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Compare and contrast the two examples of health and social care initiatives selected from K242 with reference to the challenges and benefits of promoting equality in ageing societies.

Explain your approach to writing the essay. How have your study skills developed during the module to get you to this point?

Challenges to promote equality in aging

Health inequalities mainly persist in the old age. The health status of the individuals is dependent on the socioeconomic, gender- based and ethnic influence. Maori have the lower life expectancy since the European colonization consistently. People have to live in the deprived areas and do not get proper health care facilities. Aaltio, Maria Salminen and Koponen (2014) stated that good health status not only depends on biology and gene but also depends on the environment, living status, hygiene and other things.

On the other hand, Thompson (2016) stated that the key factor of good health is the socio- economic status. People with high income, education, and occupation leads better health status than the people of low income, occupation, and education. Health inequalities mainly are seen in between the rich and poor people. People of Maori and Pacific have consistently poorer health condition (Foster and Walker 2014). Other factors those responsible for the health inequalities are ethnicity, life expectancy, lifestyle and mortality, morbidity rate.

The assignment has two parts. In the first part, the discussion focuses on the challenges to promote the equality in the aging. The policy initiatives are discussed to address the challenges in promoting the equality. The benefits of the promoting the equality in aging society is discussed.

The main issues of promoting the equality in the aging society are the Discrimination with the aged people. The health inequalities mainly are mainly seen in the lower income groups and communities (Rubery 2015). In New Zealand, the ethnic identity is the important dimension of the health inequalities. The Maori health status is poorer that the other people of New Zealand. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the Maori health to reduce the health inequalities. To address the challenges of the health inequalities, it is necessary socio- economic, geographic, gender, and ethnic inequalities. These factors affect the health of the Maori and became the challenge to promote the equality in aging. The discrimination is seen in between the gender as well. The health inequality needs the public approach, which needs the intersectional action (Westwood et al. 2015). This action helps to address the economic and social determinants of the health. This approach of public will be able to reduce the challenges of promoting the health inequalities and reduce them. To reduce the health inequalities in the health care system, various principles are proposed. These principles can help to reduce the inequalities (Raphael 2014). The proposed structure for the intervention entails to develop and implement the comprehensive strategies. These strategies have four stages that include structural, intermediary pathways, health and disability services, and impact. The first level helps to tackle main cause of the health inequalities. This includes the socio- economic, historical, and cultural factors, which determine the health fundamentally (Sano and Yasumoto 2014).

Policy initiatives to address the challenges to promote equality

The next level is intermediary pathway. This level helps to target the materials, behavioral and psychological factors, which mediate impact of the structural factors on the health. The third level is the health and disability services. This level helps to undertake the specific actions in the health and disability services. These actions have impact on the health and disability services. This helps to minimize the impact of the disability and the illness on the socioeconomic position. Lin and Huang (2015) stated that people need to undertake the four levels nationally as well as regionally. Maori is the oldest community therefore they should not be avoided and people should provide the chance of health and social care to them to overcome the challenges of promoting the health inequality. People living in the favorable condition can get proper health treatment than the people who lives in the poverty (Park 2015). Therefore, the challenge of the life expectancy needs to be overcome. The change in the life expectancy can improve the health status of the poorer people. The unhealthy life expectancy causes the illness and increase the mortality rate. However, the medical technology has developed since 19th century, but the condition of the Maori people does not develop. The socio- economic factors connect the health status of the Maori people the illness. Due to the poor economic- status, the Maori people are lack of housing and nutrition. Walker and Foster (2013) mentioned that in case of better health, the nutrition plays key role. Nutrition helps the body to fight against the diseases by providing immune power to the body. In December 2014, the rate of the illness in the people of New Zealand increases to 88% whereas the number of illness in the Maori people increased to 89% (Foster and Walker 2013).

The policy initiatives help to address challenges for promoting the equality. In 2001, the Stockholm European Council strategy copes with the economic challenges. This is linked with the aging population. In 2006, the demographic future of the Europe helped to overcome the challenges (Lee 2015). The opportunities include the demographic renewal, employment, productivity, and competitiveness, integration of the migrants and sustainable public finances. This helps to promote the form of the work- life balance and the active aging policies. This helps to increase the gender equalities. This helps to implement the social dialogue outcomes (Finkelstein et al. 2015). The European qualification framework includes the adult education. The policies help in making the partnerships in between the education, training, and the work. The European innovation partnership (2011) has effective impact on healthy aging. This policy will help the Maori people to reduce the health inequalities (Mitchell and Karr 2014). It is very common for the aging people of the society to face social discrimination due to the lack of physical capability. One of the main advantages of equality among aging people is that they are able to participate equally in all forms of social activities and can share their strength and weakness with the community. Equality in the society of older people and younger generation is an important part of social integration process. Equality in the aging society can also encourage the older people to share their challenges with the society and thereby able to have a better relationship with different groups of the community. Improvement in the aging community of people can also contribute to the overall economic and social development of a nation.

The European innovation partnership (2011) has three main objectives the first objective is to enable the Maori people to lead the healthy and active lives as well as the independent lives in aging society (Moen 2015). This helps to improve the sustainability, efficiency of the social, health, and social care system. The European innovation partnership boosts the competitiveness and markets for the innovative products and the services, which responses to the aging challenges. This partnership focuses on the prevention and the health promotion (Sano and Yasumoto 2014). This help for the integrated care. Another policy is the anti discriminate policy. This helps to prohibit the discrimination against the harassment. The harassment occurs during the race, ethnic, age, color, sex, disability, age, gender identity, and the expression (Lin and Huang 2015). This law can help the aging people of Maori community to avoid the health and social care inequalities. The policies help to reduce the inequalities of health and social care, socio- economic status including the income and education (Park 2015). Education can help the Maori people to avoid the health inequalities. Equality in the society of older people and younger generation is an important part of social integration process (Walker and Foster 2013).

It is very common for the aging people of the society to face social discrimination due to the lack of physical capability. They are denied of all kinds of medical needs and other forms of social assistance, which is necessary at this stage of life (Foster and Walker 2013). In the second case study that is given it is clear from the opinion of the speakers that aging is regarded as one of the greatest success of modern medical care. With improved treatment techniques, it is possible to cure many diseases and hence, increase the average age of population (Zeng et al., 2016). Moreover the aging population is found more in urban areas as people are able to afford the high quality medical service. One of the main advantages of equality among aging people is that they are able to equally participate in all forms of social activities and can also share their strength and weakness with the community (Finkelstein et al. 2015).

The aged people can also have their own identity in the society and thereby can contribute in the overall progress of the nation. As the aged people also get equal treatments they are able to interact with the younger people in the society and share the experience that can help in the development process of younger people (Mitchell and Karr 2014). In New York the aging committee which are led by seniors and other elderly people, has been a great place for the older people to share their experience and interact with other people of the society. Providing equal rights to the elderly people can also help in the process of understanding their important contribution to the society. Equality in the society of older people and younger generation is an important part of social integration process. This can help in the overall development of the nation and also encourage the young people to take more initiative for improvement of the society (Goldbach et al.2015).

Providing equal benefits to the aged people in what place can also increase the diversity of workplace and thereby improve upon the rate of productivity in an organization. They can also share their vital experience of working with other people of the organization and thus, contribute in the path of progress (Serrano et al., 2014). Equality in the aging society can also encourage the older people to share their challenges with the society and thereby able to have a better relationship with different groups of the community.

Aging society is an important part of both developed and developing Nations. Higher the average age of the population in a nation indicates high level of medical service delivery and also effective working efficiency of the overall population. As with improved Healthcare facilities of modern days, the aging process is occurring rapidly in developed Nations, it is important for the society to ensure that this aged people are able to enjoy all equal benefits and rights of medical and social service as the former major part of the population.  Improvement in the aging community of people can also contribute to the overall economic and social development of a nation.

Conclusion:

Based on the above discussion, it can be said that the health status of the individuals is dependent on the socioeconomic, gender- based and ethnic influence. The key factor of good health is the socio- economic status. People with high income, education, and occupation leads better health status than the people of low income, occupation, and education. The health inequalities mainly are mainly seen in the lower income groups and communities. The health inequality needs the public approach, which needs the intersectional action. People need to undertake the four levels nationally as well as regionally. Maori is the oldest community therefore they should not be avoided and people should provide the chance of health and social care to them to overcome the challenges of promoting the health inequality. The socio- economic factors connect the health status of the Maori people the illness. Equality in the society of older people and younger generation is an important part of social integration process. This can help in the overall development of the nation and encourage the young people to take more initiative for improvement of the society. Improvement in the aging community of people can also contribute to the overall economic and social development of a nation.

After reading the cases studies, I was able to understand the concept of health inequality. To gather more information about the topic, I had to research previous scientific research journals, and articles. For this purpose, I used some databases sc as Google scholar, Pub Med, Cinahl, University of Bedfordshire’s electronic library system, Charles Darwin University link, and Science direct. To search the literatures, I used various key words like health inequalities, Maori, environment, socio- economic status, income, education, diseases, challenges, quality, benefits, promoting and aging society. I have chosen the information based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. I chose only that information, which is relevant and fond in English with the full access.  The exclusion criteria include the irrelevant information and those, which were not fully accessible in English. After reading the case studies and scientific literatures, I took notes of the important points. I had to concentrate and understand the topic for the assignment.

To improve the skills, I focused on the reading the literature and note taking. I checked published data that is relevant to my topic. I selected that information, which is latest and older than 5 years. I highlighted the important information and noted the key words. After that, I summarized the important key words and important information. This technique helped me to be engaged with the text. The gathered information helped me to complete assignment. The social media and internet system helped me. Due to these systems, I was able to find out the information about the challenges and benefits to promote the equality in the ageing societies. It is a broad topic, therefore, I found various results, which took quite time to gather and summarize. The technologies helped me as well as encouraged me for the assignment and therefore, I was able to complete the assignment.

References:

Aaltio, I., Maria Salminen, H. and Koponen, S., 2014. Ageing employees and human resource management–evidence of gender-sensitivity?. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 33(2), pp.160-176.

Finkelstein, L., Truxillo, D., Fraccaroli, F. and Kanfer, R. eds., 2015. Facing the challenges of a multi-age workforce: A use-inspired approach. Routledge.

Foster, L. and Walker, A., 2013. Gender and active ageing in Europe. European Journal of Ageing, 10(1), pp.3-10.

Foster, L. and Walker, A., 2014. Active and successful aging: A European policy perspective. The Gerontologist, p.gnu028.

Goldbach, J. T., Amaro, H., Vega, W., and Walter, M. D. 2015. The Grand Challenge of Promoting Equality by Addressing Social Stigma.

Lee, R., 2015. Guardianship of the elderly with diminished capacity: the Chinese challenge. International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family, 29(1), pp.1-14.

Lin, Y.Y. and Huang, C.S., 2015. Aging in Taiwan: Building a Society for Active Aging and Aging in Place. The Gerontologist, p.gnv107.

Mitchell, D. and Karr, V., 2014. Crises, conflict and disability: ensuring equality. Routledge.

Moen, P., 2015. An institutional/organizational turn: Getting to work–life quality and gender equality. Work and Occupations, 42(2), pp.174-182.

Park, H.J., 2015. Legislating for filial piety: An indirect approach to promoting family support and responsibility for older people in Korea. Journal of aging & social policy, 27(3), pp.280-293.

Raphael, D., 2014. Challenges to promoting health in the modern welfare state: The case of the Nordic nations. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, 42(1), pp.7-17.

Rubery, J., 2015. Austerity, the Public Sector and the Threat to Gender Equality-Geary Lecture 2014. The Economic and Social Review, 46(1, Spring), pp.1-27.

Sano, Y. and Yasumoto, S., 2014. Policy responses to population-declining society: Development and challenges of family policies in Japan. In Handbook of family policies across the globe (pp. 319-331). Springer New York.

Serrano, J. P., Latorre, J. M., and Gatz, M. 2014. Spain: promoting the welfare of older adults in the context of population aging. The Gerontologist, 54(5), 733-740.

Thompson, N., 2016. Anti-discriminatory practice: Equality, diversity and social justice. Palgrave Macmillan.

Walker, A. and Foster, L., 2013. Active ageing: Rhetoric, theory and practice. The making of aging policy: Theory and practice in Europe, pp.27-53.

Westwood, S., King, A., Almack, K., Suen, Y.T. and Bailey, L., 2015. Good practice in health and social care provision for LGBT older people in the UK. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans health inequalities: International perspectives in social work, p.145.

Zeng, Y., Brasher, M. S., Gu, D., and Vaupel, J. W. 2016. Older Parents Benefit More in Health Outcome From Daughters’ Than Sons’ Emotional Care in China. Journal of aging and health, 28(8), 1426-1447.

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