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The case can be thought of as describing a product. Using information from the case and concepts from Block 4, Reading 31, describe the product that you think is being offered here.

Using two concepts from Block 4, Reading 30 and information that can be inferred from the case, describe who you think are the customers that Nantes is trying to attract and what their motivations for ‘buying’ are.

Explain the concept of the circular flow of income. Using this concept, describe and discuss the effects of Nantes’ free public art events on the local economy of Nantes.

Describe the main activities pursued by government in mixed economic systems and provide examples about these activities related to the case study.

Describing the Product Offered by Nantes

The case be thought of as describing product. Using information from the case and concept from Block 4, Reading 31, describing the product that you think is being offered here.

The case here describes regarding culture that was prevalent in Nantes. The product discusses can be thought of the various art forms earlier formed part of the city and now it has been reduced to a great extent (Kelly, 2011). After the war, there had been several transformation brought about into the city with contemporary arts forms in public areas. In the 20th century there had been several physical, geographical and emotional impacts brought about that had destroyed the prevailing art. Nantes had been a city filled with fun but post war its art forms had vanished. Culture as offered in the city was confined to small spaces as museums and theaters, where people have to pay. Within enclosed spaces however only a small percentage of people can be targeted as rightly pointed out by Jean Nantes. Therefore, a festival was launched known as Les Allumees where artiste from various metropolitans were called to depict their art forms. They were allowed huge vacant spaces as industrial lot with facilities of bar and music. In this manner contemporary art demonstration was attracted from around the world.

Nantes offered the world its spaces for artiste to come and depict their art forms by launching of several art festivals and cultural center. Blaise launched a revolution in its own nature by transforming several factories into art and demonstration centers. Products here can also include along with art and cultural forms, tourists attraction as the event was successful in attracting tourists from various corners of the world.

Using two concepts from Block 4, Reading 30 and information that can be inferred from the case, describe who you think are the customers that Nantes is trying to attract and what their motivations for ‘buying’ are.

Nantes before the war had been a center for art and culture. The spirit had been demolished, which was revived again by turning factory and studio blocks for generating wave of next creative inspiration (Marciano, 2016). With launching of festivals and cultural center to depict public art forms, Nantes consumers consist not only of artiste but also purchaser of art of various forms. Public art has been though criticized by various group of people as they feel it is a waste of their hard earned taxes paid to the government. Consumers who come to purchase art forms is attracted to the festival to purchase installations for their shops. These consumers do not want contemporary art forms or any forms depicting history. Rather they desire to purchase some attractive humorous signs that would help attract customers to their shop front. Their motivations for purchase is the depiction of Nantes history itself but in a humorous nature.       

Identifying the Customers of Nantes's Public Art Festivals

Artiste, architects and designers hence can design something more than just public art installations that could sell to consumers who visit the festivals. The festival conducted in Nantes attracts 615,000 visitors from European, Asian countries and other countries of the world (Sonenscher, 2009). The spending on such festival is also high with high associated returns on the same. The consumers have been convinced regarding the art forms that are not a mere adornment or decorative purposes. Tourists are greatly attracted to this place and they come to visit the beautiful décor of the place and enjoy the cultural tastes depicted here. They often end-up purchasing several art forms. But mostly they come to visit the festival and either take part  or be a spectator in it.

Explain the concept of the circular flow of income. Using this concept, describe and discuss the  effects of Nantes’ free public art events on the local economy of Nantes.

Nantes free public art event attracts people from world over, they come to see various art and architecture demonstrations. Innovative art and architecture forms has been able to create a tourists industry drawn towards culture (Green, 2015). Nantes event has been able to surpass demographic and industrial economic crisis. There are several articles that reflect ways in which free public art has helped revive the culture as well as the economy in Nantes, France. The 20th century war had not only hampered demographically but also physical infrastructure, geography and emotional confidence levels were lost. Bombing by allied in the country had deterred developments in 1943 and it suffered badly for a prolonged period with lack of jobs. Development of public art has been capable of transforming the entire situation.   

Blaise on his arrival to Nantes realized the true potential that lies within the city (Sonenscher, 2009). There were signs of decaying city everywhere with aging infrastructure, abandoned homes and blighted buildings. The place had been able to transform itself totally by re-arrangement of the entire demolished and broken infrastructure and factories turning them into attractive places with beautiful decorative art forms and architecture that tourist would love to visit. The festival was able to reduce the burden of negative income and economic downturn turning it into a positive result. The festival was made free and open to public to attract huge number of crowd. Nantes earlier was not able to attract tourist as the city was in ruins and affected form bombing and post war events. Generation of public art festival changed the appearance of the entire city and now artistes and consumers that love arts and art forms visit the place in order to look at the contemporary art forms.

Effects of Nantes’ Free Public Art Festivals on the Local Economy

It was rather difficult to overcome post-industrial decay for reviving of public spaces. Community engagement through public spaces and civic life was affected which was visible through physical toll. He converted Nantes into “Venice of the West” with its beautiful architecture and canals by redefining contemporary art. He launched festivals that was free for public and artiste to attend, this generated a huge influx of artiste and tourists from world over. This led to creation of jobs for the locals as tourists and artiste stayed at local stays and ate their food, purchased goods from there. Separately there was tourism income generated which led to huge influx of Euro into the country (Long, 2016). This concept is known as the circular flow of income, where spending on one goods leads to generation of income on the other. As the case of Nantes artiste spending on Nantes good and stays and so do consumers generates incomes for other goods, as locals have now capability to purchase them. In the first stage it was rather difficult to convince people to spend from their taxes, but later the income generation was visible. Initially to launch the festival a cost incurred was $3 million but then returns calculated from it as $54 million as estimated by the Guardian. The city is regarded to be one of the fastest growing in France compared to other cities as The Huffington Post refers to it as “a hot spot in the

A mixed economic system is one in which there is coexistence of state monopoly and private enterprise. More or less all modern economies are mixed economies where public and private sectors shares means of production (Ibelings, 2016). These types of economy are also often referred to as dual economy. Main activities of the government within a mixed economy is to conduct activities with social aims. Government tries to indulge in those activities that are for public benefits as infrastructure, transport, hygiene and any other activities. Government’s role is immense in a mixed economic system as they play the role of developing the entire economic system. In such a system, they play the role of a social entrepreneur, initiating a process for generating social good for the people.  

The case identified in Nantes, government made initial huge investments from public taxes collected by it into culture. The Government was convinced that its impact could easily generate circular flow of income and reduce unemployment in the country (Young, 2011). Here the government played a role of a social entrepreneur, developing an engine and turning it into a mechanism that could generate income for the entire mass of people. The Government decided and aided the process of transformation allowing municipal spaces as well as factory outlets to be transformed or allowed to artiste for making their art and art forms. Government played the pivotal role discovering the hidden talent of Nantes that could generate future flow of incomes for the place. It generated social change in a manner that could highlight specialization of the place and create subsequent incomes for it.     

The Government not only diverted funds into making cultural festivals and attracting tourist as artiste and purchasers but also made arrangements for their flight connections, arranging stays, looking after security and so on. Government efforts needs to be present in order to build an effect on the entire economy or the festival would have gone unnoticed. There were several advertisements and other attraction created that could generate steady influx of customers. Moreover, the government played immense role in developing the entire tourism industry within the country (Madsen, 2015). Therefore, it can be concluded that the government had made several efforts in order to ensure appropriate development of the tourism industry.

Reference Lists

Green, J. (Ed.). (2015). Designed for the Future: 80 Practical Ideas for a Sustainable World. Chronicle Books.

Ibelings, H. (2016). The Postmodern European City. Joelho. Revista de Cultura Arquitectónica, (7), 28-37.

Kelly, C. (2011). Outdoor Sculpture in Baltimore: A Historical Guide to Public Art in the Monumental City. JHU Press.

Long, P., & Morpeth, N. D. (Eds.). (2016). Tourism and the Creative Industries: Theories, policies and practice. Routledge.

Madsen, A. (2015). Sonia Delaunay: Artist of the Lost Generation. Open Road Media.

Marciano, A., & Moureau, N. (2016). Museums, Property Rights, and Photographs of Works of Art. Why Reproduction Through Photograph Should Be Free.

Sonenscher, M. (2009). Before the deluge: public debt, inequality, and the intellectual origins of the French Revolution. Princeton University Press.

Young, D. R., & Grinsfelder, M. C. (2011). Social entrepreneurship and the financing of third sector organizations. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 543-567.

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