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Choose one of the media articles or case studies listed by the lecturer in your Interact 2 subject site. Use the title of the article/case study provided in interact 2 as the title of your essay, so that the lecturer knows which article you are analysing.
Undertake further research about your chosen case, to assist you in analysing and discussing it in your essay. Analyse the article/case study from the perspective of four classical ethical theories including utilitarianism, deontology, contract, and virtue. Your essay should present well-reasoned arguments for your assessments and recommendations. 
Write an overall conclusion that justifies your recommendations made in your essay.
Include a Reference list at the end of your work, in the correct APA referencing style, corresponding to in-text citations. The word limit for the essay is 1400-1500 words. Headings, citations and references do not count towards the word limit, but quotations do.
NOTE: Please use the template provided in the resources section of this subject site.
This assessment task will assess the following learning outcome/s:
be able to identify ethical issues related to ICT.
be able to assess the implications of ethical problems.
be able to critically evaluate solutions to ethical problems.
be able to apply ethical theories to ethical problems.
be able to argue consistently and rationally about the moral issues raised by the adoption and use of ICT.
be able to analyse ethical situations using critical thinking techniques.
This assessment extends the skills practised in Assessment item 1 and 2, to help you to achieve all the learning objectives.
In addition to identifying a contentious situation in ICT and dissecting the argument(s) about it, you must also now demonstrate the ability to evaluate the elements of the argument by introducing classical ethical principles where appropriate.
Since Assessment item 1 and 2, your knowledge will have grown, and you will now realise that almost all ICT ethical dilemmas can be classified under one of the main ICT ethical issues that are discussed in this subject; for instance, surveillance is a sub-issue of privacy, harmful software is a sub-issue of ICT professionalism, and piracy is a sub-issue of intellectual property.

Utilitarianism Theory

The given case study deals the universities collecting as well as analyzing the data of the student for different purpose (University 2018). At the University of Arizona, the researcher collects the data of the student by swiping the ID cards of the students at various locations across the campus. The research was carried out to study about the daily routine of students and their relationship with other students. The case study reveals that when the student swipes their CatCard, the researcher get to know the location of the students and also the details of other students who swipes the card at the same time and at same locations. This helps the researcher to know about the daily routine of the students and relationship with other students who are present in the same time. The collecting of data becomes an issue because this Student ID card research raised the privacy concern as the students were not informed about the data collection that was taking place (West 2017). Only the students who were involved in the data collection research were aware of the fact that their data were collected for research purpose. Other students were totally unaware of the fact. This essay consists of the IT Ethics theories which involves utilitarianism, contract, deontology, and virtue (Hutchings 2016). The four issues of ethics are explained related to the case study in this essay.

The Utilitarian theory of ethical issue is mainly based on a person’s ability for predicting the consequences of the related action. For a utilitarian, the choice that leads to greatest benefit to maximum of the people is correct ethically. Mostly there are two types of utilitarianism- rule utilitarianism and act utilitarianism (Grant, Arjoon and McGhee 2017). Act utilitarianism mainly describes a person that performs the act according to the benefit of most of the people, eliminating the feeling of the person, or without considering the societal constraints which includes law. Whereas, rule utilitarianism involves law as well as fairness that is involved in the law. Value justice and beneficence is included in the rule benefit.

In the case study, utilitarianism ethics theory is not followed as collecting of data is only beneficiary to the researchers who are involved in collection of data. The students whose data are collected are not even informed about the fact that their data are collected and analysed for a research study (Kovac 2018). A utilitarianism ethics involves a theory which benefits most of the people. Most of the people involved in this case study is the students. The students are not at all benefitted by this research as their data privacy is at risk.

The deontology ethics theory defines that the people who are involved should believe and follow the obligations as well as the duties when they are engaged in some decision making. According to deontology theory of ethics, it can be stated that the people should follow the obligations to some other individual or the society (Chakrabarty and Bass 2015). This is because to uphold the duty of a particular person is considered as an ethically correct law. A person who follows deontology will keep the promise and will always maintain the law. A person who follows deontology theory will give very consistent decision as the decision they will take will be based on the set of duties of the individual.

Deontology Theory

The research involved in this case study does not follow the rules and obligations that are related to the case study. The law that is included in the given case study includes the researcher to follow all the laws and regulations for carrying out the research (Turrens 2018). But, while carrying out the research study, the details of the students are taken from the CatCard without the consent of the student. For carrying out a research study, the ethical rule that is to be followed is to let the students know about their data being collected for the research study. But, in the given case study, the researcher collects the data without the consent of the students which does not satisfy the rule of the deontology ethics.

The theory of virtue ethics involves judging a particular person by their individual character instead of judging them by their action which may differ from their original behavior. Virtue ethics is followed by moral of a person, reputation, as well as motivation of a person (Holyoak, K.J. and Powell 2016). This virtue ethics is taken in to when a person is rated regarding its irregular as well as unusual behavior which is stated as an unethical behavior. For example, if an individual takes a plagiarized passage, then later on the original writer of the passage gets to know about it and the person will get to know about the character of that person and will judge him accordingly.

The virtue ethics is followed in the case study as because the researcher is known to the university and has allowed to keep a track on the student without the consent of the student. The reputation of the research is good and the person is moral according to the University of Arizona and allows the researcher to carry out the research study (Walsh 2015). The researcher is judge by her individual character and is expected to not do any illegal action with the data that are collected from the data analysis.

The contract theory of ethics involves social theory where all people lives in a society together completing an agreement that satisfies political as well as moral rules of behavior of the people. According to the law of social contract theory, some of the people who are involved in the society believes that they can live by their own choice and not because of the divine requires it. The theory of social contract is an old philosophy which views a particular moral of a person or the political obligations of the person that are dependent on contract or on agreement that helps to form in the society they live in (Laczniak and Murphy 2018). The social contracts does not include laws but includes raising of hands in a class to speak. In America, the U.S. Constitution is considered to be en explicit example of social contract. The U.S. constitution generally sets out what the government can do and what the government cannot do. People who live in America mainly agrees with the government which involves moral obligations as well as political obligations that are outlined as the social contract of the constitution.

Virtue Theory

The social contract of ethics according to the given case study states that all the people live in a society together following moral rules as well as political rule of behavior (Browning 2015). The social contract is not followed as for collecting the data, the ethical laws and the legal laws are not followed. The researcher collects the data without the permission of the students and use those data for analyzing the research work. The social contract theory is followed if there all the ethics are maintained in a society. The social ethical theory is not followed in the case study as the students are not aware of the fact that their data is collected for research purpose.

Conclusion

From the above discussion, the case study related to data privacy issue of the student can be studied which generally carries out a research study by collecting the data of the students. The case study states that with the increasing number of students, the universities are basically collecting as well as analyzing the data of the student for carrying out many research study. The CatCard of the students are being analyzed in case study for analyzing the daily routine of the students and finding out the relationship between the students. But the main issue comes while collecting the data for carrying out the research study. The data that are analyzed are collected without the consent of the student. Many of the students do not know about their data being carried out for data analysis. The ethical issues that are being carried out are stated in this essay. There are many ethical issues that are related with this fact. The data privacy issue of the student are taken in to account.

The recommendation that can be provided for the taken case study is informing the students about the research that is being carried out. The students need to know about their data being analyzed for the research study. If not possible to inform the students, then a survey is recommended to carry out by which the students will give their outputs as per the questionnaire is made. The students will give their own answer win their will and they will not be forced to give their answer. The researcher should also ensure the data security of the data that are collected.

References

Browning, N., 2015. The ethics of two-way symmetry and the dilemmas of dialogic Kantianism. Journal of Media Ethics, 30(1), pp.3-18.

Chakrabarty, S. and Bass, A.E., 2015. Comparing virtue, consequentialist, and deontological ethics-based corporate social responsibility: Mitigating microfinance risk in institutional voids. Journal of Business Ethics, 126(3), pp.487-512.

Grant, P., Arjoon, S. and McGhee, P., 2017. Reconciling Ethical Theory and Practice: Toward Developing a Business Ethics Pedagogical Model. Business and Professional Ethics Journal, 36(1), pp.41-65.

Holyoak, K.J. and Powell, D., 2016. Deontological coherence: A framework for commonsense moral reasoning. Psychological Bulletin, 142(11), p.1179.

Hutchings, K., 2018. Global ethics: an introduction. John Wiley & Sons.

Kovac, J., 2018. The ethical chemist: Professionalism and ethics in science. Oxford University Press.

Laczniak, G.R. and Murphy, P.E., 2018. The role of normative marketing ethics. Journal of Business Research.

Rittenburg, T.L., 2016. Cowboy Ethics: Marketing Gimmick or Business Ethics Tool?. In Thriving in a New World Economy(pp. 31-35). Springer, Cham.

Rozell, D.J., 2018. The Ethical Foundations of Risk Analysis. Risk Analysis.

Turrens, J.F., 2018. Ethical Issues and Decision Making for Respiratory Therapists.

University, S. (2018). Students and Sensors: Data, education, privacy, and research. [online] Scu.edu. Available at: https://www.scu.edu/ethics/focus-areas/internet-ethics/resources/students-and-sensors-data-education-privacy-and-research/ [Accessed 13 Sep. 2018].

Walsh, R.T., 2015. Introduction to ethics in psychology: Historical and philosophical grounding. Journal of theoretical and philosophical psychology, 35(2), p.69.

West, A., 2017. Multinational tax avoidance: Virtue ethics and the role of accountants. Journal of Business Ethics, pp.1-14.

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My Assignment Help (2020) Analysis Of University Of Arizona CatCard Research From The Perspective Of Classical Ethical Theories [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/itc506-applying-ethical-theory/data-education-privacy-and-research.html
[Accessed 12 July 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Analysis Of University Of Arizona CatCard Research From The Perspective Of Classical Ethical Theories' (My Assignment Help, 2020) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/itc506-applying-ethical-theory/data-education-privacy-and-research.html> accessed 12 July 2024.

My Assignment Help. Analysis Of University Of Arizona CatCard Research From The Perspective Of Classical Ethical Theories [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2020 [cited 12 July 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/itc506-applying-ethical-theory/data-education-privacy-and-research.html.

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