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Use of Qualitative Studies and Randomized Controlled Trials

Discuss about the CASP Checklists and Spiritual Reminiscence.

Qualitative studies and Randomized Control experiments assist in improving the quality of healthcare in Hong Kong and China as a whole. Qualitative studies are specific as they focus on a small sample (Mikkonen et al., 2016). On the other hand, randomized research collects data in a non-systematic format but in a controlled manner (Zeng et al., 2015). Both studies support the essence of evidence-based practice in the Chinese healthcare system (Leung, 2015). This paper will use CASP checklists to critically appraise a qualitative survey of aromatherapy in cancer patients critically. Moreover, the article will use the list to also evaluate a randomized trial on the impacts of music in the management of anxiety and stress.

The randomized trial focuses on the remedy that music offers to Chinese patients suffering from stress and anxiety. The trial also explores a controlled number of patients in a randomized manner. The study carries the experiment on 137 patients. The assignment is random as the headphone, the control, and the group listening to music when they are stressed undergoes the test (Dobson et al., 2015). The intervention to anxiety and stress is focused as it explores music as the only remedy for depression. The use of music is better than other methods since it is a cheap remedy. The outcome is desirable as the intervention relieves stress from the sample under study.  The experiment takes not more than one hour.

The trial creates an unclear situation in the administration of care to the patients. The design of the trial indicates that it is a randomized trial (Lee et al., 2017). The exact number of patients used in the trial is indicated which it makes specific. However, the 137 patients selected are randomly placed into different check-list groups. The allocation sequence was not concealed from the patients and the researchers (Fortney et al., 2015). The researchers discussed the procedure of the trial with the patients. However, the researchers promised not to reveal the names of the participants in the segment of the results. Therefore, it is difficult to tell whether the assignment was randomized or specific; since both aspects of specificity and randomization feature in equal measures.

The trial examined all the 137 patients who entered the initial stage of the experiment. Furthermore, the researchers carried out the data analysis in each group. The researchers allocated equal time to each group. The time allocated was thirty minutes for the placebo, intervention, and the control group. The measurement of the physiological aspects took the same time for all the groups. After every five minutes, the researchers took the respiratory rate, blood pressure among other crucial readings. There is also a purpose statement for each group (Wu, and Koo, 2016). The researchers expect the control group to record no changes in Anxiety and stress parameters. However, the placebo group is expected to show slight variations in aspects such as heart rate. The intervention group is expected to show a significant difference in the parameters under investigation. Therefore, the researchers satisfactorily run the tests in the three groups of patients.

Critical Appraisal of an Aromatherapy Survey for Cancer Patients

Single blinding is a procedure whereby the subject is not aware of the details of the experiment whereas the experimenters have the details. On the other hand, double blinding is where both the subjects and the experimenters are unaware of the experimental details. The health workers, patients, and the study personnel were all aware of the procedure. The personnel selected the patients to undergo the experiment from the medical files availed by the nurses. The investigators also ensured that the selected patients are aware of the treatment (Leucht et al., 2017).. Therefore, the study personnel, health workers, and the patients were aware of the treatment and its importance.

At the beginning of the experiment, there is no indication of a similarity in the groups. The trial report is silent on the social factors that affect the results of the test. The researchers did not consider parameters such as social class, sex, and age at the beginning of the trial. The experiment is randomized as the investigators place the participants in groups regardless of their social differences (Friedman et al., 2015). The criterion for choosing participants was majorly on origin. The investigators chose patients of Indian origin regardless of their economic prowess. Any patient who could understand the Mandarin language was eligible for selection. The participants also had to be in an alert mode to respond to changes in their environment. The patients had to be suffering from anxiety and stress.

The groups received equal treatment from the start to the end of the experiment. The investigators assign thirty minutes to each group. The placebo group had to place headphones in their ears and take a thirty-minutes rest afterward. Similarly, the control team rested for thirty minutes before the commencement of the physiological tests. On the other hand, the intervention group took thirty minutes to listen to various songs. The investigators measured heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation rate after every five minutes for the thirty minutes of the experiment. The researchers observed the five minute testing for each group. After the tests, the investigators allocated every group a five-minute rest. Moreover, the investigators used C-STAI equipment to measure anxiety in each group (Trowbridge, and Horstman, 2017). Therefore, the stakeholders ensured equal treatment in each group of the investigation.

The treatment effect is significant and within a manageable range. The researchers completed power calculations before commencing the experiment. The investigators estimated the respiratory rate, state of anxiety, and the heart rate (Hmwe et al., 2015). Moreover, the researchers tested the blood pressure and level of oxygen saturation of the participants. The investigators measured all the parameters before and after the experiment to find out the differences. After every five minutes during the test, the respiratory rates, heart rate, and oxygen saturation levels of the patients were recorded. The researchers specify the outcome of the trial. The investigators expect no changes in the control group. However, the personnel expects changes in the placebo and the investigation groups. The results found in each outcome concurred with the expected outcome.

Evaluation of a Randomized Trial on Music for Anxiety and Stress Management

The estimates of the effects of the treatment are exact. The limits are realistic and within a reasonable range. The expected levels of oxygen saturation in the groups are practical as they range from 0.001 to 0.007 (Nikolova et al., 2016). The intervention group recorded reduced levels of stress below 0.001 (Nikolova et al., 2016).  The control group indicated an increase in their heart rate readings due to the absence of music. Additionally, the total number of participants made the data to be precise and easy for interpretation in real time.  The treatment took thirty minutes to conclude for each group thereby resulting in quality results. Furthermore, the eligibility criteria refined the data. The investigators only allowed Chinese who could understand Mandarin to participate in the experiment. Moreover, the anxious and stressed persons had to be alert during the investigation.

The criteria that the investigators applied make the results to be relevant for every Chinese. The result is about Chinese participants who understand mandarin. Moreover, the participants are stressed and anxious. The outcome of the test is an experiment is relevant to patients from Hong Kong and its environs. The demography of the analysis is appropriate to the Chinese setting as the study samples 77 women and 60 men (Choi et al., 2015). In Hong Kong, the number of stressed women exceeds that of men. The results show that music relieves stress as the control and the placebo groups indicate minimal changes. Recent research in Hong Kong has been demonstrated that those who listen to music are less stressed than those that do not listen to music (Choi et al., 2015). Therefore, the outcome of the experiment concurs with the actual Chinese situation.

The analysis comprehensively measures all aspects of anxiety and stress in each group. A conclusive investigation of importance requires the researcher to monitor the respiratory and the heart rates (Chen et al., 2017). Furthermore, the investigator should measure both the heart rate and levels of oxygen saturation. The researchers should also look at the participant’s blood pressure and the state of anxiety of the patients. All these parameters are within the report of the experiment. The investigators measure the clinical signs in each group. However, I expected the trial to provide the sources of stress among the participants. The levels of depression differ according to the nature of work of the individuals. However, the pressure is a condition that affects individuals regardless of their ages. Investigation about the source of the stress cannot change the outcome of the experiment; this is insignificant.

The benefits of the experiment can be implemented to reduce stress. The intervention costs the government as it ensures that the citizens own a music system to relieve them from stress (Mofredj et al., 2016). However, the Chinese administration can implement other means of reducing stress which is cost effective. The measures can include lowering the workload of its population. Other remedies may involve subsidizing the economy to improve the living standards of the Chinese people. Jobless individuals are stressed as they cannot afford a decent life. Therefore, the administration should create employment opportunities for every citizen to prevent stressful conditions among the citizens. The administration can also subsidize sections of the health facilities to offer free counseling to the victims of stress. Therefore, listening to music can be expensive and also cost-effective in the management of stress.

The qualitative research has a definite aim. The objective of the study is to determine the importance of aromatherapy massage on cancer patients (Neelakantan, Hetrick, and Michelson, 2018). The aim of a qualitative statement should indicate the target group, the goal, and the importance of the study. Moreover, the report should show the relevance of the research. The objective statement in the study looks at the experiences of cancer patients towards aromatherapy. The statement also addresses the benefits and the demerits of the massage. The study is specific as it explores women who have cancer. Additionally, the report elucidates the benefits of the cancer remedy. Therefore, the statement is clear, accurate and applicable to cancer studies.

The methodology applied in the research is correct and forms the basis of qualitative research. An appropriate method must outline a proper technique of data collection. Moreover, the method should come up with a suitable sampling method (Merriam, 2015). Additionally, the researcher should carry out an in-depth analysis of the data from the field. The qualitative research uses Interviews in a semi-structured manner. Other methods such as action research and grounded theory are expensive and tedious. Therefore, the researcher interviews the women with cancer both individually and in groups. The study also samples the data to come up with refined findings. Moreover, the investigators use thematic methods to analyze the data. The number of women interview is a small numerical, thus ensuring a precise data.

The researcher has used an appropriate research design but has not justified the choice of methods. There are numerous forms of interviews that the investigator can opt for when conducting qualitative research. The conversation can be through phone, emails, and social media (Nassaji, 2015). The interactions can also take the form of individual or grouping interviews. The researcher has opted for semi-structured kind of interview which is an appropriate measure. However, the study has not indicated why it chose the interaction method ahead of the others. The researchers settled on the application of convenience sampling. There are other sampling methods which can also suit the research, but the investigators have not justified their choice.

The researchers have not explained the criteria for selecting participants. The researchers have no justification for choosing women cancer patients and leaving out their male counterparts. Moreover, there is no elaboration for the number of participants in the study. Furthermore, the strategy seems bias as it records no adverse effects of aromatherapy among the participants (Davies, and Hughes, 2014). The study also lacks an explanation for the recruitment process. The reader cannot explain why the researchers decided to use fifteen participants in the study.  Furthermore, the study does not indicate whether some patients declined the request to participate in the research. The study has not mentioned the specific demographics of the patients. The report does not explain why the mean age is 50 instead of say 35.

The researcher justifies the setting of the study. The researchers collected data through convenience sampling and semi-structured interviews. The investigators are clear on their methodology of data collection. They use meetings and self-help cancer groups (Cleary, Horsfall, and Hayter, 2014). Moreover, the aromatherapy clinics refer the researchers to the patients. The researchers have made the method explicit as they explain how they conducted the interviews. The investigators taped the interviews and did a verbatim transcription. The researchers recorded the primary data in the Chinese language. However, they later translated the research findings into English language for comprehensive studies. The researchers are aware of the forms used to store the qualitative data. They saved the data in tape form before the analysis process.

The study is silent on the relationship between the researchers and the participants. The research is unclear on the specific role of the investigators. They do not indicate any bias or influence on the participants during the process of data collection. Bias is evident in the research as only women take part in the study. Moreover, the cancer patients are many in China, and only fifteen individuals cannot represent the entire population. The study is also silent on the adverse occurrences during the research. The investigators paint the survey as ideal research devoid of mistakes (LoBiondo-Wood, and Haber, 2017). The researchers do not justify the sampling method. Moreover, there is no justification for the choice of location.

The researchers considered ethical principles when conducting their studies. The investigators obtained an ethical approval good body in the University. The researchers assured the participants of their anonymity and confidentiality throughout the study (Haahr, Norlyk, and Hall, 2014). Furthermore, the researchers ensured that a third party could not assess the patient information. The investigators assumed that the participants gave their approval for the interviews. Moreover, the researchers first explained the purpose of the research to the patients. The investigators did not force the patients into making independent decisions. The researchers reassured the patients that their input was voluntary and that they could opt out at will. Therefore, the study adhered to ethical principles and theories before the process of data collection.

The process of data analysis is conclusive and satisfactory. The researcher discusses the process of data analysis in details. The investigators tape the interviews before conducting a verbatim transcription. The researchers use a thematic method in their analysis process. The technique of analysis assumes an independent form to ensure precision and accuracy. Furthermore, the researchers interpret the data and code it according to the scheme of categorization (Wang, and Geale, 2015). Moreover, the investigators translate the findings from Chinese to English to reach a broad audience. The researchers identify the codes and group them according to the levels of similarities. Further categorization places the data into themes and subthemes. Therefore, the process of analysis is rigorous and sufficient.

The statement of findings is fifty-fifty since the results are in line with the research question but lack both sides of an argument. The research question seeks to look at the take of cancer patients on the effects of aromatherapy.  Furthermore, the problem determines the advantages and the disadvantages of the Massage (Prasad, 2015). However, there is a concrete discussion of the benefits of the Massage. The researchers fail to explain the drawbacks of aromatherapy, thereby leading to bias. The investigators ensure that the data is credible and trustworthy. The researchers also make sure that the information is accurate, objective, and consistent. Therefore, the findings are clear and to some extent also unclear.

The findings of the research are adequate and are readily applicable to manage cancer in China. The policymakers should find the results useful in discovering the importance of aromatherapy massage. The study affirms that aromatherapy has no adverse impacts on cancer patients (Ho et al., 2017). Therefore, the health practitioners can freely recommend the Massage to cancer patients. However, the results are silent on the impact of aromatherapy on the male cancer patients. Therefore, research on the male population is necessary before recommendation to the men.


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