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Introduction to Elections

What is the “incumbency advantage” in elections? How does it influence the policymaking process?

In the current assignment the significance of the election and its impact upon the policy-making process in the country is discussed. The election is a process under which individual has the opportunity to share their view, opinion, and perspective by selecting one leader for the country. In the present study, the detailed knowledge about the significance of election within the country has been addressed.

In the UK to develop law and legislation, election is one of an important procedure by which population chooses an individual to hold public office. In simple words, it can be said that an election is a formal group decision making procedure by which population chooses an individual to hold public office. In the legislature, election may fill offices. Sometimes, it fills the executive, judiciary and local government. In several other organizations, voluntary association and corporation also uses this process of election. The election procedure is used by the country as a process for selecting a representative in modern representative democracies. Voting is a significant aspect in the nation through which people have the opportunity to take the decision and voice their opinion and vote for what they believe in. To develop the government policies, procedure, law, legislation, every vote has a great significance and is very important. By the help of voting, individuals have opportunity to choose the government and have right to share their participation in the law-making procedure. Only voting is a technique and method by which individuals have right to participate in lawmaking process and thus, it is very important to participate in the election as it provides an opportunity to individual in sharing their perception and vote for what they believe in.

Election offers every citizen a medium of expression through which they can share their value. In political office, incumbent is current holder which is generally used regarding elections. During elections, incumbents have structural advantages over the challenges. The timing of election can be decided by incumbent instead of a set schedule. Furthermore, in order to achieve the campaign finance, it is very easy for an incumbent by which he/she can directly aid a campaign. In an election the open seat are those where no incumbent is running. The major advantage of the election is that it provides the best expression of the electorate's political preferences. When election is held in the country then the citizens have an opportunity to select one best leader for them who can resolve their issues and fulfil basic requirements for them. It is very important to conduct the election in an effective and efficient manner so that everyone can vote to right person for their rights and requirements. When newcomer joins the office, voter compares and contrasts qualification, position, political issue, personal characteristics of the candidate who is supposed to fight for the seat in election. In USA, an election for president of the US occurs in every four years and this process begins with the primary elections and caucuses and moves to nominating conventions. In this procedure, political parties select a nominee to unite behind. In the presidential election process, there are several stages included as it is a cycle of process. In January to June of the election year, primaries and caucuses are held by the states and parties.

Political Parties and Candidates in Elections

The term “incumbency advantage” comes from the electoral edge which is enjoyed by the office person. In addition to this, incumbency advantage can be defined as a statistical fact. The major incumbency advantage in the election is that people can easily select and change their MP's and MLA's in lesser time. Selecting an appropriate leader helps in developing the law for the country. To carry out all the activities of an individual as well as an organization it is very important to select one leader who can hold and run all necessary activities. With help of the election, an individual can fight for their rights and gain the advantage of the participants in the governmental procedure. In the country, any kind of the policy and legislation developed by the government directly influences the election process. All progress, development, and growth are largely dependent upon the election. The candidate can be selected in the election through which government can take the decision regarding the policy and practices of the country. The incumbency advantage refers to the benefit that the people has, who already is holding the office usually in voting regardless of party affiliation. Incumbents can provide constituent service to citizens by which they can gain their rights within the country. The major advantage of election is that people conduct an election to safeguard their freedom and rights. It assists in changing the leadership and redesign entire structure and system within the country. With the help of election, people can introduce reforms that are new to a party that assists in proving their rights in an effective and efficient manner. It can be said that election is a self-correction process which is carried out on a regular basis after every five years. In this manner, a citizen of the country gains the benefits because they can fight for their rights. Not at all like crude periods where cloud manage used to be a lifestyle, the greater part of  cutting-edge countries have discovered that without powerful administering, the ship of state, as Plato had called it, couldn't work appropriately (Martin and et al., 2017.). A country's population ought to be trusted to coordinate the ship through surveys and votes as an enlightened method for cooperation in the political domain, which are midriff nations controlled by totalitarian and oppressive initiative. The general population deals with the reality it is regarded, spoken to and all around occupied with the administration when it gets the chance to cast a vote. In that capacity, riot and brutal are going to diminished if it is conceivable to transmit voice (Gordon and Wilfrid, 2017).

Incumbency Advantage in Elections


In the policy-making procedure, election plays a very crucial role by which government can develop the regulation for the countries citizens. Political gatherings and hopefuls are entering partners in the race cycle (What is the election, 2017). Applicants remaining for office are partnered with political gatherings which both characterize a competitor's belief system and arrangement position while mirroring a rundown of issues with which the electorate can recognize in view of a political gathering stage as reflected in the hopeful's decision guarantees to people in general (Dorsey, 2017). Hopefuls as people speak to a gathering stage and with the assistance and support of their associated party device, they vie for open office, complete race battles and endeavor to persuade voting subjects to cast their ticket for them (Swain, 2018). At last, the capacity to straightforwardly crusade, get solid open help through the voting procedure, expect open office or frame a believable restriction once in government relies upon the lawful, political and social condition in the nation as well as on the organization, result, and open acknowledgment of the race comes about (Kanel and Niraula, 2017). Furthermore, open acknowledgment of the result must be trailed by conclusive approval of the decision result by political gatherings and their separate competitors. On the off chance that both the voting open and political gathering competitors don't acknowledge decision comes about because of genuine component extortion or abnormalities, the authenticity of the subsequent lawmaking body or government is debilitated.

Gatherings and applicants are also political performing artists that can be a negative power in the decision cycle. The illicit practices of vote-purchasing or ill-conceived party back, the multiplication of criticism and detest discourse in battles, voter terrorizing by party laborers, defilement in race-related basic leadership and the deliberate avoidance of specific areas of society constitute cases where political gatherings undermine the working of law-based frameworks as opposed to helping it (Smith, 2017). Laws and controls with respect to crusading, subsidizing and working of political gatherings are produced to limit the potential troublesome impact of political gatherings while as yet enabling them enough flexibility to challenge decisions (Maton, 2008). With the help of voting and election, individuals have an opportunity to share their opinion and vote for what they believe in. Election offers every citizen a medium of expression through which they can share their opinion. In the political office, an incumbent is a current holder which is generally used regarding elections. During the elections, incumbents have structural advantages over challenges. The timing of the election can be decided by the incumbent instead of the set schedule (Ali and et al., 2017). Furthermore, in order to access the campaign, finance incumbent is very easy to access which can be indirectly used to boost a campaign.

Election's Role in Policy-Making


Thus, from this research about the significance of election, it has been identified that election is a very significant advantage for the individual as well as a country through which all individuals can utilize their rights and share their perception by selecting one of the best leader and president of the country. Decisions help in settling authority scramble. Most popularity-based countries show high populace henceforth, the vast majority need to be pioneers. In this way, individuals choose a delegate government at a standard period, for example, five years. Along these lines, individuals take part in the decision making procedure where they choose their delegates in parliament and Senate. These agent pioneers need to care for their own kin's welfare to guarantee solidarity, advance and guarantee the respectability of the country in general.

Furthermore, individuals lead a decision to defend their opportunity and rights. The predetermination of a specific country is vested on opportunity and privileges of individuals to investigate the legislature at the time and additionally give better methods for taking care of issues through their delegates (Akhavan, 2017). In this manner, the general population has room schedule-wise to test their agents and take in their interests in people in general office. Consequently just choose the most qualified leader who can protect the flexibility and rights for people in the country (Guinney and et al., 2017). This decision of administration from now on favors just the competitors who have seen that fit in with the suppositions of the dominant part and mirror the will of the general population constantly.

On a different note, race process guarantees an adjustment in authority. Nationals of a popularity-based country ordinarily have their voice and contempt against the decision of government, consequently they can vote in favor of different gatherings to shape another administration. Therefore, they have the general specialist to guarantee that the correct party is set up. In addition, decision empowers natives to take part politically (Hecker and Johannsen, 2017). Race forms accomplish this by opening roads where individuals raise issues and present their perspectives to people in general. Through the race, individuals can acquaint changes that are new to a gathering and can challenge the decision either as an independent or frame a political collection.

The election can be a stage of self-rectification. This is normally done all the time after like mechanism. The decision of the government is typically taken under tight restraints and subsequently, can think about every one of the requests of people in general. This is a type of the self-restorative instrument whereby the gathering in control surveys its execution and conciliates every one of its natives (Gordon and Wilfrid 2017).

Even though there are various favorable circumstances of race in law-based countries and  the dominant part is of individuals, particularly in the creating nations, have not completely acknowledged such points of interest (Hughes and Mullin 2017). These individuals are not taught the significance of picking great pioneers. In this way, they fall prey to narrow minded agents who work for childish pick up for a five-year term and do nothing to the general population and sit tight for the latest possible time and surge back with cash to purchase votes or cajole voters with clear guarantees (Awad and et al., 2017). The votes with time lose intrigue henceforth, cause voter the lack of concern or vote in favor of the purpose of constrained majority rules system. Thus, the pioneers hone tyranny and absolutism which results in loss of yearnings for the subjects.


Taking everything into account, races significantly affect creating solid vote-based systems since individuals have an extreme say in the correct way they need to be represented (Wang and Yazbeck, 2017). Also, it provides their rights and flexibility and also guaranteeing political cooperation. Furthermore, they check the legislature at that time and under check to guarantee that every one of their requests is proficient. Be that as it may, some vote-based countries don't take after this respectable model (Friis, Pedersen and Crane, 2017). With the help of voting and election, individuals have an opportunity to share their opinion and vote for what they believe in. Election offers every citizen a medium of expression through which they can share their opinion. In the political office, the incumbent is the current holder which is generally used regarding elections. During the elections, incumbents have structural advantages over challenges. The timing of the election can be decided by the incumbent instead of the set schedule.

Election helps in solving the leadership scramble as people elect a representative government in the 5 years. (Almog and Sever, 2017) People elect their parliament and Senate in the election process. Moreover, they conduct the election for their safeguarding and rights and it is a platform of self-correction. Hence, from this entire research, it has been analyzed that it is one of the great aspects of the country by which citizens enable to participate in the political way.

Conclusion

From the entire report, it has been concluded that the term incumbency advantage refers to the electoral side which is enjoyed by the office person not by in office parties. In addition to this, incumbency advantage can be defined as a statistical fact. With the help of election, an individual can fight for their rights and gain the advantage to participate in the government procedure. The incumbency advantage refers to the benefit that people who already hold office usually win reelection, regardless of party affiliation.

Reference

Akhavan, M., 2017. Development dynamics of port-cities interface in the Arab Middle Eastern world-The case of Dubai global hub port-city. Cities, 60. pp.343-352.

Ali, M., Miller, L., Ahmed, S. and Abunar, S., 2017. Divided We Fall: A Case Study of ERP Implementation Failure in a Middle Eastern Country. In Leadership, Innovation and Entrepreneurship as Driving Forces of the Global Economy(pp. 229-245). Springer, Cham.

Almog, O. and Sever, A., 2017. Hide and seek? Israeli–Turkish relations and the Baghdad pact. Middle Eastern Studies. 53(4). pp.609-623.

Awad, A. and et al., 2017. Self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials in the community of Khartoum State, Sudan.

Collins., 2018.Collinsdictionary. [Online]. Available at: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/by-election, [Accessed on 10 May, 2018].

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Friis, E. M., Pedersen, K. R. and Crane, P. R., 2017. Kenilanthus, a new eudicot flower with tricolpate pollen from the Early Cretaceous (early-middle Albian) of eastern North America. Grana. 56(3). pp.161-173.

Gordon, D.A. and Wilfrid, K., 2017. The Politics of african and middle eastern states.

Guinney, J., Wang, T., Laajala, T.D., Winner, K.K., Bare, J.C., Neto, E.C., Khan, S.A., Peddinti, G., Airola, A., Pahikkala, T. and Mirtti, T., 2017. Prediction of overall survival for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: development of a prognostic model through a crowdsourced challenge with open clinical trial data. The Lancet Oncology, 18(1), pp.132-142.

Hecker, P. and Johannsen, I., 2017. Concepts of Culture in Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies. Middle East-Topics & Arguments.7. pp.5-13.

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Kanel, K.R. and Niraula, D.R., 2017. Can rural livelihood be improved in Nepal through community forestry?. Banko janakari, 14(1), pp.19-26.

Martin, T.S., Connolly, R.M., Olds, A.D., Ceccarelli, D.M., Fenner, D.E., Schlacher, T.A., Beger, M. and Handling editor: Michel Kaiser, 2017. Subsistence harvesting by a small community does not substantially compromise coral reef fish assemblages. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 74(8), pp.2191-2200.

Maton, K.I., 2008. Empowering community settings: Agents of individual development, community betterment, and positive social change. American journal of community psychology, 41(1-2), pp.4-21.

Pianka, E. R., 2017. Ecology and natural history of desert lizards: analyses of the ecological niche and community structure. Princeton University Press.

Smith, E., 2017. Creating the National/Border Security Nexus: Counter-Terrorist Operations and Monitoring Middle Eastern and North African Visitors to the UK in the 1970s–1980s. Terrorism and Political Violence. pp.1-20.

Swain, M. S., 2018. Friendship within the autism spectrum disorder community: The importance and uniqueness of this relationship (Doctoral dissertation, ALLIANT INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY).

Wang, H. and Yazbeck, A. S., 2017. Benchmarking Health Systems in Middle Eastern and North African Countries. Health Systems & Reform.3(1). pp.7-13.

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