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Internet of Things (IoT) has disrupted the role of Big Data in business environments of multiple industriesthrough the proliferation of highly granular and actionable information. As discussed in class and demonstrated in the tutorial, there’s huge potential for diverse applications. The third assignment aims to explore the role of Internet of Things within an industry of your choice through research and review of relevant resources.

You are required to identify such an industry, conduct a comprehensive literature search on the implications of IoT, collate and analyse your findings/readings, identify the key areas you wish to discuss and compile a professionally written report as your assignment submission.

The report should focus on key aspects applicable to the chosen industry, including (but not limited to);

  • Business value (from business questions to actionable outcomes)
  • Technology (separately for IoT information management and analytics)
  • Data (sources, integration and data quality issues)
  • Other factors (privacy, ethics, organisational issues)

Challenges Faced by the Telecom Industry

The traditional network providers are treated as dump pipe due to the poor bandwidth by the communication services. The growth of the internet brings revolution in the world of internetworking in the telecom industry. The IoT is capable of building secure communication links in creating new values for the telecom industry. The telecom industry is facing many challenges in in managing their new customers, providing the over the top of the services, and a base for stagnant subscriber. The telecom industry is facing problem in managing their big data to provide the over the top of the services to their customers. The IoT open a new path for managing number of subscribers on a single platform. The new streams and new challenges in the telecommunication industry brings the use of IoT for revolutionize the connectivity between different subscribers. The IoT initiatives depend on three things in the telecom industry. The first thing is to provide the infrastructure which is capable of managing consumer application, management of services, and the wide range of IoT solution. The IoT is capable of developing highly versatile for cloud platform. The infrastructure of the network is formed for telecom industry by using the concept of IoT for unlimited access of data. It is capable of providing wide scalability, better performance, and managing various pools of data. The second thing is to develop new stream of data for managing computing infrastructure to provide over the top of service to the providers and system analyst. The network hardware which is used for enabling cloud capabilities are modem, base station, and operators. The third thing is the opportunity for employing IoT services by using the capabilities of software defined networking and virtualization for network function. The large scale IoT solutions are deployed for providing new services. It has been seen that the industry of telecommunication is associated with daily new invention. The communication changes from voice to video, interchanging of images, ideas, and others. The sensor technology is the key concept of IoT technology which converts the devices into smart devices. The internet of thing is the hub of the telecommunication industry for managing big data. The global need of the telecommunication industry is the deployment of connected and smart IoT system.

Big data is the complex data set which is used for data processing application. Predictive analytics and user behaviour analytics are the techniques which are used for managing big data in the IoT environment. The internet of thing devices is required for managing the big and complex data. The IoT which are used are mobile devices, software logs, remote sensing, microphones, cameras, radio frequency identification reader, and wireless sensor networks.  The variety of hardware and software devices can be placed on the IoT infrastructure. The smart objects are used interconnection between embedded devices.  The visualization packages used in the relational database system is complex to store big data. Volume, variety, and velocity are the characteristics of the big data. Big data is used for business intelligence, cloud computing, and visualization in the environment of internet of things.

Categories of IoT in the Telecom Industry

The IoT is defined as the global interconnection between different devices and object which interact with each other in the physical world. Machine to machine is the interconnection between wired and wireless devices. There are following main categories which play an important role in the rise of IoT in the telecommunication industry.

Category

Description

Tagging things

The technologies which are used for tagging devices to one another are radio frequency identification, quick response code, near field communication, and digital watermarking.

Sensing things

Environmental conditions which are associated with technologies are presence of moisture, heat, and quality of air.

Shrinking things

The IoT technology makes the technology to use IT objects which are in smaller in size, lighter in weight, and embedding the wireless technologies.

Thinking things

“Semantic web is used for assessing the objects which creates boundaries for people and application to customise the things on the data available on the cloud” (Gaiser, 2015).

There are three categories which are responsible for managing dimensions in the telecommunication world:

  • Grade of Service:The Grade of service is used for defining the physical connection between telecommunication devices for managing availability, performance measurement, coverage, probability, and capacity of the network
  • Quality of Service: The Quality of service is used for defining the flow of traffic to increase the performance of the application in terms of latency, error rates, performance of the dropped packet, and bit rate guaranteed throughput.
  • Quality of experience: “The quality of experience is defined as the user experience in the field of providing services. The user experience can be assessed by services provided in the communication network, and terminals” (Haller, 2014).

The traditional telecommunication industry is based on machine to machine communication which faces following challenges:

Challenges

Explanation

Standardization

The standard management and communication protocols are not used in the traditional system for maintaining connectivity between different devices and network platform.

Fragmentation

The guidelines of the traditional system vary from industry to industry.

Complexity

It is complex to apply regulations in the different sector of the industrial growth.

User experience

It is the major challenge to manage consistency between different systems.

Size

It is complex to apply security measure to limited device resources.

Hardware

The diversity of operating system increases the complexity of the security measures

Data constraints

It is hard to apply identification, encapsulation, and compression of data.

Confidentiality

The disclosure of information can occur in the traditional system

Integrity

The integration of data on different platform is hard to manage

Authentication

The authorization should be associated with the accessing of data.

Characteristics

Description

Interconnectivity

The IoT helps in developing interconnection between the devices placed on infrastructure

Things related services

The consistency and privacy can be managed between different physical objects.

Heterogeneity

The variety of hardware and software devices can be placed on the IoT infrastructure. The smart objects are used interconnection between embedded devices.

Dynamic Changes

The location and speed of the devices can be predicted by using the IoT in telecommunication industry.

Enormous scale

The magnitude of the devices can be increased and decreased of the connection.

Scaling

The scaling of the communication devices can be increased or decreased according to the requirement of the user.

Sensor technology

“The sensor technology is used for managing links between different telecommunication devices” (Kamat, 2014).

The following diagram shows the comparison between traditional telephony and IoT telephony:

”The usage based services are provided by traditional tele-communication system but in the IoT environment the data consumption is directly linked with service value” (Buhalis, 2014). The following diagram shows the IoT service segmentation.

“The issues which are associated with deployment plan of IoT in telecommunication industry are management of supply chain system, transaction tracking, value chain transformation, and many more” (Fries, 2014). “The scaling of the communication devices can be increased or decreased according to the requirement of the user” (Khalid, 2016). “The sensor technology is used for managing links between different telecommunication devices” (Fang, 2016). The following graph shows the implementation of IoT in the telecommunication industry:

The edge, core, and network are the key parts which are used for developing the IoT solution

The generic and specific requirements are used for developing architecture for the internet of things. The generic requirement is used for developing connectivity between resources and devices deployed on the internet. The firewall should be used for developing secure interconnection. Specific requirement is composed of connectivity between different communication devices, data collection and analysis, management of the devices, and managing security and scalability. “HTTP, HTTP-API, HTTPS, and others are some of the protocols which are used for managing connection between the devices placed on the network” (Wang, 2014). The layered architecture of IoT in the telecommunication industry is shown below in the diagram.

The features which are associated with the IoT applications are performance, interoperability, availability, accuracy, maintainability, integrity, flexibility, and coordination.

Technologies used in IoT

Description

Radio frequency identification reader

RFID make use of radio waves for identifying the devices posted on the network.

Sensor Network

The sensor technology is used for developing relationship between devices placed on physical and virtual world.

Microcontrollers

Microchips are used for controlling the objects embedded on IoT environment

Protocols

HTTP, HTTP-API, HTTPS, ISA, link layer protocol, Zig bee and others are some of the protocols which are used for managing connection between the devices placed on the network.

Actuators

Actuators are the devices which are used for detecting signals send by the senders for performing communication.

Ambient Technologies

Ambient technologies are well-efficient in sensitive and responsive environment. These technologies are used for developing context aware programs in relation with personalized system.

Analytics and applications

“The specific use cases and visualization can be developed for the applications” (Perkins, 2016)

Application platform

The services used for enabling data libraries within the application

Data platform

The intelligent data storage is used for managing the telecommunication devices

Connectivity

The middleware and protocols are used for connecting devices and interpreting data.

Edge devices

The edge devices are used for sensing the capabilities of the embedded software.

“The legacy and new sensors are used for managing mapping between the communication networks”(li, 2015). There are four categories of IoT in the deployment of sensor which are categorised as Convenience, customization, cost, and control. “The value loops are used for managing roadmap for assessing the viability of the configuration devices” (Noronha, 2016). The following diagram shows the mapping between different sensors.

Conclusion:

The global need of the telecommunication industry is the deployment of connected and smart IoT system. The internet of thing devices is required for managing the big and complex data. The IoT is capable of building secure communication links in creating new values for the telecom industry. The IoT open a new path for managing number of subscribers on a single platform. The new streams and new challenges in the telecommunication industry brings the use of IoT for revolutionize the connectivity between different subscribers. The sensor technology is used for managing links between different telecommunication devices. The features which are associated with the IoT applications are performance, interoperability, availability, accuracy, maintainability, integrity, flexibility, and coordination. The variety of hardware and software devices can be placed on the IoT infrastructure. The smart objects are used interconnection between embedded devices. The legacy and new sensors are used for managing mapping between the communication network in the IoT environment.

References:

Buhalis, P. (2014). Reaping the benefit of the internet of things  (1st ed.). Retrieved from https://www.cognizant.com/InsightsWhitepapers/Reaping-the-Benefits-of-the-Internet-of-Things.pdf

Fang, S. (2016). An integrated system for regional environment monitoring and management based on internet of things (1st ed.). Retrieved from https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6725615/

Friess, P. (2014). Internet of things- from research and innovation to market deployment (1st ed.). Retrieved from https://www.internet-of-things-research.eu/pdf/IoT-From%20Research%20and%20Innovation%20to%20Market%20Deployment_IERC_Cluster_eBook_978-87-93102-95-8_P.pdf

Gaiser, K. (2015). Integrating IoT sensor technology into the enterprise (1st ed.). Retrieved from https://www.intel.com/content/dam/www/public/us/en/documents/best-practices/integrating-iot-sensor-technology-into-the-enterprise-paper.pdf

Haller, S. (2014). The internet of things in an enterprise context (1st ed.). Retrieved from https://ai2-s2-pdfs.s3.amazonaws.com/1c49/c74521b4c9eae7a352a3b223b4213294c681.pdf

Kamat, P. (2014). Industrial internet of things (1st ed.). Retrieved from https://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEFUSA_IndustrialInternet_Report2015.pdf

Khalid, A. (2016). Internet of things and research agenda (1st ed.). Retrieved from https://ijcsmc.com/docs/papers/March2016/V5I3201699a15.pdf

Li, D. (2015). Building value from visibility (1st ed.). Retrieved from https://www.zebra.com/content/dam/zebra/white-papers/en-us/zebra-iot-report-en-us.pdf

Noronha, A. (2016). Attaining IOT value: How to move from connecting things to capturing insights (1st ed.). Retrieved from https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en_us/solutions/trends/iot/docs/iot-data-analytics-white-paper.PDF

Perkins, W. (2016). The internet of things for today and tomorrow (1st ed.). Retrieved from https://www.arubanetworks.com/assets/eo/HPE_Aruba_IoT_Research_Report.pdf

Wang, C. (2014). Internet of things for enterprise system of modern manufacturing (1st ed.). Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a504/6b31365733a0bc99a60ed9ca2bf3b7a15690.pdf

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