. Third is professional bureaucracy that signifies that the professionals are free from centralization and can work independently (Madanayake and Gibson 2015). People can select the task as per their specific skill set. The next is divisional form, which develops the diverse work scenario that is delegated among different departments. Each of these divisions identifies their own activities as well I see functionalities. The next structure is adhocracy, which eliminates idea of the formal structure. It is generally formulated by gathering highly qualified employees from team that can perform in a dynamic situation and adjustable during any changes (Fruhen, Watkins and Jones 2015).

This different organisational structure identifies the roles and responsibilities of the manager and recognizes the interpersonal skills that are needed to be maintained.  The different job roles of the manager are stated further:

Interpersonal Managers:

  • The figurehead manager is responsible for ceremonial, social, and legal matters.  This type of leader represents the company in the professional sales (Laud, Arevalo and Johnson 2016).
  • Second is a leaderthat suggests that the establishment of high level of communication, inspiration, and arrange training for the team members. The associated team members should look for the sufficient support and guidance from their managers.
  • The next is Liaison, who is responsible for developing network outside of the company and gathering necessary data for the organisational functions.
  • First is a monitor,who is responsible for monitoring the internal and external environment to assess the operational process and recognize the probable challenges (Daft 2014).
  • Next is disseminator who depends on the valuable information related to the associated employees and delegate the jobs in accordance with their expertise level.
  • Next is the spokespersonthat is also quite dependent on the external information and represent their brand.
  • First is the entrepreneur, who acts as an entrepreneur and inspired the innovations as well as the changes within the organisation.
  • The next is Disturbance Handlerwho deals with the emerging external and internal issues by assessing them (Woodrow and Guest 2014).
  • The next is resource allocatorwho needs to deal with the allocation of the resources, from funding to equipment.
  • The final is the negotiatorwho is generally responsible for directing and participating in the negotiating situation of the organisation.

Identification of the managerial roles helps the leaders to deal with the day to day challenges. They need to involve within the conflict management, negotiation process, and representing the department at the board meeting (Gummesson 2017). This divisional structure of the leaders is quite clarified which helps in understanding the roles and responsibilities. This theory provides the insightful idea about developing the sales skills and knowledgeable attribute. The development of diverse structural values helps in undertaking the self assessment criteria to identify the area of improvement. This is quite beneficial in understanding which holds the major priority level and which areas to be developed at the first stage.

Benefits and Challenges of Mintzberg’s Theory

It is true that this theory developed the clearing sites regarding the different managerial roles within a workplace.  However, in spite of such benefits, many criticisms are formulated against this theory. Ennals et al. (2016) implied that many of the managers sometimes or not theoretically knowledgeable. They need to keep their focus on the real life scenario and experiences.  In fact, they make decisions based on their experiences and learning atmosphere. (Shakya and Randerson 2018) argued that some of the management require gathering knowledge from theoretical analysis. The lack of theoretical knowledge prevents from developing a successful track record that a demonstrating the innovative procedure. Many of the scholars even identify that this theory lacks the use of proper methodological approach. It is noticeable that the theory lacks the coherence level. There is no differentiation between the perspective and descriptive statements (Deery and Jago 2015). This limitation hampers the successful behaviour of the associated leaders. Hence, it is necessary to create the valid prescription that can influence strategic behaviour of individuals.

Research methodology provides a structured and systematic method of conducting the research in a sequential way.  The research methodology generally contains the appropriate method of using the real life challenges surrounding the subject area. A structured methodology is developed by concentrating on the specific Paradigms, approaches, technicalities and tools (Kultalahti and Viitala 2015). The study is based on the real life scenario of the management. Therefore, it is important to identify the appropriate methodological approach that can ensure the exploration of the subject area in a systematic and synchronized way.

The general categorization of the research paradigms represents two divisions, such as positivism and interpretivism. Positivism philosophy deals with the extraction of truth from the real life data (Smith 2015). On the other hand, interpretivism paradigm deals with the human interpretation and makes those assumptions regarding the real life business scenario. The study is also focusing on the real life challenges faced by the letters in their day to day business. The study would be developed by exploring the real life data gathered from the associated participants. Therefore, it is based on the positivism paradigm that helps in extracting the hidden truth and real life circumstances.

The research study needs to have a clear focus on the subject area.  Adopting a right approach helps in identifying the area of concern and according the developed the structured and concise information relevant to the study.  The research approaches are based on two methods of data collection, such as quantitative method and qualitative method. The study develops the extensive idea about the real life scenario in managing the business functionalities. On the other hand, the study explores the roles and responsibilities of the managers to deal with the day to day challenges. It is therefore necessary to identify the responses of the associated managers who are dealing with the dynamic situation of the business world (Dhas and Karthikeyan 2015). Hence, the use of the qualitative approach would be much beneficial in such cases. The qualitative approach explores the quality information received from the population who has been experiencing the real life scenario. a limited number of responses would be helpful in analyzing the major area of concern. Hence, the study is using the qualitative research approach, which signifies the purpose of the study in a prominent way.

Research Methodology

The use of the appropriate techniques and tools is the integral part of any research project. The collected data needs to follow a proper mechanism, which will help in identifying the relevancy with the subject area. The study is therefore concentrating on the appropriate use of the Tools and techniques to collect necessary information from the number of population selected in this research. The study has selected interview process, to collect the responses from the people who have been experiencing the real life scenario. They need to have adequate knowledge regarding the day to day challenges as they are the major information provider (Honn et al. 2016). The interview will be taken to question the managers from different organisations. They will share their experiences and the consequences of the management challenges in this interview section.  The face to face interview would be much appreciated. In this interview process, the researcher can observe the body language, the voice modulation, and gestures to understand their area of interest. The gadget responses in this qualitative interview session would be connected to the theoretical information.

The interview session with the real life managers is quite informative for the researcher. The shared their experiences as well as the dynamic work challenges that they have been facing in their current situation. The responses received from the participants in this some of the biggest management challenges faced by the business leaders and managers. First is the availability of limited resources.  One of the managers explains that the organisational excellence depends on the Great investment resources. However, due to the shortage of resources, the managers cannot structure the organisational functionalities as the expected way.  Another manager implied that they often face the considerable challenges due to the lower performance level of the employees. The upper Management is concerned about the organisational functionalities. The organisations are generally driven by competition and technological mechanisms that create fruitful impact on customer satisfaction. The internal Organisational Management needs to respond towards the basic needs and demands of the business stakeholders. However the low level of employee performance can hamper these functions and drive towards failure. It is therefore important for them to take the initiative of improving employee performance level.

 Another challenge is faced due to the long working hours and higher workload. In some of the cases, the managers require staying back at the office and completing the pending work. Therefore we need to invest more working hours and take heavy workload. This aspect can be much challenging for them as they fail to maintain the proper work life balance, which is one of the most effective aspects of motivation. According to Hinojosa et al. (2017), the current advancements in the business for signify more challenges due to the increasing complexity level of the organisation and functions. The skilled leaders are maintaining their responsibility to develop a learning scenario and mitigate the challenges with some innovative solutions. However, they often face challenges due to the changes in the technological field (Dhas and Karthikeyan 2015). The Rapid pace of change in the workplace creates the dynamic scenario, which help the employees to develop their technical knowledge. However sudden changes in the technique create obstruction in the business functionalities.

Another most challenging scenario is faced in retaining the employees. It is notable that the modern business does not only signify competition for the customers, it works well with the employees. According to Khorasani and Almasifard (2017), the leaders need to deal with these employees and with their daily motivations. The sudden changes brought to the organisational functionalities may create the psychological barriers among the employees. They need to have adequate knowledge regarding the day to day challenges as they are the major information provider. The leaders need to take the responsibility to motivate them and retain them during such situation. However, they have their long list of accomplishments and higher degree of advanced education may opt for better opportunities. Hence, the leaders face the considerable challenges to retain them in a significant manner. In fact, during the change management scenario, it has been observed that the employees face difficulties during the transition period. The leaders need to identify the scope of the change management and convey it to the employees to retain them for a longer time.

The current challenges observed among the managers and leaders highlight the basic issues with insignificant approach in maintaining the work life balance. The operational activities of Lafarge suggest certain demands for the construction projects (Galliers and Leidner 2014). It created huge stresses on the managers, especially when they need to deal with the deadline driven construction business. Pete Tuco, the human resources management had become aware of the situation and the insignificant maintenance of the work life balance. He understood that this work life balance concerns are affecting both the employees and the managers. Evaluating the situation, it has been observed that there were two major needs (Maxwell 2018). The first was to the continuous demand from the individual to do more with less that time. The second desire of Lafarge was to establish the business as an employer of choice in every operating location.  It was necessary to recognize the personal values of the employees and the managers as well. Pete then spread the awareness among the executive team regarding the bottom line value for managing in a better way.

 Once the objectives are conveyed to the people, they started working on improving their work life balance. The HR manager suggested that each of the individuals possesses some specific skills that are needed to be used in their everyday life (Dhas and Karthikeyan 2015). The availability of the adequate training process will help them to complete the task within a short span of time.  In addition to this, it was determined that each of the employees will receive a monthly newsletter, sometimes even from web based medium. Introducing this web based program has the ongoing impact on the operational activities. After spreading this awareness of program, employees from different regions expressed their interest to participate on this. Pete took over the responsibilities for US East business unit head in expanded the considerable impact of the training. This transformation in the organisational functions created the high level of motivation among the employees.

IKEA is a renowned Swedish furnishing retailer brand and that offers well designed and high quality furniture at lower prices. The company has strengthened their Global Position in more than 20 countries around the world. Apart from this, the company also has some franchises in different countries. The dream of the company is to create the better solutions in everyday life of the people. The company maintains the Swedish Heritage while training the staff or dealing with the organisational function. Their concerns for a healthy environment are reflected in the organisational culture and the management practices of the company. The employees are involved in social interaction (Dhas and Karthikeyan 2015). It is even noticeable that work life balance is a Priority for the company.  However, during the new phase of the company, the employees needed to invest more time on the designs and operational activities that created impact on their work life balance (Maxwell 2018). They were unable to arrange their shifts and needed to deal with the non standard what weeks. It was quite affecting the employees and their performance level.  The leaders of IKEA recognised that development of the work life balance program would help the employees in maintaining balance between their personal and professional life. In fact, maintaining this approach is a ‘Win-win situation’ for the company. The leaders then make more progresses in promoting the work life Balance within the company and motivated the employees to stay for longer period of time

Conclusion

The study observes the day to day challenges faced by the leaders while managing the complex environment in today's organisation. The rapid changes in the working scenario require the complete solution from the managerial level. The leaders need to take the responsibility to motivate them and retain them during such situation. The theoretical development presented in this study identifies the roles and responsibilities of the manager. The lack of theoretical knowledge prevents from developing a successful track record that a demonstrating the innovative procedure. It is also noticeable that they need to have adequate knowledge regarding the day to day challenges as they are the major information provider. The interview will be taken to question the managers from different organisations. They will share their experiences and the consequences of the management challenges in this interview section. The qualitative Method has been used in this study to understand the specific challenges faced by the leaders in real life of Management. It has been observed that the ineffectiveness in the work life balance if the most foreseeable challenges that the leadership in facing in today's world. The case studies also follow the idea about the effectiveness of maintaining work life balance.

References

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Bartlett, C. A., and Beamish, P. W. 2018. Transnational management. Cambridge University Press.

Binder, J., 2016. Global project management: communication, collaboration and management across borders. Routledge.

Block, P., 2016. The empowered manager: Positive political skills at work. John Wiley & Sons.

Bratton, J. and Gold, J., 2017. Human resource management: theory and practice. Palgrave.

Crane, A. and Matten, D., 2016. Business ethics: Managing corporate citizenship and sustainability in the age of globalization. Oxford University Press

Daft, R.L., 2014. The leadership experience. Cengage Learning.

Deery, M. and Jago, L., 2015. Revisiting talent management, work-life balance and retention strategies. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(3), pp.453-472.

Deresky, H. 2017. International management: Managing across borders and cultures. Pearson Education India.

Dhas, M.D.B. and Karthikeyan, D.P., 2015. Work-Life Balance Challenges and Solutions: Overview. International Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Studies, 12(2).

Ennals, R., Göranzon, B., Nelson, B. and Alvunger, D., 2016. Dialogue, skill and tacit knowledge: Practical knowledge and corporate social responsibility. In Cultural Roots of Sustainable Management (pp. 153-163). Springer, Cham.

Fruhen, L.S., Watkins, C.D. and Jones, B.C., 2015. Perceptions of facial dominance, trustworthiness and attractiveness predict managerial pay awards in experimental tasks. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(6), pp.1005-1016.

Galliers, R.D. and Leidner, D.E. eds., 2014. Strategic information management: challenges and strategies in managing information systems. Routledge.

Gummesson, E., 2017. Case Theory in Business and Management: Reinventing Case Study Research. Sage.

Hinojosa, A.S., Gardner, W.L., Walker, H.J., Cogliser, C. and Gullifor, D., 2017. A review of cognitive dissonance theory in management research: Opportunities for further development. Journal of Management, 43(1), pp.170-199.

Honn, K.A., Garde, A.H., Fischer, F.M. and Van Dongen, H.P., 2016. 22nd International Symposium on Shiftwork and Working Time: Challenges and solutions for healthy working hours.

Khorasani, S.T. and Almasifard, M., 2017. Evolution of Management Theory within 20 Century: A Systemic Overview of Paradigm Shifts in Management. International Review of Management and Marketing, 7(3), pp.134-137.

Korica, M., Nicolini, D. and Johnson, B., 2017. In search of ‘managerial work’: Past, present and future of an analytical category. International journal of management reviews, 19(2), pp.151-174.

Kultalahti, S. and Viitala, R., 2015. Generation Y–challenging clients for HRM?. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(1), pp.101-114.

Kumar, P., 2015. An Analytical study on Mintzberg’s Framework: Managerial Roles. International Journal of Research in Management & Business Studies (IJRMBS), 2, pp.12-18.

Laud, R., Arevalo, J. and Johnson, M., 2016. The changing nature of managerial skills, mindsets and roles: Advancing theory and relevancy for contemporary managers. Journal of Management & Organization, 22(4), pp.435-456.

Madanayake, O. and Gibson, P., 2015, July. A framework for measuring top management support in information systems projects. In Computer Science & Education (ICCSE), 2015 10th International Conference on (pp. 131-136). IEEE.

Maxwell, G. 2018. Employee and Labor Relations. Available from https://www.shrm.org/Communities/student-resources/Documents/Worklife%20Balance%20Case%20Final_SW.pdf Accessed on 18 May 2018.

Shakya, S. and Randerson, A., 2018. Enhancing Self-Awareness: A Case Study on a Collaborative Mentoring Approach. In Exploring Dynamic Mentoring Models in India(pp. 155-172). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Smith, J.A. ed., 2015. Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods. Sage.

Woodrow, C. and Guest, D.E., 2014. When good HR gets bad results: Exploring the challenge of HR implementation in the case of workplace bullying. Human Resource Management Journal, 24(1), pp.38-56.

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