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Discuss about the BCO6603 CNN Effect before birth of Satellite Television.

The CNN Effect

The decision making and consumer spending depend on media information and awareness that created by them about the particular topic and issue. The essay will provide information about CNN effect and birth of satellite television (Kirkpatrick, 2015). Both innovations have the significant impact on communication and influencing the perceptions of the population. The CNN effect is identified and analysed after the birth of satellite television. This invention has influenced the communication activities and operations due to less costly and time-consuming functions. The essay will identify the contribution of satellite television impact on the CNN functions and advancement in the exchange of information.

The CNN effect refers to certain news and media activities that have a significant impact on the decision making of government and people. The term was first used during the Persian Gulf war that suggested that consumer spending is slowing down during catastrophic events as people were preferring to stay home to watch the news and stay abreast of current events. The CNN effect also is known as the theory of political science and media study that present the news about the crisis of humanitarian. The 24-hour international television news channel is recognized as the network of CNN that have the major impact on the development of foreign policies at the time of cold war (Werman, 2015). The first impact of CNN effect was identified when heartbreaking footage of striving children in Somalia pressured US official to send the army there.

The policymakers have acknowledged the need for the international news channel that can provide the information about the issues for human society across the globe. The need of sharing news and information with global leaders was initially done with the help of television and supported to manage the crisis. The current example of CNN effect can be understood through the incident of Osama bin Laden. The Americans have taken advantage of all news channels to spread the propaganda against the United States. Moreover, CNN effects are having a direct impact on the foreign policy development for the Afghanistan issue. In this particular event, the media is driving the political responses that remain a source of academic interest (Su and et al., 2015). The notion that media needs to consider for managing the decision of policymakers were welcomed by the world leaders to provide an indicative way to manage the crisis.

The CNN effects are having the debate over numbers of reasons. The primary issue that having the direct impact on the representation of information and distracting the society from non-interventional activities. The pressure of media is affecting decision making process of national and local governments that increasing the cold war. The major agenda for CNN effect change in foreign policies and managing the crisis. The media is using communication and presentation method for the intervention of crisis and providing a sober assessment of issues (Hellmueller, and Li, 2015). However, the use false news and manipulation of information are influencing the capable tactical decision of the government. The complex process and media matrix are having significant pressure on the political scenario to maintain the ground troops and intervention. The implementation of blunt policy trusting the CNN effect is increasing the forcible decision making over negative media news.

Debate Over the CNN Effect

In the current era of the internet, the CNN effect continues to influence the communication and intervention of crisis all around the globe. The communication through satellite is increasing transparency but creating more pressure on the government bodies. In addition to this, the rise of global media has received the wisdom claims that such developments are having a radical impact (Lin and et al., 2015). The CNN effect is increasing through internet media that based upon the alternative sources that advocated by mainstream media and political elites.

The birth of satellite television was on July 23rd, 1962 as the ten million people watched the historic broadcast as Telstar. The live transmission of information through television has influenced the communication industry and began a new era of broadcasting of news and information. The satellite television media has changed the culture of managing the relationship transmission of messages and use of values. The satellite has also changed the way of news distribution and receives around the world. The privatization of news media and use of fast mediums through strong sources of information sharing has helped to break the longstanding monopoly of governments (Prenzel, and Vanclay, 2014). The impact of the satellite is having a positive impact on global new process and planning of the activities related to highly concerned issues. However, the critics have raised questions over satellite television as it demolishing the culture.

The satellite television is having the direct impact on traditional oral culture threatens the individual sense of cultural identity. By this innovation, the vision of global village become increasingly possible as the cost of communication to longer distance falls and empowered the media. The internet is providing a platform for sharing information through image, video and documents more effective manners. Continues improvement in satellite television is helping to offer more details stories of crisis and changes in the society. The CNN International was launched after use of first satellite television. Now, it is available to more than 102 million households in more than 217 countries (Elasmar, 2014). The satellite television has changed global distribution of information and increased the transparency. The impact satellite television can be identified through improvement of knowledge of people about technological and political limitations. The major impact of satellite television is having a significant impact on two-way communication that encouraging the knowledge and filling the gaps.

The control of government over information was necessary as global news agency BBC has launched the satellite TV channel. The government is looking for official sate-driven viewpoints through direct satellite broadcasting. The BBC and CNN are able to transmit news around government gatekeepers and to the living rooms of people. The satellite television singles are hard to manipulate (Crawford and et al., 2015). The key benefits of satellite television are involving easier communication, offering and receiving of cross-border information as well as the power of shaping the decisions of governments. In addition to this, the CNN activities are increased after the birth of satellite network and receiving information through the television. The global newscast through satellite is contributing bringing changes in cultural and technical aspects.

The Rise of Satellite Television

The CNN effect has grown with the implementation of satellite television facility that helping to create awareness and offer information to the world audience. The CNN has been launched in regional languages at the different locations of Europe, Asia, Africa and South America. The language was the major barrier to the development of communication and overcome the issues related to human approach. The CNN effects have increased focus on certain issues that affect the social activities and utilization of resources. The social approach to managing information and effective communication of information related to different events in various locations is helping to encourage the partnership approach (Siddiqi, 2015). The satellite television has changed traditional approach to journalism practices of broadcasting the information and recording of data to make use in future.

The fast and accurate communication is supporting the government to make the discussion over the different issues and craft improvement in the knowledge and wisdom of people. The collaboration of CNN and satellite television is having customization of information and eliminating confusion by offering the real-time information and data. The live broadcasting of information that offered by CNN is developing job opportunities in the mass media sector as commercial use of personalized camera work and development of the new course of management is beneficial for audience and society (Barwise, and Picard, 2014).  The media is using communication and presentation method for the intervention of crisis and providing a sober assessment of issues. However, the use false news and manipulation of information are influencing the capable tactical decision of the government. The complex process and media matrix are having significant pressure on the political scenario to maintain the ground troops and intervention.

Moreover, the birth of satellite television is having a positive impact on the cultural exportation of the activities and understanding of the news that rooted in the national values. The CNN is developing and broadcasting the news by focusing on the world. The major dilemma for information and communication in current time is to maintain the ethical and legal approach to maintain the interest of audience and utilization of resources (Hasanen and et al., 2014). The implementation of blunt policy trusting the CNN effect is increasing the forcible decision making over negative media news.

The pressure of media is affecting decision making process of national and local governments that increasing the cold war. The complex process and media matrix are having significant pressure on the political scenario to maintain the ground troops and intervention. Continues improvement in satellite television is helping to offer more details stories of crisis and changes in the society (Steemers, 2014). The CNN International was launched after use of first satellite television.

Impact of Satellite Television

As it is now clear that CNN effect is regarded as a theory and that is 24 hours news network that influences the general political and economic climate. After the birth of satellite television, this effect came into being (Livingston, 2011). There are some of the major reasons for which CNN effect came into existence due to satellite television. As the CNN effect was launched in 1980 due to satellite television without it, the launch of CNN effect was impossible. This TV has played an essential role in introducing the CNN effect to the world.

Long back in the mid-20th century, when satellite TV was not invented, that time people used to get the news and information after many days from its occurrence. This had created information lag among the world. After that the satellite television was introduced to the world, CNN found its way to the nation (Fahmy, Wanta and Nisbet, 2012). Firstly, CNN effect was launched in American Nation and it was all about the speed at which enabled the cable news in spreading the information and new to the world. This is how news seemingly made events from far away that was otherwise would not have been noticed. Well informed people before the birth of cable was experiencing a delay in information from Asia and other parts of the world as it used to take time to get print in the newspaper. However, this kind of information lag panicked the stock players due to delay in information about the share market.

Due to satellite television, the gap or lag of information got filled as this gave birth to CNN effect in the nation. Along with that, global businessmen always get losses in their business due to this information gap because the news about any disaster or other calamity got heard when already their supplies have reached (Seib, 2008). This caused them a heavy loss in the businesses. CNN found out the need for this gap to be filled in order to stop the loss of life and property in every aspect. Furthermore, satellite TV was the only source through which CNN effect could be broadcasted on TV and thus, this played a crucial role in broadcasting the 24/7 news channel in the country of US and later around the world (Van Belle and Potter, 2011). The CNN displayed the news about the terrorism around the globe and this made them aware the people of other countries. Further, people want to remain aware of the threats of war which was happening in one or the country of the globe and could hit anytime in their nation as well. Because of all these needs, the idea of CNN effect was popped up in the minds of Robert “Ted” Turner and due to satellite TV, he could launch his idea of CNN to the world (Kalyango, 2011).

Relation Between CNN Effect and Satellite Television

It is clear from the above scenario, that after the launch of satellite TV, CNN also found its way to the world and came into existence for many reasons. Further, the introduction of CNN brought numerous benefits for the individuals, organizations and for the nation. The first and the foremost significance was that it eliminated the information gap in the world (Robinson and et al., 2010). For instance, an event occurred in Asia that news was reached to America after a time span of a week. Thus, this news even went unnoticed from the eyes of well-informed people and this used to create a major loss for the great leaders, government, philosophers, global businessmen, etc.

Further, the introduction of CNN has helped them in getting the news and information immediately and through this, these people could prepare themselves in advance and can stop the disaster to happen (Glover, 2011). Moreover, the CNN effect brought speed at which cable news could be able to spread as much information and people could stay connected with the world. Moreover, it also helped the businesses who were working globally to identify the current situation of the country where the products got exported so that they could stop its consignment in middle in order to bear a heavy loss. Most importantly, it saved the life of stock marketers who couldn’t get the accurate information about the drop and rise of share price because it helped the stock panics which were based on international events because they had to believe about the change in situation since the column was written (Cottle, 2009). After the birth of CNN effect, they used to get the actual information or live information about the stock trading and they could save themselves from biggest shock.

Moreover, CNN effect found to be important because it was referred to as the effect which media have on politics and government at the time of political conflict. Along with that, during wartime, CNN found to be really helpful for people to know about the situation of the nation and what actually is going around (Balnaves and et al., 2009). Furthermore, its effect on the decision taken during natural dictator was also proved to be net-worthy because videos and images were broadcasted worldwide instantly during or after the natural disasters. Moreover, these images broadcasted by CNN convince the people for donating the money and food to the needy and it also helped in pressurizing the government to take immediate action. For instance, the CNN effect played a major role in razing the aid following during Asian tsunami in 2004, the Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Sichuan earthquake in China during the year 2008. By February 2005, the international community donated $500 per person who was affected by the Asian tsunami as compared to only 50 cents to each person who were affected in Uganda’s war before CNN. Thus, it can be said that “CNN effect” played an essential role in providing immediate help to the affected people for getting their livelihood back (Kalyango, 2011).

In addition to this, the CNN effect also became a greater help for the poor people in getting food, clothing, and shelter for them as it used to bring into the notice of government about the current situation (Bahador, 2011). For example, in the early 1990s, when CNN broadcast the starving children of Somalia in graphic images and the public forced the President George H.W Bush to send their troops to this nation to stem the disaster. Thus, there are several instances through which it can be viewed that CNN effect proved to be very important for connecting the people to the world and improving the condition of various nations.

CNN has always played an essential role in connecting the people to the globe and also it helped them to get updated regarding the news prevailing worldwide. Further, the CNN effect has marked an era because it brought the revolution in the world. The introduction of CNN effect was all about the speed was regarded as the fasted network at that time because the news and information were broadcasted immediately after its occurrence (Gil de Zúñiga, Jung, and Valenzuela, 2012). However, in current time, this effect has been lowered down because the speed has been overtaken by social media websites. These sites are spreading the news way faster than any other media. The moment event occurs it comes over the media, in fact, a live coverage of those events are broadcasted on the social media platforms. Moreover, the users of social media have increased on a faster pace and they remain active on this media all the time which help them to remain updated regarding the news and events (Gilboa, E., and et al., 2016).

On the contrary, CNN effect is still going around and news channels are using this as their base to broadcast the news worldwide on a TV but at the same time, they are using internet for publishing its major part of news because the internet users are more in the world than TV users. Therefore, the effect of CNN has reduced by the time and other Media especially social media’s effect has grown more. In other words, it can be said that the CNN effect that is the theory that real-time information as well as the prolonged focus over a particular event has its market impact and is still valid, however, it is accurately renamed as Twitter effects instead of tying them back to the cable news channel (White, 2016). Thus, humans are now in the world of wireless mediums, so cable news is regarded as far from the dominant medium.

Conclusion

From this essay, it could be concluded that “CNN effect” marked an era of the 20th century as well as the 21st century. It helped in gaining the information and to remain updated about the outside world. Further, CNN effect reduced the time lag which generally gave major shocks to the share traders and businessmen. This could have happened only because of satellite television without which CNN could have never launched. Thus, CNN effect could not have been there before the birth of satellite television. Moreover, CNN effect was launched with an idea to cover the political and economic condition of the nation in order to identify the current situation. However, it covered the wider area worldwide and brought many solutions. Currently, CNN effect is losing its impact because of the social media platforms.

References

Bahador, B. (2011). Did the Global War on Terror end the CNN effect?. Media, War & Conflict, 4(1), 37-54.

Balnaves, Mark et al. (2009) Media Theories and Approaches: A Global Perspective, Palgrave [read Part III, ‘Information Warfare and Modern Propaganda’] 302.23 BAL Cottle, Simon (2009) Global Crisis Reporting, Open University

Barwise, P., & Picard, R. (2014). What if there were no BBC television? The net impact on UK viewers.

Cottle, Simon (2009) Global Crisis Reporting, Open University Press. Chapter 7. 303.485 COT

Crawford, G. S., Lee, R. S., Whinston, M. D., & Yurukoglu, A. (2015). The welfare effects of vertical integration in multichannel television markets (No. w21832). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Elasmar, M. G. (Ed.). (2014). The impact of international television: A paradigm shift. Routledge.

Fahmy, S., Wanta, W., & Nisbet, E. C. (2012). Mediated public diplomacy: Satellite TV news in the Arab world and perception effects. International Communication Gazette, 74(8), 728-749.

Gil de Zúñiga, H., Jung, N., & Valenzuela, S. (2012). Social media use for news and individuals' social capital, civic engagement and political participation. Journal of Computer?Mediated Communication, 17(3), 319-336.

Gilboa, E. & et al. (2016). Moving media and conflict studies beyond the CNN effect. Review of International Studies, 42(4), 654-672.

Glover, K. (2011). Analysis of CNN and The Fox News Networks’ framing of the Muslim Brotherhood during the Egyptian revolution in 2011. The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, 2(2).

Hasanen, M. M., Al-Kandari, A. A., & Al-Sharoufi, H. (2014). The role of English language and international media as agents of cultural globalisation and their impact on identity formation in Kuwait. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 12(4), 542-563.

Hellmueller, L., & Li, Y. (2015). Contest over content: A longitudinal study of the CNN iReport effect on the journalistic field. Journalism Practice, 9(5), 617-633.

Kalyango Jr, Y. (2011). Critical Discourse Analysis of CNN International's Coverage of Africa. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 55(2), 160-179.

Kirkpatrick, E. (2015). Visuality, photography, and media in international relations theory: A review. Media, War & Conflict, 8(2), 199-212.

Lin, T. Y., RoyChowdhury, A., & Maji, S. (2015). Bilinear cnn models for fine-grained visual recognition. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (pp. 1449-1457).

Livingston, S. (2011). The CNN effect reconsidered (again): Problematizing ICT and global governance in the CNN effect research agenda. Media, War & Conflict, 4(1), 20-36.

Prenzel, P. V., & Vanclay, F. (2014). How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 45, 30-37.

Robinson, Piers, et al. (2010) Pockets of Resistance: British News Media, War and Theory in the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, Manchester: Manchester University Press. [Senate House]

Seib, Philip (2008) The Al Jazeera Effect: How the New Global Media Are Reshaping World Politics, Washington: Potomac Books Inc. 302.2345 SEI

Siddiqi, A. (2015). Making space for the nation: Satellite television, Indian scientific elites, and the Cold War. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 35(1), 35-49.

Steemers, J. (2014). Selling television: addressing transformations in the international distribution of television content. Media Industries Journal, 1(1).

Su, H., Qi, C. R., Li, Y., & Guibas, L. J. (2015). Render for cnn: Viewpoint estimation in images using cnns trained with rendered 3d model views. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (pp. 2686-2694).

Van Belle, D. A., & Potter, D. M. (2011). Japanese foreign disaster assistance: the ad hoc period in international politics and the illusion of a CNN effect. Media, War & Conflict, 4(1), 83-95.

Werman, H. (2015). Western Media Coverage of the Syrian Crisis: A Watershed for the CNN Effect. 2015 NCUR.

White, C. M. (2016). Social media, crisis communication, and emergency management: Leveraging Web 2.0 technologies. CRC press.

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