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1. During the three assignments (TMA1, TMA2, and TMA3), you will work on a case study project which includes design and implementation of a library system. This case study illustrates key principles and techniques of software development in the context of a realworld application. You will find a local library for which you will apply object oriented approach to analyse, design, and implement a web application to manage library items ( books, DVDs, magazines, etc.) and borrowers. A general problem statement is detailed below. You can adjust the problem statement based on the needs of your local library. However, please note you are encouraged to ignore any unusual/complex requirements of the local library and not to go far beyond the scope of the project explained in the generalproblem statement.

2. Briefly introduce the library you have chosen for the case study: name, address, number of library items, number of users, business rules and other information. Explain how you gathered this information (through their website, interviewing their staff, questionnaire, etc.). Write no more than 500 words.

3. Identify the stakeholders of the system.

In the following two questions, you will develop a use case based model for the library system. You should be able to answer these questions once you have completed Modules 3 and 4.

a For the library system, identify all actors and use cases. For each use case, provide the following information.

Name.

Description.
Flow of events (basic and alternative flows).
Special requirements.
Pre-conditions.
Post-conditions.
Choose appropriate names for use cases and for actors.


b. Based on the use cases you provided for the previous part of this question, design a UML use case diagram for the system which shows the relationships among actors
and use cases. You need to identify common behaviours that may be reused by other actors, and the variations on common behaviours using the predefined stereotypes
(«include» and «extend») in your diagram. To produce the use case diagram use BOUML

Description of Library System

Library system refers to a program that controls and preserves books data electronically in respect of the requirements of the users. The system aids both users as well as library administration to keep the continuous record of all the books present in the library. It permits both manager and users to look for the books they are interested in and it is relevant in learning institutions to maintain constant review on the books given and returned as well as calculating the respective fine (Chen et al., 2015). The system helps avoid the errors and mistakes encountered when using a manual system which is also cumbersome. These errors are prevented by permitting the system to maintain track of data like the date of issue, last data to give back the book as well as fine information hence there no wish to maintain the record of this information that thereby escapes the opportunities of mistakes (Smith and Wong, 2016)... Therefore, this system minimizes the manual task to some extent permits smooth flow of library operations by avoiding chances of errors in the data. This article researches on Royal Library System which is sited in Den with an address of 22273 Den and it has 500 library items. It also has several users which range from 300 to 800 users in number and need to be organized.

The above data was collected through conducting an interview on the library management like between the staff, users on their experience with the current library system through face to face technique (Matz, Hummel, and Fröning, 2016). I also visited their websites to get deep information and experience of their online system when accessing resources online. Questionnaires were also conducted to obtain mass information from a large sample of users as well as the experience of the administrators.

Business rules refer to concise statements that define the operation of the library system which include the following:

Register resources – all the books, newspapers, magazines among other library items should be added into the system.

Register users – the users should be registered into the system by adhering all rules of the library including contributing membership fee.

Search for the presence of books – the books should be ensured they are in place.

Manage the payment of transaction made in the library system.

  1. The stakeholders of the system.

The stakeholders may be outside as well as inside the library clients with children or workers from the society at large who are responsible for checking items for utilization at their place of work (Harland, Stewart and Bruce, 2017). Stakeholders are also the library clients who access public library for information as well as technology clients with an interest for access to the internet. Alternatively, stakeholders are individuals or organizations who are actively concerned with the activities, programs as well as services of the library. The library stakeholders include the following:

Business Rules of Library System

Librarian – this is the individual within an institution who has rule over the resources, budget and he or she veto decisions meet by other stakeholders.

Registered clients – clients should register in the Library System and contribute membership fee then will be able to access all the resources. They are also able to review the account with data like the rental history, payment details, due dates as well as membership details.

  1. Functional requirements of the system and their priorities

The functional requirement is the expected activities of the program within actual parameters in order to guarantee the design is enough to make the expected outcome and the product meets its desired design in order to fulfill the requirements of the users. The functional requirement might be a high-level statement of the functions of the system and also describe appropriately on the software products in detail (Arnett and Baizal, 2015). The functional requirement of the system may include the following:


  1. Adding a book into the Library System as well as logging into the system are critical to this system and therefore qualifying to be value 1 with the critical rating.
  2. Search – the system should permit members to look for the book in the site using the book title, the name of the author, Resource ID among and this qualifies value 2 for the resources are made available in the system and a client can navigate to trace any book and therefore can be rated to be high.
  • The system should permit users to renew resources within the limited time of 72 hours prior to due date thus qualifying to have value 3 hence rated medium.
  1. The system should allow clients to review their payment history and therefore has value 4 and rated low for they have receipts in which they retrieve and check out their history.
  2. The system should allow users to pay for resource loans from the system which is not compulsory and therefore qualifying value 5 and rated for future integration. 
  1. The non-functional requirements of the system and their classes

Non-functional requirement refers to a requirement which identifies criteria which can be utilized to justify the activities of the system instead of particular behaviors and include the following:

  1. The user display works well with every browser like Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari among others. It also offers a design which is responsive on mobile phone browsers, therefore, it falls in the class of look as well as feel requirement.
  2. The system can be accessed at the place of comfort, therefore, fulfilling the usability as well as human requirement class.
  • The database of the system should be modified and updated within the shortest period of time, the outcome of the search should show immediately, the login should be verified within seconds. The above requirements aid the system to meet the performance requirement class.
  1. The system should accommodate more than 500 members, therefore, meeting the operational as well as environmental requirement class.
  2. In a situation where the system fails another information server should be in place to deliver the ability of fault ability, therefore, meeting the maintainability as well as support requirement class.
  3. The members must contribute the registration fee in order to qualify to be official members, therefore, meeting the legal requirement class.
  • The payment details are secured and encrypted, the transaction of payment should be carried out with HTTP over safe protocol, therefore, fulfilling the security requirement class.
  1. Actors and use cases.

Use case name

Add a resource

Actor

Librarian

Description

It adds the information in place and the details of the resources

Flow of Events

The details of the resource are input into the system and then submitted then if the resource id does not exist in the system the system accepts the resource successfully.

Special requirement

The Librarian is entitled with a unique username and password.

Preconditions

The librarian signs in into the librarian portal

The identity of the librarian is approved

Produces resource id, and gathers the data

postconditions

System updates the status of the newly added resource as available.

Table I 

Use case name

Delete a resource

Actor

Librarian

Description

When the resource is no more in place, the librarian logs into the system to delete the resource from the system.

Flow of Events

The resource is deleted from the system and disappears completely

Special requirement

The Librarian is entitled with a unique username and password.

Preconditions

The librarian signs in into the librarian portal

The identity of the librarian is approved.

Identifies the resource to be removed from the database.

Table II

Use case name

Modify resource

Actor

Librarian

Description

When a resource data needs to be adjusted, the details of the resource must be updated in the database.

Flow of Events

The resource id is entered the system displays the details of the resource and the necessary modifications are done then the details are updated.

Special requirement

The Librarian is entitled with a unique username and password.

Preconditions

The librarian signs in into the librarian portal

The identity of the librarian is approved

Produces resource id, and displays the data

Table III

Use case name

Check out

Actor

Librarian

Description

When a member selects a resource from the library to rent, then the librarian needs to check out the books.

Flow of Events

The id of the resource is input into the system and details displayed, librarian clicks check out, the system requests the member ID to whom the resource is being rented then it is rent to the member and due dates are set. The system updates the status of the resource to "Rented". The system updates the member's entry of the list of rents.

Special requirement

The Librarian is entitled with a unique username and password.

Preconditions

The librarian signs in into the librarian portal

The identity of the librarian is approved

Table IV 

Use case name

Check-in

Actor

Librarian

Description

When the member drops up the resource, the librarian has to check in the book.

Flow of Events

The id of the resource is input into the system and details displayed to ensure the details of the member are correct then the librarian clicks on check-in, the system updates the status of the resource to available.

The system removes the entry from the list of members of rents.

Special requirement

The Librarian is entitled with a unique username and password.

Preconditions

The librarian signs in into the librarian portal

The identity of the librarian is approved

Table V 

Use case name

Add member

Actor

Librarian

Description

It adds the details of the member and he or she is assigned a unique ID.

Flow of Events

The details of the member are input into the system and then submitted then if the member id does not exist in the system the system accepts the member successfully.

Special requirement

The Librarian is entitled with a unique username and password.

Preconditions

The librarian signs in into the librarian portal

The identity of the librarian is approved

Table VI 

Use case name

Search for a resource

Actor

Member

Description

When the members need to check whether the necessary book is present in the library or not, they need to search the in the resource database.

Flow of Events

Members click the search window, the system requests any information on the resource like Resource ID, Name and author, members enter the information and clicks search.

The system responds with a list of available resource that matches the search.

Special requirement

A member is entitled with a unique username and password.

Preconditions

Registered member logs in into the library system.

Table VII

Use case name

Pay the due

Actor

Member

Description

Dues and description are shown in the members account and need to be paid through the payment portal.

Flow of Events

Amount to be paid is displayed in the account of the member, the member clicks on the payment portal, the system requests the payment information, member provides the payment details and the system processes the payment and provides the payment receipt and updates the payment information in the server.

Special requirement

A member is entitled with a unique username and password.

Preconditions

Registered member logs in into the library system.

Table VIII 

  1. Criteria to use when evaluating prototype.
  2. The user can evaluate the prototype by checking whether the expected functionality of the program is depicted.
  3. The user can also examine the prototype by checking whether prototype consists of a dialog, button, menu, error message among others.
  4. The user can examine the prototype whether it provides the correct directions for easy navigation in the system.
  5. The user can evaluate the prototype by checking the fonts used are correct and suit even the blind
  1. The level of coupling.

High Coupling - this is a situation where a certain module relies on another and so on.

The rate of tax benefit depends on the tax rate which is determined by the age of the individual on the subject.

Low Coupling - this is the situation where when changes are made to a single part the changes have low probability of spreading to the rest of the program.

The low coupling will happen if the format of the dates is changed which will not affect the rest of the project.

Low coupling as well as high coupling seem to be competing objectives therefore the levels of coupling can be improved by reusing the concept of modules of calculating tax to get the net pay of an individual.

The calculation of tax benefit and family benefit tend to be very close and they are cohesive set of roles qualifying a low cohesive therefore the developer should consider improving the design through calculation of the close modules differently like the tax benefit module should on its own and the family benefit calculation should be carried as a different module so that each can perform its task perfectly without collisions.

  1. Software development methodologies, their pros and cons one real application.

The waterfall model describes the system development procedure in a linear sequential process implying that every phase in the development process begins if the last phase is complete and the phases do not overlap (Elghondakly, Moussa, and Badr, 2015). Waterfall technique was the initial SDLC model to be used widely in software engineering to ensure the success of the program.

  1. It is termed to simple as well as easy to understand and utilize
  2. Simple to control because of the model. Every phase has particular deliveries as well as review method.
  • Stages are processed and accomplished one at given time.
  1. Operates well for smaller programs where requirements are easy to understand.
  2. Precisely defined phases
  3. Well-reasoned milestones
  • Simple to arrange activities
  • Methods and outcome are appropriately documented.
  1. No operating software is generated until the final phase in the life cycle.
  2. It is accompanied with a lot of risks as well as uncertainty.
  • It is not appropriate for programs that tend to be complicated as well as object-oriented programs
  1. Poor approach for long as well as continuing projects.
  2. Not appropriate for programs where requirements are ranging from moderate to extreme risk of modifications.
  3. It is hard to know the progress within phases.
  • It cannot accommodate inconstant requirement.
  • Modifying the scope in the time of life cycle can lead to the end of the program.

Stakeholders of Library System

It is applied in big critical systems like the civil and medicine among others.

The Rational Unified Process refers to an object-oriented as well as web-enabled software development technique. It is similar to an online directory that offers guidelines, examples as well as the templates for all concepts and phases of software development (Petkovi?, Jovic and Golubovic, 2018). It partitions the development procedure into four stages that every phase entails testing, business modeling, implementation, analysis as well as deployment and the four stages include the following:

Inception – the objective of the program is stated and the engineering group determines if the program is worth pursuing as well as what items will be required.

Elaboration – the structure of the project, as well as the needed resources, are again examined. Designers the applications of the program and cost linked with the creation.

Transition – the program is let to the public and final updates are done referring to the response from the end customers.

  1. It is an emphasis on the precise documentation.
  2. It is capable of resolving the risks of a project linked with the evolving requirement of the client.
  • Little time is needed for integration.
  1. The creation time required is less because developers make reuse of elements.
  2. There are training in the online and tutorials are present for this approach.
  1. The developing group needs to be good in their area of development under this method.
  2. The process of development is too complicated and disorganized.
  • On cutting edge programs which use new technology, the utilization of element will be impossible hence no saving of time.
  1. This approach in big projects with many development streams adds confusion and result in many issues during the phases of testing.

The main application of RPU is offering a model for sufficiently execute commercially approved approaches to advancement, for utilization throughout the whole software creation life cycle.

Scrum refers to an agile approach for controlling knowledge work with reinforcement on software development (Jurado-Navas, and Munoz-Luna, 2016). It is made for groups between three and nine who scale their work into operations that can be finished within the timeboxed iterations.

  1. Scrum guarantees good use of time as well as money.
  2. Large programs are partitioned into easily controllable sprints.
  • The development is programmed and tested in the time of sprint review.
  1. Works better for fast moving creation projects.
  2. The development group gets appropriate visibility via scrum meetings.
  1. Scrum mostly results to scope creep, because lacks definite finishing time.
  2. It is prone to failures
  • Using the scrum approach in large groups is challenging.
  1. Daily basis meetings frustrate group members.
  2. It is only good if used by experts.

Carry out face to face communication to minimize the miscommunications.

Software prototyping is the building program application prototypes that show the functionality of the program under development, although may not keep the true logic of the original program and it allows the developers to know the requirements of the customer at the initial phase of development (Dunn, 2017). It aids get a valuable response from the users and assist software developers to know what really is targeted from the program under development.

  1. Increased client involvement in the program prior to its execution.
  2. The clients get better knowledge on the system being created for the operating model of the system is shown.
  • Minimizes time, as well as cost as the errors, can be captured much earlier.
  1. Rapid user response is presently leading to efficient solutions.
  2. The functionality that is lacking can be determined with ease.
  3. Contradicting as well as difficult operations can be determined.
  1. The threat of insufficient requirement study owing many dependencies on the prototype.
  2. Consumers can get contradicted in the prototypes as well as real systems.
  • In practical this approach can increment the complication of the software as the boundary of the program can increase above the actual plans.
  1. Designers can attempt to make use of the current prototypes to design the real program, even if it is not practically attainable.
  2. The attempt used in designing prototypes can be too many when it is not controlled perfectly.

It refers to an agile program development structure that is intended at producing great quality program, and better quality of life for the creative team (Cheng et al., 2016). XP is the most unique of the agile structures regarding correct engineering exercises for program development.

  1. It is a cost and time-saving process to realize a program.
  2. It is extremely simple to use
  • It involves continuous feedback from users.
  1. It is said to be focused on code instead of design.
  2. It does not measure the quality of the code.

It is applicable when planning a gaming project

JAD is the method that accelerates the form of information innovations solutions. JAD utilizes customer engagement and team dynamics to appropriately show a view of the user of the business requirement and jointly form a solution (Connolly and Khan, 2016).

  1. The result of JAD is of good quality
  2. The process is faster.
  • There is accountability
  1. You have to arrange your objectives and target
  2. Variety of task schedules as well as priorities

It is mostly applied in the business analysis field.

  1. Explain which methodology (from the ones listed above) could be the ideal methodology for the library system. Write about 100 words.

The waterfall approach qualifies to be the most appropriate approach in developing the Library system compared to other methods because it is easy to understand and involves many phases ensuring before the software is released incorrectly tested and all possible bugs captured and corrected in time. Again, it is suitable for big projects like this of Library.

References

Arnett, D. K., & Baizal, Z. K. A. (2015, May). Recommender system based on user functional requirements using Euclidean fuzzy. In Information and Communication Technology (ICoICT), 2015 3rd International Conference on(pp. 455-460). IEEE.

Cheng, J., Giguere, P. M., Schmerberg, C. M., Pogorelov, V. M., Rodriguiz, R. M., Huang, X. P., ... & Kozikowski, A. P. (2016). Further advances in optimizing (2-phenylcyclopropyl) methylamines as novel serotonin 2C agonists: effects on hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition, and cognition models. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 59(2), 578-591.

Chen, T., Li, M., Li, Y., Lin, M., Wang, N., Wang, M., ... & Zhang, Z. (2015). Mxnet: A flexible and efficient machine learning library for heterogeneous distributed systems. arXiv preprint arXiv:1512.01274.

Connolly, J. A. D., & Khan, A. (2016). The uncertainty of mantle geophysical properties computed from phase equilibrium models. Geophysical Research Letters, 43(10), 5026-5034.

Dunn, K. M. (2017). Prototyping Models of Climate Change: New Approaches to Modelling Climate Change Data. 3D printed models of Climate Change research created in collaboration with Climate Scientists.

Elghondakly, R., Moussa, S., & Badr, N. (2015, December). Waterfall and agile requirements-based model for automated test cases generation. In Intelligent Computing and Information Systems (ICICIS), 2015 IEEE Seventh International Conference on (pp. 607-612). IEEE.

Harland, F., Stewart, G., & Bruce, C. (2017). Ensuring the academic library's relevance to stakeholders: The role of the Library Director. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 43(5), 397-408.

Jurado-Navas, A., & Munoz-Luna, R. (2016). Undergraduate Groupwork Revisited: the Use of the Scrum Model to Create Agile Learning Environments. In 8th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (pp. 6890-6896).

Matz, A., Hummel, M., & Fröning, H. (2016). Exploring LLVM Infrastructure for Simplified Multi-GPU Programming. In MULTIPROG workshop, collacted with HiPEAC.

Petkovi?, D., Jovic, S., & Golubovic, Z. (2018). Object?oriented modeling approach of universal education software. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 26(3), 543-558.

Smith, L. C., & Wong, M. A. (Eds.). (2016). Reference and Information Services: An Introduction: An Introduction. ABC-CLIO.

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