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Supposed you are a fire safety engineer, you are employed in the fire safety design project of a fire compartment with excessive compartment area with the following information.

  1. Basement with two floors under ground floor level
  2. Room dimension 27m x 28m x 3m (height) for each floor

iii. Fire size to be determined by the fire engineer (290 kW/m2), ordinary hazard.

You are required to evaluate fire hazard within basement structural and compare different countries requirement on fire protection for such basement structural.

List risks encounter in basement fire and make relevant assessment.

Conduct a fire engineering study and design the smoke extraction system for this fire compartment.

Fire Risk Assessment

This is a report written as a result of participating in the fire safety design project of a fire compartment with excessive compartment area. The aim of this report is to provide a list of the fire hazards, a recommended smoke extraction system design and recommendations to guarantee compliance with the local fire regulations.

The inherent risks to the property or its commercial use will not be addressed in this report since that particular information is not clear.

The type of fire risk assessment carried out in this report in type A (van Hees, Holmstedt, Bengtson, Hägglund, Dittmer, Blomqvist, Lönnermark, 2009). Typically, a type A fire risk assessment is a basic risk assessment that is carried out on apartment blocks or commercial buildings in order to satisfy the Fire Safety regulatory reform order of 2005. This risk assessment involves consideration to the planning of escape routes, any partitions between compartments without any interference to the building’s construction.

The following factors will be considered in carrying the fire risk assessment of the fire compartment:

  • Fire hazards detected in the basement structure
  • People that may be at risk
  • Evaluation of a severe fire occurrence
  • Design of escape routes, compartments and fire separation
  • Smoke extraction design
  • Precautionary measures

The following legislation, policies or regulations have been referenced for purposes of this fire risk assessment. 

For purposes of this report, the risk levels will be estimated by following the table below. The estimation is referenced from the risk estimator in BS8800.

Table1:  Risk level estimation

Potential consequences of fire

Slight harm

Moderate harm

Extreme harm

Likelihood of fire

Low

Trivial risk

Tolerable risk

Moderate risk

Medium (normal)

Tolerable risk

Moderate risk

Substantial risk

High

Moderate risk

Substantial risk

Intolerable risk

Date of site visit:

20th April 2018

Date of report:

25th April 2018

Report validation date:

25th April 2018

Report completed by:

 students name

Report validated by:

 students name

Signature:

 students signature

Assessed area:

The fire compartment in the basement of the case building

Building use:

The building use was not specified. However, from the dimensions and arrangement of the rooms, the building is assumed to be of commercial use for purposes of this report. Each of the rooms in the building is 27m x 28m x 3m. The rooms are arranged in an open plan office design with access doors.

Building description:

The area contains a basement with two floors under the ground floor level, rooms dimensioned 27m x 28m x 3m in each floor with the fire size 290kW/m2 which is determined as an ordinary hazard by the fire engineer. The specific area of study is the fire compartment with excessive compartment area. The basement is equipped with open parking spaces and service rooms including a fire compartment, storage tanks and a laundry room.

Approximate dimensions:

The rooms in each floor are dimensioned 27m x 28m x 3m.

Legislation and Regulations

Materials used in construction:

The load bearing walls are constructed as masonry wall with concrete reinforcement. The non-load bearing walls are built with brick and mortar or plaster on wooden stud frames. The ceiling of the basement and the two floors below the ground floor are made of reinforced concrete. The ground floor is made from hollow bricks and reinforced concrete.

Compliance with the existing building regulations:

The buildings construction is satisfactory in accordance to the current local building regulations.

The management system currently in place is a Level 1 fire safety system.

A level 1 fire safety system requires that the building manager in charge of fire safety ensures that the initial testing, repairs and maintenance of fire safety facilities and has direct control of the workforce that carries out such responsibilities. In anticipation of change of occupancy or fire growth, level 1 fire safety system has measures that will ensure continuity or alternate protection.

All out- simultaneous evacuation

Occupancy:

General needs only. All the building users can read and speak in English.

Occupants at special risk:

None

Occupancy maximums:

A maximum of 80 persons at any single time.

Lone workers:

No lone worker was identified

Notices:

During the assessment, there was no enforcement or prohibition notices served to the building management to the local authorities.

Site contact and liaison:

The building manager and the users were interviewed during the site visit. In addition, I carried out general observations on the basement structure. 

I was granted to all the areas in the fire compartment and the basement with no restrictions during m site visit.

Priority time scales:

For purposes of this report, the following is the number legend to for the actions on the recommendations to be carried out. All the timelines are developed in adherence to the Regulatory Reform Fire Safety order of 2005.

  1. Immediate action: to be implemented as soon as possible.
  2. a period of up to 3 months
  3. a period between 3 to 6 months
  4. a period not greater than 12 months
  5. Advisory action: a period greater than 12 months.

Actions that are rated advisory are not compulsory but can be carried out on a precautionary case.  

This section of the report will involve the identification and detailing of the hazards within the basement, the existing control measures, people that may be at risk (Frantzich, 2008) in case of a fire, firefighting provisions and the means to escape provided for in the basement.

The following fire hazards have been identified in the basement structure:

The electrical hazards identified include portable electrical machines and hard wired circuits and electrical fittings.

Risk:
It has been documented from various fire reports that one of the main sources of accidental fires is unmanned running electrical appliances and faulty electrical connections and appliances.

Risk Level Estimation

Existing control mechanisms:

The basement is routinely checked annually and an installation report is published and acted upon by the building management.

Mitigation measures:

The following mitigation measures are proposed to deal with the risk of electrical hazard:

  • Electrical installations (priority no 4)

All the electrical connections, appliances and installations should not be left unattended or unmanned in the basement or adjoining areas. All the formal inspections that are required by law should be religiously carried out and the recommendations (Richards, 2008) contained in the report should be implemented by the building management. The Electricity at Work Regulations stipulate the necessary guidelines that must be followed in the routine checks for electrical installations in a commercial building (Isenberg, Woodard & Badolato, 2009). The following checks should be considered in the routine checks:

  1. Check for deterioration of electrical connections or appliances, breakages, overheating, missing electrical parts or loose fittings.
  2. Ensure that there is easy access to the switchgear, all the door cavities are secured and the necessary labels are present.
  3. Check that all the electrical equipment is functioning properly. 
  • Portable electrical machines (priority no 3)

The only machine that was being tested during the site survey was the smoke extraction system for the fire compartment. It is recommended that all the portable appliances within the basement be checked every 6 months for malfunctioning (Beyler, 2008). In addition, none of the portable appliances should be left unmanned during operation.

The following are the recommendations in the UK’s Electricity at Work Regulations in regards to portable electrical machines:

  1. Any deterioration detected in an electrical appliance that is capable of causing human injury should be fixed immediately and undergo routine checks.
  2. Portable or movable equipment that are connected to the mains should be connected with safety equipment such as RCD circuit breakers and plug multi-way adapters. 

Convection heaters, high wattage lighting, cotton lint and spontaneous ignition of natural materials was identified as potential ignition points or fire loading hazards.

Risk:
The presence of combustible materials in the basement increases the chances of a fire eruption. These materials act as fuel to the fire and if located in close proximity to the fire source, can easily spread the fire over large distances within short periods of time. Some of the combustible materials identified included laundry and refuse in garbage bins.

Existing control mechanisms:

The building manager noted that most of the convection heaters are mounted on the walls to ensure that they remain uncovered (Babrauskas, 2008). All the washing machines and dryers in the laundry room present in the basement are serviced annually, cleaned of lint weekly and their power switched off when not in operation.

Mitigation measures:

The following mitigation measures are proposed to deal with the risk of ignition points and fire loading hazard:

  • High wattage lighting (priority no 2)

All the light bulbs in the basement should be replaced with low wattage bulbs. This will ensure that there is a low risk of a fire in case the bulb comes into contact with combustible materials in storage (BSI 2011). It is recommended that environmentally friendly LED bulbs be installed in the basement.

  • Natural fibres (priority no 2)

Site Visit Details

The laundry present in the laundry area pose a risk since some of it may be made from natural fibres that is very combustible.  It is recommended that all the laundry cycles should be concluded with cooling cycles (Chiti, 2009). In addition, labels that indicate the safety measures should be placed in strategic points in the laundry room.

Smoking materials and cigarette smoking was identified as a fire risk in the basement.  

Risk:
The local regulations stipulate that smoking is prohibited in all covered areas in public buildings. However, the basement offers a suitable secretive area that people may resort to smoking since their actions will remain concealed (Coster & Hankin, 2008).  This poses an increased fire risk to the basement.

Existing control mechanisms:

The Smoke Free Regulations of 2007 instruct that no smoking should be carried out in enclosed spaces.

Mitigation measures:

The basement area should be equipped with ‘No Smoking’ signs that are strategically placed.

The following is study on fire engineering for basement based on reported, published and analysed cases. In order to understand the causes, triggers and fuel for basement fires, extensive experiments with the construction materials, finishes and building elements will be carried out. The building elements that will be analysed in this report will include various kinds of floor joists, steel C-joists, hybrid trusses and castellated I-joints.

Samples of the named elements were taken to the laboratory and burned in the furnace and in larger fires to observe their behaviour (Klason, Andersson, Johansson & van Hees, 2011). In addition, two basement fire simulations were carried out in the lab; one of them being an imagined worst case scenario for the basement in question (Krüger, Deubel, Werrel, Fettig, Raspe & Piechotta, 2013). Each of the simulations was tested with various floor finishes, diverse fuel loads, various loadings and ventilation.

The worst case scenario for the basement (Marquis, Guillaume & Lesenechal, 2012) would include a large fire that would start from the laundry room. The fire would be aggravated by the presence of the fire compartment.

The performance of the basement in case of a fire can be predicted according to the following factors:

  • The age of the building
  • The methods and materials of constructions
  • Structural support assemblies, components and systems
  • Systems resilience

A smoke extraction system for a basement consists of a smoke outlet and an inlet vent for fresh air. The system can be operated naturally or mechanically (Nilsson & van Hees, 2012) to ventilate and remove heat from basements. The following are the requirements that a smoke system should fulfil according to local legislation:

  • The system may be natural or mechanical.
  • Systems that are mechanically ventilated should be fitted with sprinklers.
  • The air extraction system should give a minimum of 10 air changes hourly.
  • The fire duct of the smoke extraction system should be assembled such that they resist water impingement from the sprinkler system.

Building Description

When a fire occurs in the basement, it is detected by the smoke censors on the ceiling. The fire damper on the smoke shaft in the basement will open and in turn the vent at the top of the extractor system will open up to allow smoke to get out and to ensure there is no vacuum within the ductwork. The fan in the roof plant room will ensure that all the smoke is extracted from the system and none of the smoke spreads to other compartments.

All the ductwork in the system should be fire rated in order to be approved as appropriate for removing smoke from the compartments (Nystedt, 2011). The fire rating for all the ductwork is one-hour integrity and stability to resist fire and hot smoke.  However, the first compartment does not require any insulation fire rating.

The duct that rises from through the two floors from the basement should be capable of marinating stability and insulation fire rating for the same period of time as the two floors that it will go through until it gets outside.

In cases where there are combustible materials within a distance of 500mm from the duct, the local regulations require that insulation may not be necessary for instance in the roof plant room denoted in green colour. Thus all the ductwork in the fire compartment and the two floors that are deemed of commercial use have fire rated insulation.

At least 75 percent of the cross sectional area must be maintained in all regions of the ductwork for a period of time similar to that of the compartment and floors that it passes through. All the penetration seals and the fire rated ductwork should be tested to BS EN 1366-1 and classified in harmony with BS EN 13501-3 by a recognised and established laboratory. Approval must be obtained from the fire department of the local authority before operation.

It has been proved that huge loss could be avoided initially when we have a detection system to detect the fire at the early stage and give a warning sign. A fire detector and alarm system helps us with this indication (Proulx, 2008). The Maintenance is very essential and the fire suppression system (Rubin, Brewin, Greenberg, Hughes, Simpson & Wessely, 2007) along with the fire detection and alarm system plays a major role in the fire protection system.  This could make the survival of the living and also protect from heavy property damage. Fire could spread from the basement to the top floor in a multifunctional building. Hence precautions should be taken at the beginning. The people who are trained in these aspects should serve the maintenance purpose.

Fire Hazards and Mitigation Measures

The contemporary detection system varies with the conventional one with the improvement in their advanced signalling equipment. The designed system should be approved before it is to be installed in the basement (Hu, 2017). Such approval is made by the qualified individuals at NFPA® 70, National Electrical Code®, and NFPA® 72, National Fire Alarm and Signalling Code. Other standards could also serve this purpose.

The wiring part could consist of the electronically activated devices which are called as the fire alarm control unit or fire alarm control panel).  The panel is provided with the external power supply which could sense the input signal, process the signal and provide the output signal such as providing the alarm signal or some visual signal indicating the fire. The circuits are altogether bound into a single component. The fire alarm control unit could also convey the signal to an off-site monitoring station. The part of the fire alarm system could also include the remote auxiliary fire control units and notification appliance panels that are connected together (Richards, 2008).  The fire alarm control unit could also severe several purposes such as

  • Promotes fire-fighter communication in two ways
  • Promotes the annunciator assimilation
  • Promotes control to several other protection features such as elevators, HVAC, dampers, doors and other necessary emphasis
  • Also provided with the voice notification and messaging features to the public which is pre-recorded.

The figure below shows the schematic diagram of the fire alarm control unit showing various component of the system.

This power is usually taken from the main electrical supply of the particular building. This is supplied to the local utility provider. In some cases when the electrical supply is terminated we get the power from the generator which occurs from the engine driven motor. This should be carefully driven with the help of the supervisor and it should be monitored for 24 hours. The best part of the working of generator is that it should be set to the automatic start of the engine which comes under the secondary power supply category. The Fire Alarm Control Unit is responsible for the operation of the alarm when the power supply is sporadic.

If there is a failure in the main power supply then it is necessary to set the secondary power supply into operation.  Each and every Fire Alarm should be provided with the secondary power supply which is necessary to operate the alarm system without any human intervention. The time of operation of the secondary power supply to work and their functioning capacity varies and this could be found in NFPA® 72. The sources of the secondary power supply can be the power storage batteries, heavy storage batteries connected to the engine-operated generators, numerous engine-driven generators which should be set into automatic operation. A backup battery which is set into operation is shown.

Smoke Extraction System Design

The fire or smoke initiating devices could be operated manually or automatic. When there is a presence of the smoke or fire the indication (Stewart, 2008) could be detected through the sensors and this indication is send to the fire alarm control unit. There are two ways in sending the signal to FACU: 1) Hard-wire system. 2) Origination of radio waves which are transmitted at a particular frequency to the radio station. These functionalities are extended and are not limited to the particular functioning devices such as smoke detectors, heat detectors, water-flow devices etc. The notification devices could be of many types but the most commonly used devices is indication systems such as buzzers, speakers, flash lights, horns etc. Depending on the building height and width we should use those specific devices. Here we have to see the device which is suitable for the basement area (Thompson  & Bank, 2007). The horns and speakers could be used for this purpose which should have an audible range in the particular frequency. The flash light and strobe lights can be used for the visual purpose when the area is below 230 square meters since this could be visible and it’s enough source of indication. Visual text messages and symbols could also be used for this purpose. Moreover a tactile device which produces vibrations could be used in the larger area of more than 230 square meters.

The fire detection and alarm system should operate based on the signal it receives from the signalling devices. Certain signals could be an indication of fire. Some could be an indication of malfunction that occurs in certain working devices. Hence it is necessary to analyse the signal. There are three types of speciality signal based on the type of alarm it produces

Alarm signal: This is said to be the hazardous situation which indicates the presence of the fire. This signal should be taken care and when this signal is produced then automatic operation of smoke detectors, manual pull stations, water-flow switches and the other fire extinguishers could be activated.

Supervisory signal: This signal is indicated when all the functioning devices is in a normal situation. This could be the indication in which the fire is destroyed and the system is off-normal situation. This will scrutinize the probity of the fire protection devices.

Trouble signal: This signal is an indication of the improper functioning of certain devices. This could be a signal that occurs due to the malfunction that occurs in the fire detection and alarm system. 

Conclusion

Based on the compartments of the building the fire-rated system are classified as fire barriers, fire walls fire partitions, smoke barriers and smoke partitions (Utne, Hokstad  & Vatn, 2011). When the incursion happens through these walls then the fire could be avoided with the ventilation system (HVAC), which could work together with the help of the smoke dampers or fire dampers or with the combination of both. As a fire engineer, one should have a thorough knowledge regarding these dampers. The fire dampers are different from the smoke dampers that vary in their methodology, installation and their working. This variation could be used essentially in the life safety system. When a duct temperature reaches an enough level to dissipate a fusible link then the fire dampers will be closed. When a smoke is detected then the smoke dampers will be closed. Many fire safety engineers had approved that the combination of fire and smoke dampers plays a necessary role in the safety system. According to the UL555S standard (Winter, Moore, Davis & Strauss, 2013), the smoke dampers and the combination of fire and smoke dampers are said to be the leakage rated devices which is described at the table given below 

Table 2: UL555S classification under the leakage rated device

Leakage classification

Leakage, cfm/sq-ft at the standard air conditions

4.5 in wg.                        8.5 in wg.                           12.5 in wg.

                 I

8 11  14

                 II

20                                       28 35

                 III

80                                       112 140

FIRE DAMPERS:

A fire damper is designed in the pathway of the distribution of air which is installed in ducts or due to the detection of heat the smoke control system will be automatically closed. It also acts in disrupting the migration of the flow of air, flame path will be blocked and preserve the reliability of the fire rated division (Xin, & Khan, 2007). The main function of the fire damper is to block the flame pathway from one side to another. This damper consists of a melting fuse wire. This damper is tested by UL555S standard which is the standard for the safety provided by the fire dampers. The melting point of the link is between 165°F up to 286°F. Until the link melts the blades are kept open initially. When the link melts the blades are closed that result in the blockage of the movement of flame to the near joining compartments.  

The fire dampers are placed in the walls or the floor of the building. This should be placed at an area near the duct diffusing pathway that could maintain the integrity of the fire rating of the floor or the wall. The fire dampers give the appearance like the wall of the building. The fire dampers could be installed in the form of sleeves (Zimmerman & Restrepo, 2009). Lighter gauge sleeves of about 18-20 ga, needs a separate connection from the duct to the sleeve. Heavier sleeves of about 16 ga, needs a rigid ductwork connection. The process of manufacturing and installation is carried out in a proper guided manner. After the installation of these dampers, it should be properly sealed. The duct and the damper pathways are not sealed due to the thermal expansion. The broken connection and the other closure way could be sealed if the manufacture list has a proper UL approved sealant. There are two purposes of fire dampers and they are static and dynamic dampers. The static dampers could be used in the purpose of HVAC system which will stop its function during the indication of fire. The dynamic dampers close at an airflow of about 2400 fpm that is 4.5 in. Wg (Nilsson, Frantzich & van Hees, 2013). The installation of fire dampers is shown

Recommendations

Smoke dampers are also mounted in ducts that block the path of the air or smoke through the smoke control system or the air distribution system. This does not need any manual operation. These smoke dampers could also be operated from the nearby fire command station. Their basic functionality is to block the passage of smoke that could be spread through the air supply and other ventilation systems. This does the operation with the help of the electric or pneumatic actuators. They have two separate functions based (Nilsson, Johansson, & van Hees, 2014) on the UL555S standard: 1) Acts as a passive smoke control system which will be closed once the smoke is detected. This will prevent the distribution of smoke through the air and the ventilation aperture 2) Engineered smoke control system that block the smoke transfer through the walls and the floors that acts as a block in creating the difference in pressure. By this system the smoke can be avoided in spreading to the other areas.

Smoke dampers should be placed adjacent or in the smoke barrier and their distance should not be more than 24 inch. NFPA 90A says that smoke dampers are to be worn to separate air handling units over 15,000 cfm. Like fire dampers, the smoke dampers are also fitted in sleeves and it is fitted in the ducts. The guidelines regarding the spacing and the distance will be given in each and every guide of the manufactures of dampers. To prevent the leakage of air, the dampers and the duct opening should be sealed appropriately. The combination of fire aand smoke dampers is shown in the figure given below

One of the fire protection systems is the automatic fire sprinkler system, which is the integration of water tank with several pipes connected together (Nilsson, van Hees, Frantzich & Andersson, 2012). The system includes regular water supply. When the fire tries to contact the surface of the sprinkler system then it could be identified by the sensor resulting in the flow of water which is sprayed in the fire occupied area. The schematic diagram of the automatic fire sprinkler system

As said previously a sprinkler system is composed of series of components that includes a stop valve, pressure switch, valve monitor, Alarm valve, fire sprinkler/head etc.

Stop valve: This is used to separate water supply. Initially, the valve is opened that provides the supply of water at a regular case. This is painted in red colour with the large black handle to it. The stop valve isolates the water supplied to the fire sprinkler system. This is fitted with the valve monitor that monitors the operation of the stop valve (Herpen, 2013). Generally the water supplied to the sprinkler system is divided into two parts: 1) Main water supply tank that provides water to the system till the stop valve. 2) Installation which is the water formed after the stop valve is set into operation.

References

Alarm valve: The water flow control is done with the help of the alarm valve. This valve is normally in a closed position till the pressure of the valve of the sprinkler system exceeds the supplied water pressure (Mierlo, van and Tromp, 2013). When this pressure falls down or when it equals the valve is opened. This is one side operated valve.

Fire sprinkler/head: This could consist of the glass bulb or a fuse element. When the head of the sprinkler is exposed to a certain temperature then the sprinkler is set into operation which allows the flow of water from the affected area. Due to this there is a pressure drop in the sprinkler system.

Alarm bell/gong: The device is also fitted with the mechanically operated alarm bell which hits the gong and produces an audible sound at a wide range.

Pressure and flow switch: In order to make the sprinkler system to work accordingly, pressure switches are used. This could sense the fall in pressure after the alarm valve and operates accordingly. Flow switch provides the water supply. The flow switch is always provided with the time delay of certain minutes to avoid the fluctuation of water. These both are electro-mechanically operated switches.

There are several types of sprinkler system such as dry pipe, wet pipe, tail end and domestic sprinkler system (Brink & Van den, 2015). The most commonly used one is wet pipe automatic sprinkler system. When the fire is in contact with the sprinkler/head and when it is exposed to certain temperature then the filament could break and generates the flow of water from the alarm valve which is initially in the open position. Water flows through the affected sprinkler. Sometimes, water could also flow from the other sprinkler when the temperature of the fire exceeds. This could supply water until the pressure drops or equals to the particular level. The alarm bell will give out its audible sound which could an indication for others. The water supply could be stopped with the stop valve. Deluge systems could be used in a highly hazardous place where there is a chance of fire to spread at a high rate.

FIRE HYDRANT/HOSE REEL SYSTEM

The fire hose reel could be used in the emergency situation and this could be carried out by the professionals (Prétrel, Saux, Le Audouin, 2012). The hose reel system consists of water supply pipes with the control valve. One should know the type of the fire before handling this equipment. This should not be carried out in the fire that is produced due to the electricity. The fire that is caused due to the oils and certain chemicals should not be treated by this system which could cause the fire to spread (Suard, Hostikka, Baccou, 2013). In other way we can say that the fire hydrant system supply water and with the help of the lengthy pipe we could able to provide water to the area affected by fire.

Water supply: The water supplied to the fire hydrant system must be a reliable source of water that comes from the street mains, dams, tanks etc. There should be automatic replacement of water when the water gets vanished due to the evaporation, leakage, periodic testing etc.

Pipes and valves: The pipe should be fixed in a manner to bring the flow of water from the source place to the destination. The pipes are designed in the Australian standard AS2419. The control valve plays a major role in the hydrant system to provide water supply through the pipes. The control valve should be opened to promote water through the pipes.

Fire brigade booster: A booster is generally mounted in a cabinet and provides water in the case of emergency situation from the fire brigade when the water is not available in the water supply tanks. The location of the fire brigade booster should be known to the experts who handle that. There are some limitations in pressure maintenance which should be safe for the users who use that. Booster pumps could provide water supply when there is a scarcity of water.

Hydrant valve/ Landing valve: The end point of the fire hydrant is called as hydrant valve or Millcock that is made according to the Australian standard AS2419. The valve is of size of about 65mm. Some hydrant valve varies in their sizes depending on the standard.

Block plan: This is the diagram regarding the fire hydrant system that is located in the cabinet, emergency department and fire stations. This diagram includes all details regarding the water supply tanks, pipe lines, pressure limits, water flow, year of installation etc. This is very necessary to know each and every thing regarding the booster connection.

During the fire, the operator just opens the hydrant valve and takes the pipe to the desired location. During the opening of the valve there is a fall in pressure and when the nozzle of the pipe is opened water will be directed to the particular area (Dobashi, 2017). In case when there is a requirement of water then fire hydrant plays a major role. This is carried out with the help of fire truck by providing a connection between the alternate water and the booster supply.  

Conclusion

The different fire protection system and methods to handle the fire from the basement of a building has been implemented in this report. The smoke extraction system with its purpose had been mentioned. Inspection carried out in fire signalling and alarm system is very necessary to monitor the system at the regular basis. From this study we had made a brief contribution regarding the handling methods and procedure during the basement fire and the fire safety engineer’s contribution towards this scenario. One should purely have these concepts in mind and try to handle those situations accordingly.

References

van Hees, P., Holmstedt, G., Bengtson, S., Hägglund, B., Dittmer, T., Blomqvist, P., Lönnermark, A., (2009). Determination of Uncertainty of Different CFD Codes by Means of Comparison with Experimental Fire Scenarios.  London: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference and Exhibition. pp. 403-411

 Frantzich, H. (2008). Risk analysis and fire safety engineering.  Fire Safety Journal. Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 313-329

Richards, P. L. E. (2008), Characterising a design fire for a deliberately lit fire scenario, thesis (M.A.), University of Canterbury, New Zealand.

Isenberg, J. P. E., Woodard, J. B., & Badolato, E. V. (2009). Infrastructure issues for citiescountering terrorist threat. Journal of infrastructure systems.  Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 44- 54

Beyler, C. (2008). Flammability Limits of Premixed and Diffusion Flames. In P. J. DiNenno et al. (Eds.), SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering (4 ed.). (pp. 2- 194 - 2-210). Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association.

Babrauskas, V. (2008). Heat Release Rates. In P. J. DiNenno et al. (Eds.), SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering (4 ed.). (pp. 3-1 - 3-59). Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association.

BSI (2011). BS 7974:2001 - Application of Fire Safety Engineering Principles to the Design of Buildings - Code of Practice. UK: British Standards Institution.

BSI (2011). PAS 95:2011 Hypoxic Air Fire Prevention Systems: Specification. London, UK: British Standards Institution.

 Chiti, S. (2009). Test Methods for Hypoxic Air Fire Prevention Systems and Overall Environmental Impact of Applications. MSc thesis, Modena: University of Modena.

Coster, M. N., & Hankin, R. K. (2008). Risk Assessment of Antagonistic Hazards. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 16(6), 545-550, doi: 10.1016/j.jlp.2008.08.005.

Klason, L. -G., Andersson, P., Johansson, N., & van Hees, P. (2011). Design Fires for Fire Protection Engineering of Swedish School Buildings. In Conference Proceedings, Fire and Materials 2011, 12th International Conference and Exhibition (pp. 159-170). 31 January – 2 February, San Francisco, USA. London: Interscience Communications Limited.

Krüger, S., Deubel, J., Werrel, M., Fettig, I., Raspe, T., & Piechotta, C. (2013). Experimental Studies on the Effect of Fire Accelerant During Living Room Fires. In Conference Proceedings, Fire and Materials 2013, 13th International Conference and Exhibition (pp. 159-170). 31 January – 2 February, San Francisco, USA. London: Interscience Communications Limited.

Marquis, D. M., Guillaume, E., & Lesenechal, D. (2012). Accuracy (Trueness and Precision) of Cone Calorimeter Tests with and without a Vitiated Air Enclosure. In The 9th Asia-Oceiania Symposium on Fire Science and Technology. Amsterdam: Elsevier

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