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Investment Planning

Discuss About the Strategies &Technologies Business Financial?

The introduction of many plans, strategies and technologies has changed the business market environment. The companies are focusing on developing the efficiency of their employees by determining and fulfilling their needs. The employees are very much concern about their future and for this they invest their savings in different schemes that will provide them maximum return. The managers of the company also help the employees to achieve their goals and combine all the strategies of the company to achieve the goals. The management team also implement strategies to achieves the goals with their staff members. The efficient market hypothesis proposes that the current prices of stock are the indicators total value of a firm. The movement in the shares of the company shows its performance in the market. The investors determine and analyses the financial position of the company before making an investment decision. The management team of the company is responsible for enhancing the performance of the company. The fair representation of the financial statements is very much important for the organizations. The companies have to follow the rules and regulations implemented by the government. The employees contribute their efforts for the development of the company and they plan for the future by investing their income in appropriate programs. The companies have to increase their profits in order to generate returns for their shareholders.         

At the time of decision-making process in the territory sectors, some of the significant factors are considered by the employees of the territory sectors. This decision helps the employees to decide the place of investment of their superannuation in the investment choice plan (ICP) or Defined benefits plan (DBP) (Chen and Hao, 2013). It is necessary to the employees that they should donate an amount of their income into the superannuation. Elimination of the issues from social security system like the pension payments at retirement stage was the main motto of introducing this superannuation law. Through the application of the defined benefit plan, at the retirement stage, the employees should get a portion of the benefit. This plan is based on the formula which involves the age of the employee, numbers of years of working, and the salary of the employees. The following formula determines the retirement benefits:

Retirement benefit = duration of membership × benefit salary × average service fraction × Lumb-sum factor.

Pension Plans

The company determines that the superannuation contribution is invested and united in the assets of the employees in territory sector who chose the defined benefit plans. The above-given formula helps to estimate the final benefit payment.  The investment performance of the asset group is inappropriate, and the payments of the retired employees are not affected by it.  This plan shows that the employees don’t get any benefits from the profits earning of the asset portfolio which is associated with the performance of the company. The company should be responsible for the full fund of the defined benefits (Dauber, 2005). The additional benefits and paid by the company on the basis annually adjustment. The companies never guarantee to pay the benefits to their employees, and under the plan, they form a few superannuation benefits. The personal superannuation is included in the selection of the investment choice program of the employees. The management charges, the annual distribution of the benefit and the administrations are also included under it.

The employees select the types of portfolios under the investment choice plan which includes the superannuation contributions (Dvorak, 2012). The investment strategies are discussed below:

  • Security of the fund: security of the fixed cash and the interests.
  • Stability of the fund: maintain the stability of the fund and the security of the domestic property and the shares.
  • Fund selection of the company: the balanced funds, properties, shares and private equity.
  • Shares funds: the investment in the abroad and domestic shares.

The strategies of the company can be differentiated by the risk factors of the secure resources.  By the comparison, it is known that the secure funds have the lowest level of risks and the share funds have the highest level of risks. In spite of that, these share funds are expected to give a high rate of return. The selected investment strategies of the employees generate the dependability of the selection of the investment choice funds at their retirement level (Emery, Finnerty and Stowe, 2011).  This investment strategy can be a reason of the risk factor with the superannuation contributions. During the retirement, the employees are provided a huge range of investment products by the company. The company also offers them the investment choice plan and the defined benefit plan to manage the retirement benefits. The investment options are as follows:

  • Indexed pension: this pension is just like regular income, the company will be payable to the employees till the death of the employee.
  • Life index pension: this pension is like regular income provided to the employees by company and contact to the capital and placement of the capital by the investment strategies (Gerrans and Clark, 2013).
  • Roll over pension: the employee will be able to transfer the balance of his fund to any other approved industrial or personal superannuation and can save the amount of saving account or deposit funds.
  • Distribution of the cash amount: if the retired want then the balance of the retirement fund can be used for the personal, industrial or investment consumption reason.

With the help of the decision-making process, the employees can choose any alternative combination of the investment which is entirely dependable on the lifestyle, income and the requirements of the employees. The value of the time, money and the high price of the cost can be dominant the risk of the investment. The retired employees must have the idea that when and where they should invest their money and which can be more beneficial (Helbæk, Lindset and McLellan, 2010).  So the decision making quality can consider the nature of the employee's mind. The company should be responsible for the full fund of the defined benefits. The additional benefits and paid by the company on the basis annually adjustment. Retirement means several things to different people. For others, retirement may be a regular process as they leave service for a point and return presently, or vary their operational hours as priorities transfer and distorted. The economic aspects are often compound, and getting reliable and the subject information is critical. Everyone’s requirements and prospect in retirement will be different. The contribution of the annual retirement is shown in the form of the mutual explanation of the work.  Good retirement’s preparation is not just about our instant living expenses, but the possible long-term expenses too (Horngren, 2013). The age pension fund is paid to people who meet period and placement requirements. Many populaces in retirement live on a mix of their investments and the government age pension fund.   The profits tests are used to work out our rate of age pension fund based on income obtain. The property test is used to work out at our rate of age retirement fund based on the values of assets, including material goods. 

Investment Choice Plans

The employees should select the programs in a proper manner so that they would be able to get the maximum benefit. The employees will invest the low-risk portfolio to manage up with the obligations. The funds are deposited in the retirement account which increases as per as the rules and policy. The annual retirement is the pension program which is created by the organizations for the benefit of the employees (Ippolito, 2014). Thus, the annual retirement program is carried out by the organizations to support the life of the people after their retirement. The employees have to save funds for the future purpose as well as for their family. The time value of money is very much important in the decision-making process. The companies also implement rules and regulations for the welfare of the employees.  The superannuation forms of the study are intensified by showing the illustration of the Australia. The distribution of the certain ranges of nature of forms is illustrated depicting the increment of the superannuation amount. The development of the working conditions shows the contributions for annual retirement which is reporting the explanation in the form of donation. The enhancement of the work is showing the appropriate amount which is shown in the illustrated forms, showing the increase of the work. The focus is created by the conduct which is indicating the impulsion by indicating the introduction of the work. The annual retirement policies are made for the purpose of showing the removal of the trouble and also the social security system (Oppermann, 2009). The benefits are depicted to be showing the different creations of the illustrations which are explaining the differentiations, are made in the form of the retirement plan and also the explanation of the focus is made by showing the construction of the work which is made by indicating the enhancement of the study. The support at the retirement stages of the lives which are the provision of the pension payments. The representation is showing the form of financial institutions and also the annual pension funds. It enables the enhancement of the work which is showing the mutual funds, and it also indicated the form of justice securities in the security share markets of the Australia (Rahman, 2015). The benefits are provided in the kind of difference which is created in the form of savings which are established by showing the explanation of the tertiary education in the shape of employees which are shown during the formulation of the investments. The contribution of the annual retirement is shown in the form of the mutual explanation of the work.  The plans are made by demonstrating the improvement of the work and also the clarification of the benefits which are appropriately made by showing the enhancement of the investment risks. The suitable risks are categorized by indicating the form of the collection of binds in the shape of the bond securities, and also the private shares are included in this case.  The explanation clearly shows the annual adjustments which are included in the form of the payouts that are made to the employees during the time of the retirement (Hill, 2014).  This enables in ensuring the values that are constructed for showing the proper purpose of the work as it is illustrated in this case.

Defined Benefit Plans

The hypothesis gives an explanation of the information which is mentioned in the study. The determination of the hypothesis helps in proving the strong and efficient state of the market. Both the private as well as public information are included in the study and are represented by exhibiting a certain frame of the structure of work.  The study also seeks to focus on the process of enhancement of the cycles (Rayman, 2013). The display of the trends is in the form of revelation of the counting, which is the responsibility of the manager of finance. The cycles must also be put forward by exhibiting the satisfactory counting of trends that are observed. The innovation also includes a part containing analysis by the display of the enhancement of counting on the basis of trends. There is a focus on the structure enhancement that is displayed by showing the appropriate development of returns that are undergoing analysis for explaining the high rate of returns (Schmidt, 2016).  Thus, the prices that are shown in the form of theories are structured according to the appropriate forms in the most suitable way. The theories include clearly described analysis which is appropriately performed according to the desired manner and is include an appropriately designed structure. There is also an efficient explanation of the structure by displaying constant rates, and the analysis depends on the weak, the superior or the semi-weak nature of rates, as is the case. The efficiently performed market analysis is thus further enhanced by enhancing the research behind the study and by further explanation of the work done, by delving into more details.

Popularly known by all as the Random Walk Theory, the efficient market hypothesis proposes that the current prices of stock are full indicators of the information available about the firm’s value. It further proposes that there is no other way to earn any additional profit with the help of this information (Yip, 2010). The topic with which this theory deal is one of the most fundamental yet most exciting issues in the field of finance, that it, the reason why prices in the security markets change and the process by which such changes take place. There are many significant implications of this theory for all investors as well as managers of finance. This hypothesis makes it clearly evident that making profits from the prediction of movements in prices is very tough and most unlikely as well.

Investment Strategies

                                                                                          Source: Yip, 2010

The downward sloping curve (demand) in the above graph shows the extent to which the efficient market hypothesis is true as the function to which the people believe that efficient market hypothesis is true. It shows that there is a relation between the fundamental values and market prices which reflect that the EMH is true. The upward sloping curve (supply) also shows that it is true because the market prices reflect all the information on the fundamental values.  

The hypothesis under discussion is depicted by displaying the profit which is earned through the show of the predictable price. The suggestions can also be made by displaying the proper depiction of the findings which may seem unlikely if not depicted clearly (Horngren, 2014). The primary theory that is connected with the prices involved and the arrival as well is performed by displaying the depictions of the difficulties and the price changes. Hence the evidence of the information is visible in the increase in the structure of the market. The explanation of the costs of the security is given in regard to the study that is under consideration and the impact of the same on the business is made visible by the widening of that work. The broadening of the work is in turn made by showing enhancement in the work. The work is being constructed by the proper explanation of the work in consideration. This hence shows the description of the work and the detection of the stocks are depicted in this regard (Zhao, Wang and Wei, 2015). The innovation also includes a part containing analysis by the display of the enhancement of counting on the basis of trends. The case in consideration thus shows the appropriate explanation as regards the misprice that was depicted.


Chen, S. and Hao, Z. (2013). Funding and investment decisions in a stochastic defined benefit pension plan with regime switching*. Lithuanian Mathematical Journal, 53(2), pp.161-180.

Dvorak, T. (2012). Timing of Retirement Plan Contributions and Investment Returns: The Case of Defined Benefit versus Defined Contribution. The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 12(1).

Dauber, N. (2005). 2006 Auditing standards. Canada: Thomson.

GERRANS, P. and CLARK, G. (2013). Pension plan participant choice: Evidence on defined benefit and defined contribution preferences. Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, 12(04), pp.351-378.

Emery, D., Finnerty, J. and Stowe, J. (2011). Corporate financial management. Morristown, NJ: Wohl Publishing.

Horngren, C. (2013). Accounting. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson Australia.

Helbæk, M., Lindset, S. and McLellan, B. (2010). Corporate finance. Maidenhead, Berkshire: Open University Press/McGraw-Hill Education.

Oppermann, H. (2009). Accounting standards. Lansdowne: Juta.

Ippolito, R. (2014). Replicating Default Risk in a Defined-Benefit Plan. Financial Analysts Journal, 58(6), pp.31-40.

Rahman, N. (2015). Corporate Finance. North Ryde: McGraw-Hill Australia.

Parrino, R. (2015). Corporate Finance. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons

Schmidt, C. (2016). A Journey Through Time: From The Present Value To The Future Value And Back Or: Retirement Planning: A Comprehensible Application Of The Time Value Of Money Concept. American Journal of Business Education (AJBE), 9(3), p.137.

Rayman, R. (2013). Accounting Standards. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.

Yip, M. (2010). The use value of money in the law of unjust enrichment. Legal Studies, 30(4), pp.586-609.

Schroeder, R., Clark, M. and Cathey, J. (2011). Financial accounting theory and analysis. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Zhao, Q., Wang, R. and Wei, J. (2015). Minimization of risks in defined benefit pension plan with time-inconsistent preferences. Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry, 32(2), pp.243-258.

Hill, J. (2014). The accounting. 1st ed. Place of publication not identified]: The Author.

Horngren, C. (2014). Accounting. Toronto: Pearson Canada

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