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The Impact of Inequalities and Race on Social and Economic Well-being, Health of People in Canada

Discuss about the Race And Urbanity Protective Effect Of Education.

The paper discusses about the impact of inequalities and race on social and economic well being, health of people in Canada. Main objective behind the selection of this topic is to gain an insight into the health status and economic and social well being of people and an overview on the impact of inequality of income and poverty on people. The study of race and inequalities is closely associated with the history of anthropology. Social analysis of race has been built by providing clear operational definitions in terms of anthropological enquiry. The most important venue for advancing the public and scientific understanding of racism, race and human biological variation is indicated by racial inequalities. One of the most enduring and important contributions to popular culture is conducting the field analysis of race and inequalities (Spence et al., 2016).

The article titled “Income inequality and health: A critical review of literature”, reviews the literature on the relationship between health outcome and inequality in income. It is suggested by review of economics and social that inequality is most appropriately results from cultural and social factors. It is not suggested by literature review that health outcome is directly impacted by inequality of income. Instead, there are one or more determinants to health that helps in working of hypothesized income inequality. The health of individual is profoundly impacted by socio economic status, education, occupation and components of income (Caldararo, 2014). The study that was conducted at individual international level questioned the universality of relative income hypothesis. It was ascertained from the study conducted that mortality rate in Canada is not significantly related to income inequality at either metropolitan or regional level, although there exist some relationship between such variables in relation to other countries such as United States. In addition to this, it was also found that inequality in income was associated with the lack of social trust. At the lowest end of social spectrum, the health outcome and life chances are adversely impacted by reduced quality of education, poor physical conditions and other social services resulting from accumulated exposures by incorporating individual and contextual level factors.  It is studies by study in general that the relationship of analysis between health and income inequality does not incorporate the role of health services. There are two main levels that help in influencing the relationship between health and income inequality through the social services and through the structure and availability of health (Hucchc.com, 2018).

Review of Literature on the Relationship between Health Outcomes and Income Inequality

In an article titled “Black white health inequalities in Canada at the intersection of immigration and gender” have found that there exists high risk of ill health for the Canadians who are black as represented by sample. However, little evidence was found regarding the intersectional hypothesis that immigrant status and gender are the factors that conditions the inequalities of black white health. It was found that the health related behaviours and socio economic status had accentuated the high hypertension risk for immigrant black women compared to white women (Hurst et al., 2016). However, a little support was found that health inequalities among black white Canadians are conditioned by immigrant status and gender. The discrimination based on race contributed to the hypertension development among Canada as indicated by high rates of hypertension among black women. Furthermore, it is indirectly implicated by household income in several models about existence of racism in labour market as a factor of inequality between black and white. Therefore, the health outcome for white Canadians has considerable amount of variations compared to their black counterparts. For both the immigrant and native black and white women, there exist high risks of health disease such as diabetes, hypertension, asthma and self related mental health (Clair & Denis, 2015). Nevertheless, the article failed to provide audience with conclusive evidence for the heath indicators that have been considered in the study.


The article titled” How race becomes Biology: Embodiment of social inequality” depicts debate over the impact of race and inequalities on health that leads to understanding of racism, race and human biological variations scientifically and publicly. A question that has been highlighted in the article is about the association between race and health where the inadequacy of conventional critique of race in social sciences and anthropology is exposed. Race is often dismissed as construct of culture rather than a biological reality. It is indicated by studies at higher level of analysis that there exist racial disparities in health due to institutionalized racism. It is argued by author that the fundamental factor responsible for racial inequalities in health is segregation of racial residential. Analysis of article indicates the fact that in the history of anthropology, race has played a crucial role and the social sciences have been dominated by race as cultural construct (Matthews, 2016). The focus on cultural and social factors is not promoted to exclude the genetics one by the model used in research article. Rather, it is indicated that genes helps in regulating the biological systems by passing on social inequality embodiments.

Black-White Health Inequalities in Canada at The Intersection of Immigration and Gender

In an article titled “Is economic inequality really a problem”, a review of arguments depicts that in recent years, the causes and consequences of increasing income inequalities has triggered the outpouring of analysis. The arguments for and against the position is reviewed in the article that has highlighted the effects efficiency and inequality in income growth that have the consequence in terms of social disruption, poor health outcome, environmental degradation and social cohesion (Pdfs.semanticscholar.org, 2018). There can be significant damage to favoured groups or economy such as productive business enterprise and high income innovators. It has been found that income inequality is closely tracked by the consumption expenditure. In addition to this, it has been agreed by some authors that social justice in country can be achieved by the workings for ensuring equality of opportunity. The income inequality that is observed in different parts of different countries cannot be attributable to differences in responsibility or individual efforts. Low level of social mobility is responsible for high level of economic inequality in country. Throughout most of lives of individual, the status of socio economic tends to remain same in countries such as Canada. Analysis of article has found that economic systems can be harmed by the efforts that are taken to reduce such inequality. The issue of income inequality is independently linked to the problem of poverty. Income inequality can be regarded as inherently unjust by violating norms of distributive justice. There exists a need to reduce level of inequality as other economic and social variables such as democratic political systems and economic growth is negatively impacted. The economic growth is not enhanced by the income inequality and aggregate demand in economy is reduced by people who are less likely to spend their income on consumption (Assari & Lankarani, 2016).


Another article titled, “the cultural erosion of indigenous people in health care” presents the fact that health care for indigenous Canadians is not culturally safe sue to continuous erosion of cultural identities of indigenous people resulting from health practice and health law. The entire aspects of healthcare delivery for indigenous people in Canada are impacted by the affects of racism. The unilateral violent imposition on economic, social, political and cultural dominance over land and lives of indigenous people is the foundation of healthcare of Canada on systemic racism. The literature on cultural safety depicts that factors that make things culturally safe is determined by advantages and how the decision making is distorted by such power (Caldararo, 2014). Cultural erosion in country would end by the incorporation of basic moral principles that are familiar to all the health care professionals. The moral justice has required the reinstitution for the harms that have been inflicted on indigenous people. Article has also provided suggestion in terms of recognizing the health care rights of indigenous people that is enshrined in international and national law. The healthcare inequities are eliminated by identification of dialogue with indigenous people. Moreover, indigenous healthcare professionals should be retained and hired for ensuring that staffs have received cultural competency training (Fleras, 2014).

It is provided by the analysis of articles that debate and argument about racial inequalities in health provides an opportunity for refining the critique in three ways. These ways include refocusing the attention on environmental and complex of human biology at the analysis of multiple levels. It also includes reiterating why the concept of race is consistent human global diversity patterns at global level. The claim is to be revised that research should be expanded on reality of socio cultural of racism and race and that race is a cultural construct (Harell et al., 2016.

Conclusion:

It can be inferred from the analysis of different articles that under the current discussion, all the developments in anthropology is not covered. Some of the important and interesting new development on anthropology is not discussed. Regarding the prevailing perspective that are highly influential on the race common conceptualization by the anthropologists. A dominant view on existence of races is shared by the anthropology in varied social cultural background along with rejecting the human race existence. The understanding of the findings has deepened and broadened that the worse health outcomes is correlated with socioeconomic inequality across an entire society. The factors such as material environment or psychobiological platforms and diminished social cohesion are responsible for such societies being unhealthy.

References list:

Andersen, C. (2014). Métis: Race, recognition, and the struggle for indigenous peoplehood. ubc Press.

Assari, S., & Lankarani, M. M. (2016). Race and urbanity alter the protective effect of education but not income on mortality. Frontiers in public health, 4, 100.

Caldararo, N. (2014). Anthropology, Sustainability and Inequality. Anthropology, 02(02). doi:10.4172/2332-0915.1000e119

Clair, M., & Denis, J. (2015). Racism, sociology of. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed., pp. 857-863). New York, NY: Elsevier. https://dx. doi. org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.32122-5.

Fleras, A. (2014). Racisms in a multicultural Canada: Paradoxes, politics, and resistance. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press.

Harell, A., Soroka, S., & Iyengar, S. (2016). Race, prejudice and attitudes toward redistribution: A comparative experimental approach. European Journal of Political Research, 55(4), 723-744.

Hucchc.com. (2018).  Retrieved 20 June 2018, from https://www.hucchc.com/pdf/Racism%20Poverty%20and%20Inner%20City%20Health%20Current%20Knowledge%20and%20Practices.pdf

Hurst, C. E., Gibbon, H. M. F., & Nurse, A. M. (2016). Social inequality: Forms, causes, and consequences. Routledge.

Income Inequality in Canada - IRPP. (2018). IRPP. Retrieved 20 June 2018, from https://irpp.org/research-studies/income-inequality-in-canada/Matthews, R. (2016). The cultural erosion of Indigenous people in health care. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 189(2), E78-E79. doi:10.1503/cmaj.160167Pdfs.semanticscholar.org. (2018).  Retrieved 20 June 2018, from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e9f1/b2e2edfd7fc0bf18856679dd879db5f7fd36.pdf?_ga=2.225863834.1220234104.1514067625-1210322114.1508008341

Sheppard, C. (2017). Challenging systemic racism in Canada. In Race and Inequality (pp. 57-76). Routledge.

Smylie, J., & Firestone, M. (2016). The health of indigenous peoples. D. Raphael (3rd ed.) Social determinants of health: Canadian perspective, 434-469.

Spence, N. D., Wells, S., Graham, K., & George, J. (2016). Racial discrimination, cultural resilience, and stress. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 61(5), 298-307.

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