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You are a newly appointed accountant at Palvidia Ltd, who is considering purchasing the majority of the shares in Soletta Ltd. Senior management of Palvidia arranged a meeting with the executive team to discuss the effect of this decision. They asked Jane Penfold, the Chief Financial Officer, to explain a few issues about their decision to purchase shares in Soletta Ltd in preparation for their meeting with the executive team.

Required:

Draft a memorandum for Jane Penfold to sign for her presentation to the executive team that explains the following issues:

  • What is the purpose of preparing consolidated financial statements
  • What is a group, a parent and a subsidiary
  • How many parents can a group have? Justify your answer. 
  • Why is it necessary to make adjustments for intragroup transactions
  • When are profits realised in relation to inventories transfers within the group

Word limit: maximum 300 words 

Question 2 

On 1 July 2019, Paldivia Ltd acquired all the issued shares of Soletta Ltd for a cash consideration of $1 000 000. At that date, the financial statements of Soletta Ltd showed the following information.

 

$

Share capital

650 000

General reserve

20 000

Retained earnings

250 000

All the assets and liabilities of Soletta Ltd were recorded at amounts equal to their fair values at the acquisition date, except some equipment recorded at $50 000 below its fair value with a related accumulated depreciation of $80 000. Also, Palvidia Ltd identified at acquisition date a contingent liability related to a lawsuit where Soletta Ltd was sued by a former supplier and attached a fair value of $40 000 to that liability.

Required:

  • Prepare the acquisition analysis at 1 July 2019.
  • Prepare the consolidation worksheet entries for Paldivia Ltd’s group at 1 July 2019, assuming that Soletta Ltd has not revalued the equipment in its own accounts

Question 3 

Patagonia Ltd owns all the share capital of Salto Ltd. The income tax rate is 30%. The following transactions took place during the periods ended 30 June 2018 to 30 June 2020.

  • In February 2018, Patagonia Ltd sold inventories to Salto Ltd for $6 000, at a mark-up of 20% on cost. One-quarter of this inventories were unsold by Salto Ltd at 30 June 2018 to external parties and none at 30 June 2019.

(b)   On 1 January 2018, Salto Ltd sold a new tractor to Patagonia Ltd for $20 000. This had cost Salto Ltd $16 000 on that day. Both entities charged depreciation at the rate of 10% p.a. on the diminishing balance. The tractor was still on hand with Patagonia Ltd at 30 June 2020.

(c)   On 1 May 2019, Salto Ltd sold inventories costing $200 to Patagonia Ltd for $400 on credit. On 30 June 2019, only half of these goods had been sold by Patagonia Ltd, and Patagonia Ltd had paid $300 to Salto Ltd. All remaining inventories were sold to external entities by 30 June 2020 and Patagonia Ltd paid the outstanding amount to Salto Ltd on 5 May 2020.

  • Patagonia Ltd provided management services to Salto Ltd during the period ended 30 June 2020. The total charge for those services was $3 000 that was unpaid at 30 June 2020.
  • Patagonia Ltd borrows $50 000 from Salto Ltd on 1 July 2018 with an interest rate of 6% p.a. The loan is for 5 years. The interest is to be paid biannually in arrears, starting on 31 December 2018.
  • In December 2019, Salto Ltd paid a $1 500 interim dividend.
  • During March 2020, Salto Ltd declared a $3 000 dividend. The dividend was paid in August 2020. 

Required: 

In relation to the above intragroup transactions:

Prepare adjusting journal entries for the consolidation worksheet at 30 June 2019 and 30 June 2020.              

The main purpose of the financial statements in the consolidated form is to lay down the financial performance as well as the financial position of the parent company and all of its subsidiaries. The second purpose of the consolidated financial statement is to disclose the results for the benefits of the stakeholders of the company in the manner that the group represents one single entity even though it has number of subsidiaries (Hove,2016).

Group, Parent and Subsidiary

The entity which controls the management and the functioning of the other entity is known as parent entity.

The entity which is controlled by the other entity is known as the subsidiary (AASB, 2011).

The group is the broad term and includes the parent entity and the number of subsidiaries in which the parent entity has the controlling power.

Number of Parents Group Can have

The group can have only one parent company which will be presenting the financial results of all the subsidiaries on which it exercises the control in accordance with the provisions of the Australian Accounting standard. If there is more than one parent in the group then the financial statements cannot be presented in the defined and consolidated manner.  Thus, the group has only one parent company (IAS Website, 2016).

Necessity of Adjustments for intra group Transactions

Intra group transactions always occur between the subsidiary and the parent entity in the normal course of business. The adjustments relating to these transactions shall be done on the regular basis. It is because of the fact that there is the high possibility of having the transactions recorded in the books of accounts twice till the time it is knock off while preparing the financial statements (AASB 101; Accounting for Intra group Transactions, 2016).

Realization of Profit transfers within the Group

The profits are realized when the entity outside of the group is involved. It means when the inventory is sold to the other entity, which is not the part of the group, the profit will be realized.  

Chief Financial Officer

Answer 2 (a)

PALDIVIA LIMITED

 
 

Acquisition Anlaysis

 
           
 

Cost of Acquisition

       
 

Cash

 

 $  1,000,000

   
 

Shares in Soletta Limited

 

 $                 -  

 $  1,000,000

 
           
 

Book Value of Net Assets

       
 

Share Capital

 

 $      650,000

   
 

General Reserve

 

 $        20,000

   
 

Retained Earnings

 

 $      250,000

   
 

Total Book Value of Net Assets

 

 $      920,000

   
 

Add:

       
 

Fair Value Adjustments

       
 

Increase in Equipment

 $        30,000

     
 

Increase in Contingent Liability

 $     (40,000)

     
   

 $      (10,000)

   
         
 

Fair Value of Net Assets

   

 $     910,000

 
 

Goodwill (100% Acquisition)

   

 $        90,000

 
           
           

Answer 2 (b)

General Journal

         
 

Date

Particulars

Debit Amount

Credit Amount

         
   

PRE ACQUISITION

   
 

1-Jul-19

Retained Earnings

 $     250,000

 
   

Share Capital

 $     650,000

 
   

Business Combination Valuation Reserve

 $     100,000

 
   

Shares in Soletta Limited

 

 $   1,000,000

         
   

AT THE TIME OF ACQUISITION

   
         
 

1-Jul-19

Depreciation - Accumulated

 $       80,000

 
   

   To Equipment

 

 $        80,000

         
 

1-Jul-19

Equipment

 $       80,000

 
   

Business Combination Valuation Reserve

 

 $        80,000

         
 

1-Jul-19

Goodwill

 $       90,000

 
   

Business Combination Valuation Reserve

 

 $        90,000

         
   

AFTER ACQUISITION

   
         
         
         
 

1-Jul-19

Depreciation

 $       40,000

 
   

Retained Earnings

 $       40,000

 
   

Accumulated Depreciation

 

 $        80,000

         
         
   

Consolidation Entries

   
         
 

1

Share Capital

 $  1,000,000

 
   

Share in Soletta Limited

 

 $   1,000,000

         
 

2

Goodwill

 $       90,000

 
   

Share in Soletta Limited

 

 $        90,000

Answer 3

General Journal

         
 

S. No.

Partiuculars

Debit Amount

Credit Amount

         
         
 

a)

Retained Earnings

 $            175

 
   

Income Tax Expense

 $              75

 
   

      To Cost of Sales

 

 $             250

         
         
 

b)

Retained Earnings

 $         2,800

 
   

Deferred Tax'

 $         1,200

 
   

    To Tractor

 

 $          4,000

         
   

Accumulated Depreciation

 $            600

 
   

     To Depreciation

 

 $             400

   

     To Retained Earnings

 

 $             200

   

(10% for 1.5 years on $6000)

   
         
   

Income Tax  Expense

 $            120

 
   

Retained Earnings

 $              60

 
   

     To Deferred Tax Asset

 

 $             180

         
         
 

c)

Retained Earnings

 $              70

 
   

Income Tax Expense

 $              30

 
   

      To Cost of Sales

 

 $             100

         
   

Inventory

 $            300

 
   

      To Bank

 

 $             300

         
   

Inventory

 $            100

 
   

      To Bank

 

 $             100

         
         
         
 

d)

Management Services Income

 $         3,000

 
   

       To Management Services Expense

 

 $          3,000

     

 `

 
 

e)

Loan From Salto Limited

 $       50,000

 
   

       To Loan to Patagonia Limited

 

 $        50,000

         
   

Interest Revenue

 $         1,500

 
   

       To Interest Expense

 

 $          1,500

         
   

Interest Revenue

 $         1,500

 
   

       To Interest Expense

 

 $          1,500

         
         
 

f)

Dividend Revenue

 $         1,500

 
   

      To Interim Dividend Paid

 

 $          1,500

         
         
 

g)

Dividend Payable

 $         3,000

 
   

      To Final Dividend declared

 

 $          3,000

         
   

Dividend Revenue

 $         3,000

 
   

      To Dividend Receivable

 

 $          3,000

References

  1. Hove M, (2016), “Consolidated Financial Statements – An International Perspective”
  1. AASB official website, (2011), “Consolidated Financial Statements”, 
  1. AASB official website, (2011), “AASB101 Presentation of Financial Statements”
  1. Accounting For Intra Group Transaction, (2016),
  1. IAS Website, (2016), “IAS 27 Consolidate and Separate Financial Statements”, 
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